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FROM THE UNIQUE COPY IN THE BODLEIAN LIBRARY, OXFORD.

In accordance with previous usage the 1595 edition is here called " The First Quarto,"
but it is in fact an Octavo.

A FACSIMILE, BY PHOTOLITHOGRAPHY,

BY

CHARLES PRAETORIUS.

WITH INTRODUCTION

BY

THOMAS TYLER, M.A.,

OF THE UNIVERSITY OF LONDON, ETC., ETC.

LONDON:

PRODUCED BY C. PRAETORIUS, 14 CLAREVILLE GROVE,

HEREFORD SQuare, S.W.

1891.

S53 H6 1891

43 SHAKSPERE QUARTO FACSIMILES,

WITH INTRODUCTIONS, LINE-NUMBERS, &C., BY SHAKSPERE SCHOLARS, ISSUED UNDER THE SUPERINTENDENCE OF DR. F. J. FURNIVALL.

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§ 1. Introductory, p. iii.
§§ 2 to 6. Abstract from Miss Lee's
Paper in New Shakspere Soci-
ety's Transactions 1875-6, pp.
iii. to x.

§ 2. a. Contention and True Tragedy
earlier than Henry VI., Parts
2 and 3, p. iv. B. Metre and

by Lord Pembroke's company,
P. viii.
y. Two exceptional
scenes in the plays, p. viii. d.
Absence of rhyme, p. ix. Ε.
Passages similar to Marlowe,
p. ix. . Evidence as to Greene,
p. x. 7. Argument from simi-
larity of character, p. x.

versification, p. iv. y. Differ-§ 7. a. Quotations from Greene's Groats

ences in particulars, p. iv. d.
Summing up from internal evi-
dence, p. v.

§ 3. External evidence of earlier origin,
P. vi.

§ 4. Question of Authorship of the
plays, p. vi.

§ 5. a. Internal evidence insufficient

to prove Shakspere the writer

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spere, p. xvii.

either wholly or partly, p. vii. § 9. Task of exactly dividing the play

B. Argument from supposed

analogy, p. vii.

according to authorship hopeless, p. xvii.

§ 6. a. True authors Marlowe and § 10. Variations between First and Greene, p. vii. B. T. T. acted

Third Quarto, p. xviii.

§ 1. DR. FURNIVALL, in the Forewords to the Contention (1594), in this series of facsimiles, gave a considerable abstract and summary of the opinions expressed by the late Mr. Grant White in his "Essay on the Authorship of King Henry the Sixth." Mr. Grant White's opinion was, that Shakspere, Greene, Marlowe, and perhaps Peele, were the authors of the Contention and the True Tragedy; that Shakspere, when he re-wrote these old dramas for his own Second and Third Parts of Henry VI., rejected the work of his colleagues, retaining only what he had himself written, and this he corrected and enlarged. At the close, however, of his Forewords Dr. Furnivall observed, "But there are two sides to every question; and on this one Miss Jane Lee and others of us have since taken the other side." According to Miss Lee (New Shakspere Society's Transactions, 1875-6, pp. 219—311), Marlowe and Greene, with perhaps Peele, were the authors of the old plays, Shakspere taking no part in the original composition; but to

iv § 2. CONTENTION AND TRUE TRAGEDY OF EARLIER DATE.

Shakspere, working together with Marlowe, was due the revision of the old plays and their transformation into Henry VI., Parts 2 and 3.

§ 2. a. Miss Lee, in her able contribution to the New Shakspere Society's Transactions, after some preliminary remarks on the problem to be dealt with, maintains that the Contention and True Tragedy are plays of an earlier date than the last two parts of Henry VI.1

B. The first consideration adduced relates to the metre and versification. "The general want of regularity and equality—the monotonous sing-song rhythm of some scenes, the irregular and careless metre of others-which characterized the versification of our earlier dramatic writers, is in great measure characteristic of the versification of the Contention and True Tragedy." In illustration passages are quoted from the speech of York at the end of 2 Henry VI., Act III. sc. i., and with these is compared the much shorter parallel passage in the Contention, beginning

"Now York bethink thy self and rowse thee vp."

With respect to the passage in the Contention Miss Lee observes, "It seems to me as clear that it belongs to an earlier stage in the progress of dramatic poetry, as to a geologist it is clear that the stratum which exhibits the simpler forms of creation belongs to an earlier stage of our earth's growth than that which teems with higher orders of organic life."

y. Then, as to the subject-matter, there are differences in particulars. For example, "In the True Tragedy, Richard gives an account of the death of Warwick's father (Salisbury), while in the corresponding lines of 3 Henry VI. (Act II. sc. iii. 14) he makes no mention of Salisbury, but describes instead the death of Warwick's brother." It is scarcely probable that such differences would have proceeded from a copyist.

Again, in passages, where many lines are partly, and others wholly, different, "we suddenly come upon a group of lines quite the same." A group of lines very closely approximating occurs in the True Tragedy and in 3 Henry VI., Act V. sc. iv. :—

"Women and children, of so high a courage,

And warriors faint! why 'twere perpetual shame.
O brave young prince! thy famous grandfather
Doth live again in thee: long mayst thou live
To bear his image and renew his glories!”

Such passages, as containing sometimes unimportant words and

1 In making an abstract from Miss Lee's paper I have had regard mainly to the True Tragedy, though frequent reference to the Contention was unavoidable.

§ 2. CONTENTION AND TRUE TRAGEDY OF EARLIER DATE. V

spoken by minor personages would scarcely have been preserved intact by a copyist, who at the same time was giving imperfect versions of speeches assigned to leading characters.

Further," the speech made by York in the beginning of Henry VI., Part 3, I. iv., is full of beauty: as, for example, when he likens the Yorkist army to ships flying before the wind; and to lambs pursued by hunger-starved wolves; or compares the fruitless rally and charge made by the beaten army to the bootless labour of a swan swimming against the tide ":

"I have seen a swan

With bootless labour swim against the tide

And spend her strength with over-matching waves."

"These are lines that linger in the memory. But they are all wanting to the passage as it appears in the True Tragedy. Can it be thought that a transcriber of Henry VI., Part 3, would have forgotten and left them out?"

Malone, says Miss Lee, lays great stress on 22 lines at the beginning of Henry VI., Part 3, IV. iii., of which there is no trace in the True Tragedy. Here Warwick makes a speech ending with the lines,

"And now what rests but in nights couerture,

Thy brother being carelesslie encampt,

His souldiers lurking in the towne about,

And but attended by a simple guarde,

We maie surprise and take him at our pleasure,

Our skouts haue found the aduenture verie easie,

Then crie king Henry with resolued mindes

And breake we presentlie into his tent.'

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We are required, according to the True Tragedy, "to imagine that Warwick now crosses the stage, and by so doing (without any change of scene) reaches Edward's tent.

"The writer of Henry VI., Part 3, clearly thought that such a proceeding demanded too great an effort of imagination; accordingly he introduces a spirited conversation between the sentinels who are guarding Edward's tent; and whilst the attention of the audience is thus diverted, Warwick performs his journey behind the scenes."

8. Miss Lee sums up with regard to the internal evidence. "To me it seems that the differences between the Contention and True Tragedy and Henry VI., Parts 2 and 3, are so many and so important, that if we allow the former to be imperfect transcripts of the latter, we must suppose that some dramatist took his stolen copies or his shorthand notes and regularly rewrote them. We must suppose that he newly versified the plays; that he introduced

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