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moving shapes and figures, that the weather steadily got worse, are curiously lifelike and dis- so Collie carefully photographed tinct. The forests of the Sel- the petrified trees, and we rekirks are less desolate, as one turned to camp. sees more birds and beasts, and Sunday, 4th Sept.-Pushed on the vegetation and timber are up Bear Creek towards the Bow far more picturesque.

Pass. Violent hailstorms, folNext morning we tried to lowed by heavy snow, in which climb one of the spurs of Mount we hopelessly lost the trail Murchison. We had a very through the wood. Camped in bad hour with the logs in the slush on the edge of a muskeag. wood, and when we got out Bitterly cold night, with hard into the open above the trees, frost. The morning was brilthe weather gave us little en- 'iantly fine, and the sun shone couragement. A tedious shale- in a cloudless sky. Ice crystals slope led up to steep rocks sparkled on every leaf and twig, which afforded some interesting the pails and buckets were all scrambles, Woolley manipulat- frozen hard, and Byers asked ing a big jammed stone in a for time to thaw his socks berock-chimney with much skill. fore he could put them on and We halted for lunch on an give us our breakfast. At the arête at a height of about 9000 summit of the Bow Pass (6700) feet. As the mountains were we left the trail, and, ascending enveloped in mist and it was a hill to the right, had a glorisnowing steadily, we had no ous view of Murchison and the view to speak of, but two re- Waputehk Mountains. The markable phenomena attracted most striking of these is the our attention. The first was Pyramid (about 11,200), whose a tall column of rock that had eastern face descends in an albecome detached from the cliff most sheer cliff 6000 feet high and formed a slender pillar to the valley. Our camp was 400 feet high and tapering pitched on the shore of the towards the summit and base. Bow Lake, a beautiful sheet Much more extraordinary, how- of water embosomed in high ever, was a group of rocks, mountains. It is full of big formed, as it seemed, of petri- trout, and the whole district, fied tree-trunks with numerous which is well described in Mr fossilised remains at their base. Wilcox's book, can be recomIn his paper read before the mended to people with a taste Royal Geographical Society on for camp-life. February 13, Dr Collie On Wednesday, 7th Septempresses the opinion that these ber, we had our last climb. were really gigantic petrified Following the northern shore seaweed. What a tremendous of the lake, we passed the upheaval must have occurred mouth of a remarkable gorge, to throw them up here! Nor with a big jammed stone formam I aware of any similar re- ing a natural bridge, and mains having been previously reached the foot of the Bow found at so great an elevation. Glacier, which descends from


a hill

the great Waputehk ice-field. smaller summits; while over The upper ice - fall proved all was a cloudless sky of more troublesome, and four or five than Italian blue. razor - edged ridges, connected Having next to no meat, we by rickety ice-bridges, and with had been living practically on deep crevasses on either side, bread and porridge; but next gave us the most ticklish piece evening we caught some fine of mountaineering work which trout in the Bow river, which I had during the whole trip. took a fly readily, in spite of all It did not last long, however, we had been told to the conand soon we were on the névé trary. Friday the 9th was our of the Waputehk, which, though last morning in camp, and it Mr Wilcox errs greatly when afforded us a little mild excitehe says that it is much the big- ment in the shape of a bear gest ice-field in the Rockies, is which was sighted on still a very fine glacier. The above the camp. Peyto and I surrounding peaks do not ex- went after him ; but he got ceed 11,000 feet, and are not our wind, and was seen by the particularly striking in form. party in camp to gallop over a The upper slopes of our peak range of hills 8000 feet high were covered with fresh snow, into the valley of the Blaeberry and we had a terrible grind Creek. Our troubles were not before we reached the top. Its yet over, as the burned timber height was 10,100 feet, and our in the woods above Laggan view was one of the most re- were worse than anything we markable I have ever seen, in had hitherto seen, the fallen respect of the multitude of trunks piled one upon another mountains visible. Beginning presenting a most extraordinsouthwards in this wonderful ary tangle. There were places panorama, the first peak to where we walked on tree-trunks catch my eye was Mount As- for some hundreds of yards siniboine, the finest and highest without touching the south of the railway; next on ground. I cannot help thinkthe right rose Mount Temple ing that it would repay the and the Laggan group; the C.P.R. authorities to cut a good Ottertail mountains, and trail as far as Bow lake, as the group of unknown peaks; the district offers many attractions Selkirks, with Mount Sir Don- to sportsmen and fishermen as ald, seventy miles distant, well as to mountain climbers. standing up quite clear; the How the horses got through it Gold Range; next, and much all I don't know, as Collie and nearer, the Freshfield

I dismounted and walked on Mount Forbes, towering above ahead of the caravan. The disall competitors; the double- tant scream of a C.P.R. locomopeaked Mount Lyell, partially tive warned us that we were obscuring Mounts Bryce and approaching the haunts of men, Columbia ; Peak Wilson and and at five o'clock we found the Murchison group; then the ourselves once more at Laggan Slate Range, with innumerable railway - station. The outfit






arrived an hour later, the men tion of those two semi-mythical looking like chimney - sweeps giants beyond all question. from their battle with the Hence it is evident that Proburned timber, and we bade a fessor Coleman was right in last farewell to our tents and saying that they are comparahorses. Our life in camp, with tively insignificant summits. It its varied incidents and is evident also that the Athaperiences, was now a thing of basca Pass does not, as all the the past ; civilisation, with its maps make out, traverse the feather - beds and table - d’hôtes, main chain of the Rockies, but would claim us for its own, and quite subordinate hills several our difficulties and struggles miles to the west. The main with woods and rivers and range, therefore, which mountains would henceforth be the scene of our operations, is nothing more than a pleasant virgin ground; and the Colummemory.


Glacier and the peaks rising After our return to England, out of it must be regarded as Dr Collie and I studied the the true culmination of the works of the old Canadian ex- northern Rocky Mountain

sysplorers to find out who it was tem. Lastly, Mount Brown and that discovered and named Mount Hooker must be deposed Mount

and Mount from their pride of place as the Hooker, and he eventually un- mountain monarchs of this part earthed an old and obscure of the world, and Mount Colmagazine, containing the ac- umbia, Mount Bryce, and Mount count of the journey of one

one Alberta must reign in their David Douglas, which estab- stead. lished the identity and loca







SIR WILLIAM BUTLER'S re- I succeeded him in the duties markable book 1 has brought to of chief of the staff in South my mind many rcollections, both Africa in the latter year; and sad and stirring. It seems to again, only a few months later, me a masterly presentment of in 1880, I succeeded him as a life of no ordinary kind. It private secretary to the Viceseems to me to state with calm- roy of India, so that I had ness and to prove with clearness ample opportunities of knowthe beauty of a noble character, ing him and his work under and to set forth impartially and many and varied conditions. dispassionately the historical We first became acquainted events in which Sir George in 1868, when I was appointed Colley was a chief actor—events Professor of Military History around which political and party at Woolwich, and he was exstrife has stormed and raged. aminer in that subject for the I shall not attempt to review Council of Military Education.2 the book, for I could not pre- I was at once struck with the tend to be an impartial critic. clearness and fairness of the It is the work of a personal questions set by him in his friend and old comrade, about examination papers. Nearly one who in his life was also all of them were directed to my comrade and friend, and all exercise the thinking powers that I propose is to add a brief of the students, but not all: humble tribute, drawn from my some were simply directed to personal recollections, to the bring out their knowledge and memory of one whom to know memory of historical facts. was to love and honour.

And he explained to me that It was my lot to be associated while the former class of queswith Sir George Colley or to tion aimed at stimulating to follow after him on many oc

the fullest the abilities of casions. We were colleagues the ablest and most original as instructors in military his- thinkers, the latter class of tory at home; we were com- question was given to enable rades in the Ashanti war of the students who had not 1873-74; we served together original ability, but who had on Sir Garnet Wolseley's staff worked conscientiously

and in Natal in 1875; we again well according to their lights, served together in Zululand to reap the reward of their and the Transvaal in 1879. efforts, and obtain the quali

1 The Life of Sir George Pomeroy-Colley, K.C.S.I., C.B., C.M.G., by Lieut.General Sir William F. Butler, K.C.B. London : John Murray, 1899.

2 See page 80 of the Life.



fying amount of marks.

He “ The Tactics of the Three also explained to me that in Arms as modified to meet the allotting marks for the answers requirements of the present to the questions in which he day.” In the discussion which asked for views and opinions, followed, many of our ablest he was not influenced by the soldiers and deepest military agreement or non-agreement of thinkers took part : Sir Edthe opinions stated with his ward Hamley, Sir Patrick own views, but judged them M‘Dougall, Sir Lintorn Simentirely by the clearness and mons, and some of the finest ability with which they were of the older school, Sir William stated and reasoned out. He Codrington, Sir Percy Herbert, entirely believed that the ob- and Lord de Ros. Reading the ject of teaching military his- speeches again now, I have no tory, strategy, and tactics was hesitation in saying that by far not to cram the minds of our the ablest and most far-seeing future officers with facts and was that by Colonel Colley, theories, but to enable them which opened the discussion. from facts to deduce principles, It is a masterpiece of close which would help them when and analytical argument. Comin time to come they would mencing by showing that only have to think for themselves a small part of a force in situations of difficulty. attempt flank-attacks, and that

I soon learnt that I was in the great bulk of it must be presence of no ordinary mind, prepared to attack to

to its but of one which used facts front, or remain inoperative, in order to arrive at principles; he proved how superior the and in 1869, having undertaken new formations must be to the to lecture at the United Service old for such frontal attack. Institution on the Last Cam- After distinguishing between paign of Hanover, I wrote to the formations required for him for his opinion on certain bringing troops into position points, and received in reply for the final rush, and those that masterly sketch of the needed for carrying out that spirit of the new Prussian rush, he spoke of attack tactics, which is given by Sir with the bayonet, said that William Butler at pages 81-84 every nation in Europe beof the Life, and of which he lieved the bayonet to be its says, “It will be allowed that special weapon, and continued, the man who had thus early in words the truth of which caught the principles and ob- must in the last days and hours jects of modern battle tactics of his life have been terribly possessed a rare power of in- present in his mind :sight into questions upon which “This is merely the expression of may depend the existence of the fact that whenever two forces nations."

had arrived within a certain distance In May 1873, at the request sufficient morale, sufficient go left in

of one another, that one which had of the Council of the United it really to wish and try to close, was Service Institution, I lectured ipso facto victorious ; and that every

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