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the words should be heard by the latter. This is not always a condition, as in Observations I and III. The subconscious, however, on numerous occasions has experienced this type of hallucination, as when, for instance, she acted as an amanuensis for the internal voice and to the dictation of the latter wrote a long story. Such messages were, however, quite common in this subject just as they are frequently met with in the hallucinations of the insane.
Observation IX. The subject heard an internal voice say:
(a) "Get that smoke out of your lungs";
(b) "Tell Dr Prince the Juliana complex is still holding her ideals1." In response to a searching interrogation as to the mechanism of this and other auditory hallucinations the subconscious process gave testimony which may be summarized as follows:
In such hallucinations subconsciously the words are first intensively thought out and grouped together as auditory sounds or words; that as a result of this intense subconscious thinking the auditory words emerge into consciousness as the hallucination; but in addition, in order to produce such a hallucination, there is a subconscious 'striving' or 'aim' to have the thoughts emerge into awareness, a motive to have the thoughts heard; that if there was no such subconscious desire the subconscious thought would remain 'cut off' or 'away by itself' (i.e. dissociated and not in awareness).
In this way the script explains why sometimes with subconscious thoughts, as in automatic writing, auditory hallucinations occur, and sometimes not. Intenseness of thinking and striving were required although the two apparently were considered as identical. The script could not explain the phenomena further. The main point is that when the auditory hallucinations occurred, the words or auditory 'images' were first formed subconsciously and then, as the second step, emerged into awareness as the hallucination. It is obvious, however, that there must be another factor to cause the emergence, as auditory hallucinations do not invariably or even commonly accompany automatic writing, and they occur when no subconscious volition to this end is in evidence. Perhaps intensity or vividness of the 'images' may be sufficient and the
In explanation of this the script wrote that it referred to a past conversation with me and the "high ideals" she "had heretofore set forth" in regard to smoking cigarettes which she conceived "harmful." The message apparently resulted from a subconscious memory of this conversation and the reflection: "I felt" (so the pencil wrote) "cigarettes were like morphine and I feel uneasy over them. I must not touch them."
determining factor. Subconscious desire or volition was insisted upon by the script as the factor in the hallucinations in question which were plainly of the message type. Accordingly it was arranged, as a test of this claimed ability to produce a hallucination by subconscious volition, that the subconscious process was to write (without the knowledge of the personal consciousness, i.e. the subject), a sentence the words of which she would will the subject to hear as a hallucination, and the latter, if and when she heard an internal voice, was to speak aloud the words internally heard. The two-writing and internal voice—would then occur synchronously and could be recorded. The results were as follows:
Observation X. The hand wrote:
(a) "I am going to play Princess Theres on the stage1."
At the same moment while the hand was writing, without seeing the script and without knowledge2 of what was written, the subject exclaimed:
"I am going to play Princess Theres on the stage." These words she heard as an internal voice.
(b) (The hand wrote): "I smell cigarettes. As before the subject heard a voice and exclaimed: "I smell cigarettes."
In such observations we have written speech and verbal speech synchronously produced. The words of both were identical. The written words were produced by some process not in awareness without the knowledge of the subject. The subject pronounced the same words at the same time claiming that she heard them internally and her veracity is not open to doubt. That there must be a correlation is manifest and we must conclude that the same process that produced the script induced the internal voice. As this was done by prearranged intention it must have involved volition of some kind. (Of course I had no knowledge of what the words were to be.)
1 This was accompanied by a vision which as described was identically the same as that experienced in Observation IV-the same court scene, stage setting, marble floor, herself dancing, etc. When asked to explain how it was that the vision portrayed more than was in the auditory hallucination and the script, the hand wrote: "It had been picturing for years [i.e. previously constructed] and all that had to be done was to flash it before the conscious thought like a moving picture." This picture was "intensely thought of subconsciously." (Here intensity rather than volition apparently was the determining factor.) 2 As she averred and I believe.
D. DREAM IMAGERY.
The phenomena elicited in the following record and analysis of a dream, while not belonging strictly to hallucinations, yet are so closely allied and show such similar mechanisms that I throw it in for good
Observation XI. Dream of the Paprika Dance.
"I saw a stage with a huge red pepper in the centre of the stage and the lights were dim. Then I heard a loud burst of music and the scene changed and the large pepper opened in quarters and a large group of women in bright red tights were dancing around upon the quartered. pepper. Upon their heads were caps of red, fashioned like the top of a red pepper with the stem serving as a tassel. The stage was now ablaze with light and just as I awakened it grew dim and the women scampered away."
After the narration of this dream, which impressed the dreamer because of its 'completeness,' the beauty of the music, and the vividness of the memory left of its details, the subject sketched the two dream. scenes. These are here reproduced.
The method of automatic writing was then utilized to obtain subconscious memories as testimony of, first, what, if any, subconscious mental processes had gone on during the dream and therefore, of course, during sleep, and, second, the meaning of the dream and the motive for its production. In response to a rigid cross-examination the following was testified to by the script.
The idea of the dance had been subconsciously thought out the day before as a novelty for a vaudeville sketch. The motive was to create something "to put before a producer to gain an avenue of escape from the miserable shopwork." Every detail of the scenes was thought out including the music. There was also a desire to have the "conscious mind know of this creation." "In the day time the conscious mind was too busy to take in anything from the subconscious mind." But at night when "the mind was passive" this could be done. So when the mind was asleep "I thought and thought very hard all I had created," the subconscious testified. All the details of the previously thought out scenes now "were grouped together into a finished product." "The intensity of my thoughts created the pictures, first in my complex of thoughts," and then these pictures or images entered "the conscious mind" as the dream. In other words, as with hallucinations, the normal
imagery of thought, but now subconscious thought, emerged into consciousness to become the dream imagery1.
The meaning of the scene (that became the dream) was “a passionate dance and atmosphere." "The red pepper bespoke that idea, warmth of the dance and its dancers" [symbolism]. The motive was not a (subconscious) sexual wish on her part nor was the scene a sexual wish fulfilment. Nor was there any sexual feeling or desire at the time of constructing this vaudeville novelty or during the dream. (In reply to a question as to this the hand wrote emphatically, underscoring twice, "NO!")
The purpose was the artistic one-common we must admit to scenario writers if we judge by the present day agitation for censorship of the 'movies' to create something that would draw and specifically "attract the male attendance." "The idea intended to be conveyed to the public by the red pepper and the movements of the dancers was that of passion." This “the red peppers symbolized because they are hot. The idea struck me,” the script explained, “as a novel one without going into details and dissecting it as you are doing. I thought it a spicy, snappy idea. Now what would you think if you went and viewed it at a theatre?" "The women coming out of the pepper symbolized only beauty of form; nothing more.'
The idea of the red pepper was suggested by seeing at home a paprika can and its highly seasoned contents. This idea flashed into her mind at the time as a good one.
This interpretation of the motive of the dream of course will be objected to by some critics who will insist that there was a deeper unrevealed and unsuspected 'unconscious' motive in the form of a sexual wish. This criticism cannot be disproved but it is very amateurish in that it shows a lack of familiarity with experimental psychology and an all comprehensive knowledge of the phenomena of the subconscious. It is equivalent to a denial that other 'unconscious' processes than sexual wishes are capable of constructive imagination.
However, the main point I have in mind in citing this observation is not the interpretation of the dream but rather to show the analogy between one type of dream imagery and the imagery of hallucinations, and that, if this observation stands as reliable, the mechanism of the two is identical. This is what should be expected as, after all, dream imagery is one type of hallucinatory phenomenon.
1 Apparently this was not the expectation or intention but only a necessary consequence of the intensity of thought. The intention was to create a condition of bodily nervousness which, from previous experience, would result in the subject investigating the cause, etc.