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but his heart misgiving him, he went back and impertinent, has something amiable in it, because married her that evening.

it proceeds from the love of truth, even in frivoCinædus, after having entered his own name lous occasions. If such honest amendments do in the Pythian records, being afked the name of not promise an agreeable companion, they do a the person whom he leaped for, and being sincere friend; for which reason one mould al. ashamed to discover it, he was set aside, and not low them fo much of our time, if we fall into suffered to leap.

their company, as to set us right in matters that Eunica, a maid of Paphos, aged nineteen, in can do us no manner of harm, whether the facts love with Eurybates. Hurt in the fall, but ré- be one way or the other, Lies which are told covered.

out of arrogance and oftentation a man Mould N. B. This was the second time of her leap- detect in his own defence, because he hould not ing.

be triumphed over; lies which are told out of Hesperas, a young man of Tarentum, in love arrogance and oftentation a man Mould detect with his master's daughter. Drowned, the boats in his own defence, because he should not be not coming in foon enough to his relief.

triumphed over; lies which are told out of maSappho, the Lesbian, in love with Phaon, ar lice he thould expose, both for his own rake and rived at the temple of Apollo, habited like a that of the rest of mankind, because every man a bride in garments as white as snow. She wore should rise against a common enemy: but the á garland of myrtle on her head, and carried in officious liar many have argued is to be excused, her hand the little musical instrument of her because it does some mani good, and no man cwn invention. After having fung an hymn to hurt. The man who made more than ordinary Apollo, lhe hung up her garland on one side of fpeed from a fight in which the Athenians were his altar, and her harp on the other. She then beaten, and told them they had obtained a comtucked up her vestments, like a Spartan virgin, plete victory, and put the whole city into the and amidst thousands of spectators, who were utmost joy and exultation, was checked by the anxious for her safety, and offered up vows for magistrates for his falfhood; but excused himher deliverancé, marched directly forwards, to self by saying, “ O Athenians! am I your ene. the utmost summit of the promontory, where my because I gave you two happy days ?!” This after having repeated a stanza of her own verses, fellow did to a whole people what an acquaintwhich we could not hear, the threw herself off ance of mine does every day he lives in some the rock with such an intrepidity as was never eminent degree to particular persons. He is ever before observed in any who had attempted that lying people into good humour, and, as Plato dangerous leap. Many who were present related, said, it is allowable in physicians to lie to their that they saw her fall into the sea, from whence patients to keep up their spirits, I am half doubt. The never rose again; tho' there were others who fulwhether my friend's behaviouris not as excuse.. affirmed, that me never came to the bottom of able. His manner is to express himself surprised her leap, but that he was changed into a swan as at the chearful countenance of a man whom he the fell, and that they saw her hovering in the air observes diffident of himself; and generally by urider that shape. But whether or no the white that means makes his lie a truth. He will, as ness and fiuttering of her garments might not

if he did not know any thing of the circumstance, deceive those who looked upon her, or whether aik one whom he knows at variance with anoThe might not really be metamorphosed into that ther, what is the meaning that Mr. such-a-one, musical and melar.choly bird, is fill a doubt naming his adversary, does not applaud him withi among the Lesbians.

that heartiness which formerly he has heard him ? Alcæus, the famous Lyric poet, who had for He said indeed, continues he, I would iather have some time been passionately in love with Sappho, that man for my friend than any man in England; arrived at the promontory of Leucate that very but for an enemy--This melts the person he evening, in order to take the leap upon her ac talks to, who expeSed nothing but downright count; but hearing that Sappho had been there raillery from that fide. According as he sees his before him, and that her body could be no where practices succeed, he goes to the opposite party, found, he very generously lamented her fall, and and tells him, he cannot imagine how it happens is faid to have written his hundred and twenty

that some people know one another so little; you fifth ode upon that occasion.

spoke with so much coldness of a gentleman who
Leaped in this Olympiad 250.

faid more good of you, than, let me tell you, any

man living deserves. The success of one of these

incidents was, that the next time that one of the

adversaries spied the other, he hems after him in Males

the public street, and they must crack a bottle at Females

c the next tavern, that used to turn out of the

other's way to avoid one another's eye-thot. He

will tell one beauty she was cominended by anoN° 234. WEDNESDAY, Nov. 28.

ther, nay, he will say the gave the woman he speaks

to, the preference in a particular for which she Vellcm in.amtitia fic erraremus.

herself is admired. The pleasanteft confusion Hor. Sat. 3. I. 1. V. 41.

imaginable is made through the whole town by I wish this error in our friendhip reign'd.

my friend's indirect offices ; you shall have a

vifit returned after half a year's absence, and

CREECH. mutual railing at each other every day of that 7 OU very open hear people, after a story has time. They meet with a thousand lamentations

been told with some entertaining circum- for so long a separation, each party naming herItances, teli it over again with particulars that felf for the greatest delinquent, if the other can elettroy the jent, but give light into the truth of pollbly be so good as to forgive her, which she the narration. This iort of veracity, though it is lias no reason in the world, but from the know





ledge of her goodness to hope for. Very often a “ This, as far as I could ever learn from their whole train of raillers of each side tire their horses writings, or my own observation, is a true acin setting matters right which they have said du eount of the British free-thinker. Our visitant ring the war between the parties; and a whole, ' here, who gave occasion to this paper, has circle of acquaintance are put into a thousand • brought with him a new system of common pleasing passions and sentiments, instead of the fense, the particulars of which I am not yee pangs of anger, envy, detraction, and malice. ' acquainted with, but will lose no opportunity of

The worft eyil I ever observed this man's falf. • informing myself whether it contains any thing liood occasion, has been that he turned detrac worth Mr. Spectator's notice. In the mean tion into fattery. He is well skilled in the man time, Sir, I cannot but think it would be for the ners of the world, and by overlooking what men good of mankind, if you would take this subreally are, he grounds his artifices upon what they "ject into your own consideration, and convince have a mind to be. Upon this foundation, if two the hopeful youth of our nation, that licentiousdistant friends are brought together, and the (ners is not freedom; or, if such a paradox will cément seems to be weak, he never refts until he not be understood, that à prejudice towards finds new appearances to take off all remains of atheism is not impartiality. I am, ill-will, and that by new misunderstandings they

Sir, your most humble servant, are thoroughly reconciled.


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"To the Spectator,

N° 235. THURSDAY, Novem. 29. OSIR, Devonshire, Nov. 14, 1711.

THERE arrived in this neighbourhood two

Vincentem Arepitus---

Hor. Ars. Poet, v. 81. days ago one of your gay gentleman of Awes the tumultuous noises of the pit. • the town, who being attended at his entry with


HERE is nothing which lies more within • of the village to learn whence and what he ' might be. The countryman, to whom they and diverfions; and as among these there are • applied as most easy of access, knew little more

none which can pretend to vie with those elegant " than that the gentleman came from London to

entertainments that are exhibited in our theatres, • travel and see fashions, and was, as he heard I think it particularly incumbent on me to take

say, a free thinker: what religion that might notice of every thing that is remarkable in such

bs, he could not tell; and for his own part, if numerous and refined assemblies. " they had not told him the man was a free It is observed, that of late years there has been a • thinker, he hould have guessed, by his way of certain person in the upper-gallery of the playstalking, he was little better than a heathen; house, who when he is pleased with any thing

excepting only that he had been a good gentle- that is acted upon the stage, expresses his approman to him, and made him drunk twice in bation by a loud knock upon the benches or the

one day, over and above what they had bar- wainscot, which may be heard over the whole ( gained for.

theatre. This person is commonly known by the . I do not look upon the fimplicity of this, and

name of the strunk-maker in the upper-gallery." 6 several odd inquiries with which I shall not trou

Whether it be, that the blow he gives on these oc. <ble you to be wondered at; much less can I casions resembles that which is often heard in the • think that our youths of fine wit, and enlarged mops of such artisans, or that he was supposed to • understandings, have any reason to laugh. There have been a real trunk-inaker, who after the ti$ is no necessity that every 'squire in Great Bri- nishing of his day's work, used to unbend his "tain should know what the word free-thinker mind at these public diverfions with his hammer

ftands for; but it were much to be wished, that in his hand, I cannot certainly tell. There are - they who value themselves upon that conceited some, I know, wlio have been foolith enough to

title were a little better instructed in what it imagine it is a spirit which haunts the upper gal• ought to stand for; and that they would not lery, and from time to time makes those strange • persuade themselves a man is really and truly a noises; and the rather because he is observed io

free-thinker in any tolerable sense, merely by be louder than ordinary erery time the ghost of « virtue of his being an atheist, or an infidel of Hamlet appears. Others have reported, that it « any other distinction. It may be doubted with is a dumb man, who has chosen this way of ur• good reason, whether there ever was in nature'a tering himself when he is transported with any

more abject, Navish, and bigotted generation thing he fees or hears. Others will have it to be than the tribe of Beaux Esprits, at present so the play-house thunderer, that exerts himłelf after

prevailing in this island. Their pretension to this manner in the upper gallery when he has no. « be free-thinkers, is no other than rakes have to thing to do upon the roof. 6. be free-livers and savages to be free-men; that But having made it my business to get the best o is, they can think whatever they have a mind to, information I could in a matter of this moment, 6 and give themselves up to whatever conceit the I find that the trunk-maker, as he is commonly

extravagancy of their inclination, or their fancy, called, is a large black inan, whom no-body • shall suggeft; they can think as wildly as they knows. He generally leans forward on a huge (talk and act, and will not endure that their wit oaken plant with great attention to every thing « Nould be controuled by such formal things as that parlez upon the stage. He is never feen to • decency and common sense : deduction, cohe- smile; but upon hearing any thing that pleafes

rence, consistency, and all the rules of reason him, he takes up his staff with both hands, and • they accordingly disdain, as too precise and me- lays it upon the next piece of timber that finds ( chanical for men of a liberal education, in his way with exceeding vehemence: airer

which he composes himself in his former posture, sufficiently shews the evidence and strength of until such time as something new sets hiin again his conviction. His zeal for a good author is at work,

indeed outrageous, and breaks down every fence It has been observed, his blow was so well- and partition, every board and plank, that stands timed, that the most judicious critic could never within the expression of his applause. except against it.

As foon as any thining As I do not care for terminating my thoughts thought is expressed in the poet or any 'uncom- in barren fpeculations, or in reports of pure mon grace appears in the actor, he fmites the matter of fact, without drawing something from bench or wainscot. If the audience does not them for the advantage of my countrymen, I concur with him, he smites a second time, and shall take the liberty to make an humble propoif the audience is not yet awaked, looks round fal, that whenever, the trunk-maker Mall depart him with great wrath, and repeats the blow a this life, or whenever he shall have lost the spring third time, which never fails to produce the clap. of his arm by sickness, old age, infirmity, or the He sometimes lets the audience begin the clap like, fome able-bodied critic should be advanced of themselves, and at the conclusion of their ap: to this post, and have a competent salary settled plause ratifies it with a single thwack..

on him for life, to be furnished with bamboos for He is of so great use to the play-house, that it is · operas, crabtree cudgels for comedies, and oaken said a former director of it, upon his not being planks for tragedy, at the public expence. And able to pay his attendance by reason of sickness, to the end that this place Mhould be always difkept one in pay to officiate for him until such posed of according to merit, I would have none time as he recovered ; but the person so em- preferred to it, wiro has not given convincing ployed, thoughi he laid about him with incredi. proofs both of a found judgment and a strong ble violence, did it in such wrong places, that arm, and who could not, upon occasion, either the audience foon found out that it was not their knock down an ox, or write a comment upon old friend the trunk-maker.

Horace's Art of Poetry. In short, I would have It has been remarked, that he has not yet ex him a due composition of Hercules and Apollo, erted himself with vigour this season. He some- and so rightly qualified for th s important office, times plies at the opera; and upon Nicolini's that the trunk-maker may not be missed by our first appearance, was said to have demolished pofterity.

с three benches in the fury of his applause. He has broken half a dozen oaken planks upon Dogget, and seldom goes away from a tragedy of N° 236. FRIDAY, NOVEMBER 30. Shakespear, without leaving the wainscot extremely shattered.

-Dare jura maritis. Hor. Ars Poet, v. 398. The players do not only connive at his obftre. With laws connubial tyrants ro restrain. perous approbation, but very chearfully repair at their own colt whatever damages he makes.

• Mr. Spettator, They had once a thought of erecting a kind of ou have not spoken in fo direct a manwooden anvil for his use, that ihould be made of

ner upon the subject of Marriage as that a very founding plank, in order to render his • important cafe deserves. It would not be imstrokes more deep and mellow; but as this might proper to observe upon the peculiarity in the not have been diítinguished from the music of a youth of Great-Britain, of railing and laugh. kettle.drum, the project was laid aside.

ing at that institution; and when they fall into In the mean while, I cannot but take notice it, from a profligate habit of mind, being inof the great use it is to an audience, that a per fenfible of the satisfaction in that way of life, ion should thus preside over their heads like the and treating their wives with the most barba. director of a concert, in order to awaken their rous disrespect. attention, and beat time to their applauses; or, • Particular circumstances and cast of temper, to raise my fimile, I have sometimes fancied the I must teach a man the probability of mighty trunk-maker in the upper gallery to be like Vir uneasinesses in that state, for unquestionably gil's ruler of the winds, seated upon the top of « some there are whose very dispositions are à mountain, who when he ftruck his fceptre “strangely averle to conjugal friendship; but upon the side of it, roused an hurricane, and set o no one, I believe, is by his own natural comthe whole cavern in an uproar.

plexion prompted to teaze and torment ano. It is certain the trunk-maker has saved many ther for no reason but being nearly allied to a good play, and brought many a graceful actor « him: and can there be any thing more base, into reputation, who would not otherwise have or serve to fink a man so much below his own been taken notice of. It is very visible, as the distinguishing characteristic, I mean reason, audience is not a little abathed, if they find them " than returning evil for good in so open a manselves betrayed into a clap, when their friend in ner, as that of treating an helpless creature the upper gallery does not come into it; so the s with unkindness, who has had so good an opi. actors do not value themselves upon the clap, "nion of him as to believe what he said relating but regard it as a mere brutum fulmen, or empty to one of the greatest concerns of life, by denoife, when it has not the sound of the oaken livering her happiness in this world to his care plant in it. I know it has been given out by ' and protection ? Must not that man be aban. Those who are enemies to the trunk-inaker, that • doned even to all manner of humanity, who he has sometime been bribed to be in the interest can deceive a woman with appearances of af. of a bad poet, or a vicious player; but this is ( fection and kindness, for no other end but to a surmise which has no foundation; his strokes torment her with more eale and authority ? are always juít, and his adınonitions seasonable; ' Is any thing more unlike a gentleman, ihan he does not deal about his blows at random, but I when his honour is engaged for the performing always hits the right nail u: on the head. The • his promises, because nothing but that can incxprcsible force whiert with he lays them on, ? oblige him to it, to become afturwards falle

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to his word, and be alone the occasion of misery company of her husband : a defire of being

to one whose happiness he but lately pretended agreeable in the lover would be increased in I was dearer to hiin than his own ? Ought such 'the husband, and the mistress be more amiable

a one to be trusted in his common affairs, or hy becoming the wife. Besides all which, I ç treated but as one whose honesty consisted only am apt to believe we should find the race of « in his incapacity of being ocherwise?

men grow wiser as their progenitors grew kind"There is one cause of this usage no less ab er, and the affection of their parents would be < surd than common, which takes place among conspicuous in the wisdom of their children; • the more unthinking men; and that is the de ' in hori, men would in general be much better ' fire to appear to their friends free and at liber 'humoured than they are, did not they so fre'ty, withuut those crammels they have so much quently exercile the worst turns of their temper r ridiculed. To avoid this they fiy into the other where they ought to exert the best.' s extreme, and grow tyrants that they may secm

• Mr. Spectator, ( masters. Because an uncontroulable command

AM a woman who left the admiration of

this whole town, to throw myself, for love o dominion, they will not so much as recede

• of wealth, into the arms of a fool. When I ' from the government even in one muscle of

( married him, I could have had any one of < their faces. A kind look they believe would

• several men of sense who languished for me; be fawning, and a civil answer yielding' the

" but my case is juft. I believed my fuperior superiority. To this must we attribute an

understanding would form him into a tracta• austerity they betray in every action : what but

ble creature. But, alas, my spouse has cun" this can put a man out of humour in his wife's

"ning and suspicion, the inseparable companions \ company, though he is so distinguishingly plea

• of little minds; and every attempt I make to ( sant every where else? The bitterness of his replies, and the severity of his frowns to the

divert, by putting on an agreeable air, a sudtenderest of wives, clearly demonstrate, that

den chearfulness, or kind behaviour, he looks an ill-grounded fear of being thought too sub

upon as the first acis towards an insurrection • missive, is at the botrom of this, as I am wil.

against his undeserved dominion over me. Let ' ling to call it, affected moroseness; but if it be

every one who is Itill to choose, and hopes to « such only, put on to convince his acquaintance

govern a fool, remember

( TRISTISSA.' s of his intire dominion, let him take care of the consequence, which will be certain, and "Mr. Spectator,

St. Martin's, Nov, 25. & worse than the present evil; his seeming in THIS is to complain of an evil practice « difference will by degrees grow into real con

which I think very well deserves a retempt, and, if it doth not wholly alienate the • dress, tho' you have not yet taken any notice of s affections of his wife for ever from him, make cit: if you mention it in your paper, it may s both him and her more miserable than if it ' perhaps have a very good effe&t. What I mean I really did so.

" is the disturbance some people give to others '< However inconsistent it may appcar, to be at church, by their repetition of the prayers thought a well-bred person, has no finall Mare • after the minister, and that not only in the

in this clownish behaviour: a discourse there. prayers, but also the absolution and the coin(fore relating to good-breeding towards a loving mandments fare no better, which are in a par" and a tender wife, would be of great use to ticular manner the prieit's office: this I have

this fort of gentlemen. Could you but once con known done in fo audible a manner, that some.

vince them, that to be civil at least is not beneath ( times their voices have been as loud as his. (the character of a gentlemen, nor even tender af. As little as you would think it, this is fre( fe&tion towards one who would make it recipro. quently done by people seemingly devout. This

cal, betrays any softness or effeminacy that the irreligious inadvertency is a thing extremely

most masculine disposition need be ashamed offensive ; but I do not recommend it as a şof; could you satisfy them of the generosity " thing I give you liberty to ridicule, but hope

of voluntary civility, and the greatness of soul it may be amended by the bare mention. that is conspicuous in benevolence without

• Sir, your very humble servant, ! immediate obligations; could you recommend T

« T. S. ļ to people's practice the saying of the gentleman

quoted in one of your speculations, “ That “ he thought it incumbent upon him to make 'No 237. SATURDAY: DECEMBER 1. " the inclinations of a woman of merit go along “ with her duty:” could you, I say, persuade Visu carentem magna pars veri latet. thefe men of the beauty and reasonableness of

Seneca in Oedip. • this sort of behaviour, I have so much charity Truth is in a great measure concealed from the < for some of them at least, to believe you would

blind. • convince them of a thing they are only ashamed T is very reasonable to believe, that part of the

to allow : besides, you would recommend that state in its truest, and consequently its most future state, will arise from an enlarged contem

agreeable colours ; and the gentlemen who plation of the divine wisdom in the government « have for any time been such profeffed enemies of the world, and a discovery of the secret and • to it, when occasion fhould serve, would return amazing steps of Providence, from the beginning

you their thanks for alifting their interest in to the end of time. Nothing seems to be an en• prevailing over their prejudices. Marriage in ţertainment more adapted to the nature of man, • general would by this means be a more easy if we consider that curiosity is one of the strongest • and comfortable condition; the husband would and most lafting appetites implanted in us, and ll be no where to well satisfied as in his ewn that admiration is one of our most plealing paíparlour, nor the wife so pleasant as in the hous; and what a perpetual succeilion of enjoy

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ments will be afforded to both these, in a scene so adds, " that it must be a pleafure to Jupiter. large and various as shall then be laid open to « himself to look down from heaven, and fec. our view in the society of superior spirits, who « Cato amidst the ruins of his country, preferyperhaps will join with us in so delightful a prof. “ ing his integrity.”

This thought will appear yet more reafonable, It is not imposible, on the contrary, that part if we consider human life as a state of probation, of the punishment of such as are excluded from and adverfity as the post of honour in it, assigned bliss, may confift, not only in their being denied often to the best and most select (pirits. this privilege, but in having their appetites at the But what I would chiefly insist on here, is, that faune time vastly increased,

without any satisfac. we are not at present in a proper situation to tion afforded to them. In these, the vain pursuit judge of the counsels by which providence acts, of knowledge shall, perhaps, add to their infelici- fince but little arrives at our knowledge, and even ty, and bewilder thein into labyrinths of error, that little we discern imperfectly; or according darkness, distraction and uncertainty of every to the elegant figure in holy writ, “ We see but thing but their own evil ftate. Milion has thus “ in part, and as in a glass darkly.” It is to bé represented the fallen angels reasoning together in considered, that providence in its economy rea kind of respite from their torments, and creat- gards the whole system of time, and things togeing to themselves a new disquiet amidst their very ther, so that we cannot discover the beautiful conanusements; he could not properly have de nexion between incidents which lie widely sepafcribed the sports of condemned spirits, without rated in time, and by losing so many links of the that cast of horror and melancholy he has so judi- chain, our reasonings become broken and imperciousy mingled with them.

fect. Thus those parts of the moral world which Others apart sat on a hill retired,

have not an absolute, may yet have a relative “ In thoughts more elevate, and reason'd high

beauty, in respect of some other parts concealed Of Providence, foreknowledge, will, and fate,

from us, but open to his eye before whom“ past, “ Fixt fate, free will, foreknowledge absolute,

“ prefent, and to come,” are set together in one " And found no end in wandering mazes loft.', point of view: and those events, the permission

of which seems now to accuse his goodness, may In our present condition, which is a middle in the consummation of things both magnify his ftate, our minds are, as it were, chequered with goodness, and exalt his wisdom. And this is truth and falihood; and as our faculties are nar- enough to check our prefumption, since it is row, and our views imperfect, it is impossible but in vain to apply our meafures of regularity to our curiosity must meet with many repulses. matters of which we know neither the anteThe business of mankind in this life being rather cedents nor the consequents, the beginning nor to act than to know, their portion of knowledge the end. is dealt to them acccordingly.

I hall relieve my readers from this abstracted From hence it is, that the reason of the inquisi- thought, by relating here a Jewith tradition contive has so long been exercised with difficulties, cerning Moses, which seems to be a kind of parain accounting for the promiscuous distribution of Ble, illustrating what I have last mentioned. That good and evil to the virtuous and the wicked in great prophet, it is said, was called up by a voice this world. From hence come all those pathetic from heaven to the top of a mountain; where, in complaints of so many tragical events, which hap- a conference with the Supreme Being, he was pen to the wise and the good; and of such fur- permitted to propose to him some questions conprising prosperity, which is often the reward of cerning his administration of the universe. In the guilty and the foolish; that reason is sometimes the midst of this divine colloquy he was compuzzled, and at a loss what to pronounce upon so manded to look down on the plain below. At mysterious a dispensation.

the foot of the mountain there ifined out a clear Piato expresses his abhorrence of some fables spring of water, at which a soldier alighted from of the poets, which seem to reflect on the gods as his horse to drink. He was no rooner gone than the authors of injustice; and lays it down as a a little boy came to the same place, and finding a principle, that whatever is permitted to befal a purse of gold which the soldier had dropped, took juit man, whether poverty, sickness, or any of it up and went away with it. Immediately after thote things which seem to be evils, Mall either this came an infirm old man, weary with age in life or death conduce to his good. My reader and travelling, and having quenched his thirit, will observe how agreeable this maxim is to what sat down to reft himself by the fide of the spring. we find delivered by a greater authority. Seneca The soldier mising his purse returns to search has written a discourse purposcly on this subject, "for it, and demands it of the old man, who in which he takes pains, after the doctrine of the affirms he had not seen it, and appeals to heaven Stoics, to how that adversity is not in itself an in witness of his innocence. The soldier not evil; and mentions a noble saying of Demetrius, believing his protestations, kills him. Mofes fell " That nothing would be more unhappy than a on his face with horror and amazement, when

man who had never known affiction." He the divine voice thus prevented his cxpoftulation; comparcs prosperity to the indulgence of a fond • Be not surprised, Moses, nor afk why the judge mother to a child, which often proves' his ruin; of the whole earth has suffered this thing to but the affection of the divine being to that of come to pass : the child is the occasion that a wise father who would have his fons exercised the blood of the old man is spilt; but know, with-labour, disappointment, and pain, that they that the old man whom thou fawest, was the may gather strength and improve their fortitude. murderer of that child's father,"

C On this occasion the philo'opher rises into that celebrated fentiment, « That there is not on ? ekrth a spectacle more worthy the regard of

a Crcator inicni on his works than a brave “ man fuperior to this sufferings;" to which he

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