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the leg of the man whose deadly aim was thereby diverted from sacrificing the poor bird, to whose kind act of rescue when in danger the ant had previously owed her own life-how can we despise even the least matter which can exercise an influence for good or evil on our journey's successful issue. Who has not had to experience the bitter mortification of having a trip on foot spoilt by some trifle, unheeded or unanticipated in the hey-day of the start! What corn began to complain on the second day? What sore heel from the wear of an ill-fitting boct or shoe, has not destroyed all the soaring pleasure of our excursion, just when the country began to open to our eager gaze ? and who chat has so paid the penalty of incaution and neglect at starting does not wish to take good care that such shall not happen again to themselves, or to any friend, indeed, starting on a similar trip, and who will listen to the voice of experience in the matter ?
To enter, then, forthwith into all manner of “ Hints'' and practical suggestions.
17. In the first place, the reader will be, perhaps, surprised to learn how many things need to be attended to in preparing for a few days or weeks excursion into the country; and, further, that you must begin to train and harden yourself a day or two before actual setting out.
18. The body must be put into the best possible condition. A warm bath will be of service here, by cleansing the surface of the body and opening the pores of the skin, so as to allow more freely of that transpiration which is always insensibly going forward ; that which we call perspiration being only the condensation of the former, so as to render visible that which in its natural form is invisible, rising as steam from the surface of the body. A gentle dose of medicine will be also beneficial, (as likewise before a sea voyage, diminishing greatly the sickness, though this fact is unfortunately little known,) along with which full diet should be reduced down to something lighter, and suitable for easy digestion.
19. The feet have the chief burthen to sustain of this manly exercise, and, in order that they may discharge with satisfaction their incessant task, will require the most special attention and care. The condition of the nails, existence of corns or budnions, &c., should not be overlooked : as they are to undergo prolonged pressure by the upper leather of the shoes, any neglected state of these at starting may soon produce a discomfort and pain that might prove the most serious drawback to the ease and pleasure of the trip. If, by undue leugth or improper mode of trimming, the nails have any tendency given to them of growing into the flesh, inflammation, with acute pain and consequent disability from walking, will ensue.
20. Corns* may be generally rendered easy by bathing them in warm water, applying a drop of oil, and then cutting them down carefully; lastly, soap the cut surface a little, take a bit of common lunar caustic, and gently touch the soaped and cut surface of the corn once or twice; after a little time, wipe off the soap, and apply a small bit of diachylon plaister, spread either on leather or linen-some cut a hole in the centre of their plaisters; in a few hours the tenderness so common will have sub
* Corns consist of a horny developement of the outer or scarfskin, in technical language epidermis-arising from united pressure and friction which sets up an irritation in the spot (being a law of all vital economy,)-the corn is a hard tubercle with a crown and stem or root, as it is improperly termed-being exactly like a carpenter's nail, the crown or head is flat and rough unless polished by rubbing against the shoe—the stem is conical, horny, and pointed; there may be two or three stems--the points of which piercing down towards or even quite through the true under-skin, and sometimes penetrating the capsule of a joint when seated over such, cause the well-known exquisite pain, by irritating the delicate expansion of nervous fibrils with which the skin, &c. in every part of the body is beautifully supplied. They are chiefly classed into hard and soft. The latter being of the same structure as the former, only from being situate in a part where they are kept moist present their characteristic softness and maceration of crown, in fact; the hard cornis most commonly on the outside of the little toe, where the principal pressure with friction of the shoe occurs. The sides of the nails, the sole, and the heel, are obnoxious also to these pests of the feet. From what has been stated it will be evident that to cut off the head
of the corn is only a temporary relief, and not a radical cure-this is only accomplished by cautiously digging out the tail or stem, which may be seen with a magnifier, and which any steady handed person may do for themselves by the following method, which can be only very briefly described in this already prolonged but useful note:put a drop of oil on the corn (where soaking in hot water and rubbing with a rough towel or the finger nail will not remove itonly practicable in an infant corn) --with a pen knife cut away a little of the head, if very large and protuberant-then cut cautiously round it so as to loosen it by degrees out of its bed, and thus to clear the stem at last by means of grubbing round it as you would do in digging out a piece of stick frozen in the ice:-a sharp pointed bodkin is the most accessible instrument to thegenerality of people, though an imperfect substitute for the lancet pointed quadrille of the chiropodist :-by such means, delicately and dexterously employed the point of the stem may be got at, when it may be forced up, lifting at the same time the crown by the fingers, or far better by a small pair of forceps or strong tweezers-thus with care and without pain may this thorn, as it literally and figuratively is, be removed. Not a drop of blood should be drawn--and if all the stem or stems (where more than one so acting for each) are eradicated by dint of patience and cautious practice-pressure on the spot will test the success of the operation by the most welcome relief obtained from all pain,place a slip of diachylon plaister on the part and round the toe, and then another of gold-beaters skin, or oil-silk, and leave undisturbed for some days, when the plaster sbould be removed: first, ex. tractinganyold or newstems, observed to have been left-thusguard. ing against the continuance of the cause a complete cure may be effected. If a corn has excited inflammation, known by redness around and shooting pulsating pains, rest and emollient applications, such as a linseed poultice, a fig, &c., will relieve it.
N. B.-Avoid by all means the cutting of a corn till it bleeds, which may be very serious, especially in advanced life,
sided, and the cut surface, where touched by the caustic, will have a brown or blackish look, when the pressure of the shoe can be comparatively well borne. Mind not to apply the caustic beyond the hard horny spot, or you may make a sore where it touches the sound skin.
21. If you should happen to be teazed with that in. flamed state of things, over the large joint of the great toe, which is called a bunnion,t wet it, soap it, and draw gently the caustic over it, so as to touch each part of the surface once. This process, from the caution here enjoined, may require in non-medical hands a repetition two or three times even before a full relief is obtained ; however, this is better than, by overdoing it at first, to irritate the inflamed part. In a day or two there will be a marked diminution of the pain and swelling. The bunnion is mostly seated on the upper part of the large joint of the great toe, and often inflames from increased walking ; and, from the bending of the joint at every step, painful pressure is made on the inflamed and cushiony cluster of corns or bunnion, causing thereby great distress in the act of setting down and raising the foot on the ground.
22. Chilblains must not be passed over, though this is not the place to enter upon any scientific statement or curative details, other than a very simple allusion to their cause and cure. Damp and cold, conjoined with a constitutional aptitude, as languid circulation, &c., are the remote and near causation ; extremes of temperature
+ A bunnion is a many stemmed corn, seated in tumefied flesh. bulbous, flabby-scarf-skin comes off in flakes, stems like millet seeds roundish and conical. Callosities are only thickenings of scarf-skin, superficial, insensible; they may be not only cured but prevented, by rubbing with pumice stone or sand paper
The value of the above will prove itself on giving attention and trial. For length of note, apology will be therefore needless.
Substantially quoted from a rare book bublished 20 years ago " The art of preserving the Feet," Colburn, London, 1818.
suddenly experienced, spirituous potations, and sedentary habits, increase greatly the tendency to such. The feet should be kept dry, and of an uniform temperature. The subjoined quotation is so much to the point, that it ought not here to be omitted, from an author from whose work several of these early hints are culled :-“ Sportsmen, therefore, in snipe or grouse shooting on the moors, may always avoid them (chilblains) by a careful attention to the dryness of their feet, both during the period of their day's sport and after their return; but let them remember that the feet, if damped only by perspiration, are as liable to the disease as if the wet were to penetrate through their shoes or boots. Care must, therefore, always be taken to dry the feet on return from shooting, before any refreshment is taken, and most especially before the feet are placed near a fire." It is better to walk up and down a room after drying wet feet or cold feet, than to put them before the grate to be toasted. Gentle friction with flesh brush, horse-hair scrubbing brush, and the use of such stimulating applications as brandy, whiskey, turpentine, eau de Cologne, camphorated spirits of wine, &c., will often dismiss the promise of “itchy chilblains." if inflamed and very tender, cooling lotions will be best. A little acetate of lead solution (sugar of lead) in rose-water, or equal parts of acetate of ammonia solution and rose-water, or common water, or brandy or vinegar and water, or rubbing with snow in winter, may be resorted to. Enveloping the part in oiled silk will be of great service and comfort after the employment of foregoing. The progress of a chilblain, if not discussed early, is to form a blister, which bursts, and developes a troublesome, sluggish ulcer, that, in addition to soothing and digestive applications, often calls for constitutional remedies, which must be here left as belonging to the province of the
The art of preserving the Feet, &c.