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Once when I was ill in the South I wished I was a strong woman; I wished I was a Spanish girl and this is what I dreamed:
[Dream of Susie]
that I was a Spanish maiden of rare beauty and charm
and then I saw her sitting on a stump of a tree and I seemed to see her day-dreaming.
[Dream of Juliana]
I see her in a palace where there is soft music and there seems to be grapes and flowers and beautiful pictures and oil urns of coloured lights.
I see this peasant girl in a beautiful palaceshe has beautiful robes on-there is beautiful statuary in the palace-a lot of gaiety around her -a lot of people as in a court-soft music-I hear it and a lot of light coloured light from urns and lots of fruit-beautiful marble mosaic floorsthe girl is dancing.
After this experiment the subject again visualized the 'pictures' of Juliana sitting on the stump of a tree and the scene of the palace and drew the following illustrations (Figs. 1 and 2) from the visions which she actually saw as if they were real. The mechanism of this revisualization was found on examination to be very similar to that of the production of a crystal vision. There was, also, as was claimed, a coconscious wish ("a great desire") to have the coconscious images emerge into consciousness so as to be drawn.
The dancing scene at Court had been frequently visualized and was therefore an already organized construction. She had little more than to think intensely of it coconsciously to have it reappear. It was a repetition of scene 4, obs. II.
The script begins to tell of an illness which the subject suffered a good many years ago when living in the South and after seven words. are written an image of herself ill in bed, in the very same brass bedstead and in the very same room in which she had been ill appears in consciousness. (It is a visualized memory for on seeing the vision she recollects the illness, the room and the bedstead.) The whole hallucination is composed of just such images as would accompany the recollection of such an episode as one would experience when one recalls a particularly serious illness that one has suffered in a particular place. She had been
prostrated at the time, as she well remembers, and the hallucination portrays her as weak in body and the script described her thought as wishing to be strong, to be in fact the strong peasant Spanish girl whom
in her day-dreaming she had fabricated as a fantasy; and so she goes to sleep and dreams the fulfilment of this wish.
She dreams (according to the script-whether true or not does not
matter, for it is only with the content of the subconscious process that is writing that we are concerned) she dreams, so the script goes on, that she is a Spanish maiden and the image of such a maiden of "rare beauty and charm" appears as a hallucination but in a particular setting of the woods. The figure is an image identical with that which she had often fabricated of the Spanish peasant Juliana and just such an image as the maiden of the script would in conscious thought evoke. The setting of the woods is not described in the script but, as has been pointed out,
Fig. 2. Juliana dancing before the king (drawn as in Fig. 1).
the imagery of a hallucination is always richer than the script and the testimony of the subconscious introspection affirmed that all the details of the hallucinations were elements in the subconscious process as we shall later see. Then, as the subconsciously written script described the maiden sitting on a stump of a tree, day-dreaming, straightway a corresponding image of Juliana emerges as a hallucination. (Let us never for one moment forget in studying these phenomena, that the subject was entirely unaware of the content of the script-of what the hand had written, and therefore whatever images pertained to and
emerged from the expressed ideas must have pertained to and emerged from a subconscious process, and, if the script was written by a subconscious process, such as the content of that script would require.)
The script declares that (subconsciously) she sees the imagery of the dream and this imagery emerges into consciousness as a hallucination of Juliana dancing before the King and his Court-a long previously organized fantasy.
Thus examined the imagery of the several shifting scenes of this hallucination is precisely such as the content of the script would require; if we are justified in defining that content as coconscious ideas, we may say such imagery as those coconscious ideas would contain.
Observation V. The chief interest in the next observation lies in the facts (a) that the script was motivated by anxiety and not by a wish and therefore the hallucination was not a wish fulfilment; and (b) that the emotions linked with the subconscious process (a memory) emerged into consciousness along with the images of the memory. The emotions involved were both anxiety and anger, but it would seem that anxiety was the dominant emotion of the subconscious system producing the script while anger was that which was felt most strongly at least by the subject while seeing the hallucination. Apparently during the original episode, of which the hallucination and script were a memory, both anger and anxiety were elements. For this observation, it should be said, the subject had been directed to write automatically a memory of some episode in her life of an anxious kind. Of course neither the subject nor I had any idea of what would be written.
The occasion referred to in the script and reproduced in the hallucination was one when the subject was in the clinic of the commercial establishment (where she was employed) to get her time card signed for the days she was absent on account of illness. The nurse must pass on such
[Note: The script further claimed that she felt (subconsciously) while writing really anxious because it meant much to her if the card were not signed and her pay was 'docked.']
[Oral comment by the subject:]
"A feeling of doubt and of being full of fight comes into my mind.... While seeing the hallucination I felt worried as if my word was doubted, as if I were put on a level with other girls who tell a lie whenever they open their mouths....I had that feeling at the time."
Immediately after the observation was finished the following questionnaire was put to the subconscious system. The answers were written automatically without the subject's awareness of their content.
Q. "What were you concerned about?"
A. "Whether the nurse will put a D.D. [Don't dock] on my card.” Q. "Were you anxious?"
Q. "Was the conscious mind anxious?"
A. "No." [Here in reply to my question the subject said, without knowing what the hand wrote, that she was not consciously anxious at the time of seeing the hallucination but only resentful.]
Q. "Were you really anxious?"
A. "Yes, and it would mean something if I do not get it signed."
Temporal Relation between Script and Hallucination.
It is obvious that there are two possible interpretations of the relation between the script and the hallucinations in these observations. First, the hallucination may be secondary to and a product of the script producing process; or, second, the hallucination may be primary and the subconscious process may simply describe in the script an independent hallucination. The point is crucial: for if the second interpretation be the correct one the hallucination could well be the product of an independent and unrelated process. In favour of the first interpretation and against the second is the fact to which I have called attention, that the writing of a given script always began before the correlated images appeared in consciousness. A moment or two always elapsed after the idea began to be written before its hallucinatory image developed. This can easily be recognized by noting the point marked in the script of the emergence of the image. If the script simply described a primary and independent hallucination we should expect the latter to have appeared first and the descriptive writing of the imaged idea to follow later. But the reverse was the case.
Then again the script is never technically speaking a description of the hallucination (such as the subject herself gave when she experienced