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way, the property embraces one million chief citizens of these cities. Para itself acres, the number of rubber trees aver- is a city of one hundred thousand peoaging six to an acre, making at least six ple, many of the inhabitants having million wild rubber trees now matured grown rich either by actually dealing in and ready to yield their valuable sap. rubber or in supplying necessaries to the

Let us journey into this region and see camps. what the greatest of rubber countries In both Para and Manaos the most promlooks like. Tracing the location first of inent feature of industrial life is the shipall on the map, we come to Para and ment of rubber, just as the shipment of later to Manaos, the two rubber shipping tobacco is most prominent in Havana. centers of the world. In these towns live All the exporting sections of the cities are the proprietors of many of the rubber occupied by packing-houses where the forests in the Amazon region and offi- rubber is packed for export. To these cials representing companies who have packing-houses the crude rubber is capital of millions, and who manage brought in lumps that very much resemble their rubber properties after modern busi- hams, though if you happen to drop one ness methods. In these cities also live of these lumps of rubber you will realize many other individuals interested in the that it is not the ham it seems to be, but gathering and selling of rubber. It is a very elastic substance, since as soon as said, indeed, that the whole of the great it touches the ground it bounces up and South American rubber region is owned down after the manner of a heavy rubber by the companies represented by the ball. In the warehouses each lump of

a

rubber is carefully weighed, and is then The rubber gatherer taps the tree with a packed in boxes, three hundred pounds in tomahawk or hatchet which has an incheach box, ready for shipment.

wide blade. He makes only a slight gash The traveler will be welcomed as in the bark with his hatchet, taking care passenger on one of the boats that bring not to cut the wood beneath the bark. the crude rubber to the warehouses of the Immediately a fluid, as thin and as white Para Rubber Plantation Co. at Manaos, as milk, oozes forth. The gatherer now and after a short sail the boat will land fastens a small cup into another cut made the passenger in the heart of the rubber below the gash, thus catching the fluid as country. The territory was purchased in it runs down. He makes three or four fee simple by the Company from the Ven- similar gashes in each tree, fastening a ezuelan Government. This is the region cup under each gash. About noontime he that is destined to supply not only the goes from tree to tree and empties the best but the bulk of the rubber used milk from the cups into a bucket. He has throughout the world for many years to only a certain number of trees allotted to come.

him, and as there is a tablespoonful of Scientific men explain that rubber is a fluid in each cup when he gathers it at product obtained by proper treatment of noontime, each tapper has about a gallon the milky sap or “latex of such tropical of sap to show for his morning's work. trees as siphonia elastica and siphonia The rubber forests are divided into braziliensis, belonging to the genus dis- what are known in the rubber regions as tributed throughout the section of South paths. These consist of from sixty to America now under discussion. The last one hundred trees each, the paths leading United States Census report says that in and out of the woods and crossing although rubber may be produced from streams. One such path is allotted to each any plant, such as common milkweed, of the native workers who tap the trees having a milky sap, still it can be obtained and gather the rubber. The size of a in commercial quantities only from tropi- plantation is known by the number of cal countries and from rubber trees. The paths that it contains. Hence, the size of census expert adds that, like other vege- the plantation owned by the Para Rubber table products, rubber differs in quality Plantation Company is about 75,000 paths, according to the place of derivation ; and making it of a size that renders even our that the best rubber is shipped from Para great cotton plantations or wheat farms and Manaos in South America. We have, insignificant by comparison. As two then, the fact of Government recognition thousand laborers will soon be at work, of the superiority of rubber coming from over eleven hundred now being actually the territory here brought to the attention employed on the Company's property, of the reader.

the reader will understand that eleven Let us see how operations in this rub- hundred paths are being worked. The ber country are conducted; let us see how Company expects to add extra workers the Indians, native to the region, gather at the rate of at least two thousand a the rubber. In the first place, the rubber year. tree resembles ordinary forest trees, such After the gathering the next process is as the English ash. The reader probably that of smoking, referred to in a previous supposes that rubber comes from the rub- paragraph. As the sap coagulates on ber plant which ornaments his home, or exposure to the air, it is necessary to which he has seen in conservatories ; but smoke it the day it is gathered. By that plant produces gutta-percha, and not following this rule the best rubber is rubber.

obtained. Under the influence of the In the rubber forest the rubber hunter smoke the sap hardens. The fuel that does most of his work in the forenoon, makes the fire that makes the smoke is when the sap runs most freely. He be- covered with ordinary palm nuts, which, gins by tapping the tree as high up from when fired, give forth a dense smoke. the ground as he can reach, neither boring In this smoke the worker holds the lump the tree with an auger, as we do our of sap or rubber on a kind of wooden maple trees, nor scarifying the tree as we paddle, turning it round and round until do our turpentine pine trees of the South. the operation is finished.

The lump of rubber is accumulated has the opportunity to pay for labor in comupon the end of the wooden paddle by modities, and for making a large profit first dipping it in the sap or milk, and on those commodities. This, of course, then holding it in the smoke. After will result in lowering the cost of producturning it round and round rapidly as tion. Even after labor is paid, it is a described for a minute, the milk hard- known fact that the cost of production of ens. The worker again thrusts the pad- rubber is less than that of any other proddle into the bowl of milk, and again uct save gold. Trading conditions are he holds it in the smoke, repeating this such, therefore, that the Rubber Company process until a ball of crude rubber of now under consideration can make handthe regulation size has been gathered. some profits. Let one of the Company's The Para Rubber Plantation Company ships take down, for example, ten thousand will ship thousands of these rubber hams, dollars' worth of commodities, consisting

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RUBBER FOREST ON THE RIO CASIQUIARE as we may call them, from Manaos daily. of calicoes, flour, jewelry, beads, and facOn the Company's property every tree tory-made clothing. This cargo of ten is scrupulously cared for, and it is a fact thousand dollars' worth of commodities known to science that if a rubber tree can be traded for many times the amount is not abused it will produce milk in in rubber or labor. The natives, indeed, abundance continuously for thirty or forty would rather be paid in this way than years.

in cash, as it suits them better, for of The purposes of this Company are those what avail is money in a region where of exploitation, trade, and the opening up of there is nothing for the laborer to buy? their rubber lands. In the matter of ex. The Company is establishing stores for ploitation it is impossible to prophesy, for trading purposes, and at these stores who can say what will be the limit of the the rubber-gatherers will do their trading. natural resources of this vast tract of virgin Thus, while the laborer will receive a fair rubber forest? In the matter of trade, the recompense, taking his pay in supplies Company has this twofold advantage. It purchased from the Company's stores, the system will afford a large profit for Para Rubber Plantation Company bears the Company, as no other traders can to the rubber industry, it is the purpose of come within a competing distance. This this article to inform the readers of The is precisely the system that made the Outlook that a fortune has been spent in great Hudson Bay Trading Company the the preliminary operations by the Com richest fur company in the world; it pany. This money has been spent in the was just this method of trading that laid acquiring of the property and the estabthe foundation of the great Astor fortune lishment of camps and trading posts, and when John Jacob Astor, the first, estab- it is now the purpose of the Company lished himself at Astoria.

to sell a limited amount of its treasury What are the other conditions that stock for further exploitation. The capipromise a great future and profit for all tal stock of the Company is $5,000,000, interested in the rubber industry? First of which only a limited amount will be sold of all, there is a market for every pound to the public. The stock will be sold at of rubber that can be brought into this its par value of $10.00 a share, and applicountry or into Europe. Rubber never cation will be made to list it on the has to go a-begging. A million pounds, exchanges. arriving unexpectedly any day, would find In view of the foregoing the officers of immediate sale without lowering the mar- the Company feel that they are very conket price. Para rubber sells for 88 cents servative in assuring investors that presa pound, with immediate prospect of fur- ent prospects warrant their looking forther advance, and by Para rubber is ward to a dividend of at least 6 per cent. meant the product that comes from the from the first year's earnings, and it will rubber forests of Venezuela as well as be seen at a glance that the natural availthe rubber regions adjoining; and while able resources of the Company are such Para rubber sells for 88 cents a pound, that this dividend should be immediately Central American and all other rubber and largely increased. brings only 50 cents. To produce this We desire to emphasize that the above rubber it costs the Para Rubber Planta- calculation of a 6 per cent. dividend is tion Company less than 35 cents, so that based on the employment of but two thouthe profit on each pound may be esti- sand men, but this number can be doubled mated at about 100 per cent. As already and trebled, and the Company owns suffistated, the Company owns about six mill- cient territory for the employment of forty ion trees. Each of these produces about thousand laborers. Two thousand laborfive pounds of rubber, which would make ers net 6 per cent., and there is room for for the entire property thirty million pounds the constant employment of forty thoua year-all of which facts convey some sand. The forty thousand are available, idea of the future for all who are nter- It is unnecessary to say more. The great ested in rubber, when that interest comes immediate prospective value of the stock through a Company whose plans are on is apparent at a glance. lines similar to those of the great Hudson The officers of the Company are: Bay Trading Company. As for markets, PRESIDENT, John CUDAHY, of the John even if the demand of American manufac- Cudahy Company, Chicago. turers should be entirely supplied at any VICE-PRESIDENT, ALLEN T. HAIGHT, time, the manufacturers of Europe would President Manhattan Terrace Company at once outbid each other to secure the of New York. raw material.

And as for the profits on TREASURER, ELMER B. MARTIN, S. K. rubber, made through European channels, Martin Lumber Co., Chicago. there is no better known instance of a for- SECRETARY, F. M. CRAWFORD, Exchange tune made than that accumulated by the Court Building, New York City. King of the Belgians through his owner

For further information and prospectus, ship of rubber forests in the Congo region giving full particulars relative to the Comin Africa.

pany, address the Para Rubber Plantation With the foregoing outline of what tlie Co., Main Office, Exchange Court Buildrubber industry is, and what relation the ing, New York City.

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