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Bribery: the act of giving or receiving a

reward as an inducement to official

or political action; penalty for, 151.
Broad construction of Federal Consti-

tution, 263.
Buchanan, James, a minority President,

Bureau, of Engraving, 253; of Rolls and

Library, 294; of Animal Industry,
301; of Corporations, 301; of Immi-
gration and Naturalization, 302; of
Manufactures, 302; of Statistics, 302;
of Ethnology, 308; of American Re-

publics, 308.
Burglary: the breaking into and en-

tering in the night time the dwelling
house of another with the intent to
commit a crime. In some States
burglary includes the breaking with
felonious intent into a house by day
as well as by night, and into other

buildings than dwelling houses.
Burr, Aaron, and the Presidency in 1801.

282; facts concerning, 415, 444.
Butler, Benjamin F., 394, 429.
By-laws: local

subordinate laws;
rules and regulations formed by a
private corporation for its own gov-

dered by o


, 22
,"144; det.
unting the lat
Timary, 161.

constitution, 217-222; the desire for
such bill in U.S., 336; first ten amend-
ments of Federal Constitution form a,

Bimetallism: the legal use of two metals
:-gold and silver-in the coinage or
specie currency of a country, at a
fixed relative value; relation to na-

tions, 392.
Blacklists, 417.
Blaine, James G., forbids occupancy of

Hawaii, 402.
Bland-Allison Act, purpose of, 392.
Blockade : the closing of the ports of the

country of an enemy in order to pre-
vent vessels from going in or passing

out, 431.
Blount, William, impeachment of, 239.
Board of Agriculture, 113.
Board of health, of boroughs, 55; of

cities, 62; department of health, 113,

Board of Pardons, 113.
Board of Property, 113.
Board of Revenue Commissioners, 114.
Boards of Arbitration, 418.
Body Politic: the collective body of the

people as politically organized, or as
exercising political functions; a na-
tion or community as constituted un-

der government.
Bond: the guarantee demanded from

public officers to insure faithful per-
formance of duty; an evidence of in-
debtedness issued by the United
States Government for money bor-
rowed, 250, 253. Such interest-
bearing certificates of indebtedness
are also issued by various corpora-
sions, such as cities, counties, rail-

roads, steel companies, etc., 179.
Borough, defined, 55; how made, 55;

chief burgess and other officers of, 55,

57; council of, 56; divisions of, 56.
Boundaries of Pennsylvania, 25; by

charter, 26; lines of, 27.
Boycott: to combine against an

ployer in such way as to withhold
social or business relations from him,
and to prevent others from holding

such relations with him, 417, 422.
Braddock's grave, 361,



and laws

tions in Star

259; moder

bent of 3
ed, 92; we

egard to,
assed agli
of the it

Cabinet: the advisers or counselors of

the President, a council consisting of
the first nine heads of the executive
departments; members of, 293; an

idea concerning, 421.
Calhoun, John C., dual executive plan

of, 415.
California, divided Electoral vote of,

279; demanded anti-Chinese legisla-

tion, 400; Chinese laborers in, 417.
Campaign, the political, 159.
Canada, head tax on Chinese, 401.
Canals, 185.
Candidate : one who offers himself, or is

put forward by others, as a suitable

person for an office, 161.
Canvass : a systematic effort to obtain

votes; a summing up of the votes cast
for the various candidates, 152, 158,

Capital: the seat of government of the

State or Nation; the accumulated



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product of labor; capital crimes are
those punishable by death. Location

of National capital, 440.
Capitation tax: a tax assessed on every

head or person without reference to

property; a poll tax, 248, 269.
Capitol: the building at Washington oc-

cupied by Congress, 441; the state-
house in which the Legislature of the

State assembles,
Carnegie Technical Schools, 210.
Caucus: a meeting of persons belonging

to a party, for the purpose of nomi-
nating candidates for office, or for
making arrangements to secure their
election; a political primary meeting,

Census: an official numbering of the

people, with statement of th lue
of their property, and other statistics

of the country; Bureau, 301.
Certificates of identification, 402.
Cervera, Admiral Pascual, 408.
Challenge: objection regarding the vote

of a person as not being a qualified
voter, 149; objection or exception to
proposed members of a jury or court,

Chancery: equity; a court of equity.
Charles the Second pays a debt, 30.
Charter: a written instrument, executed

in due form, granting rights, fran-

chises, or privileges, 381.
Charter of Privileges, 36.
Chase, Samuel, impeachment of, 239.
Chemistry, Bureau of, 301.
Chicago, railroad strike in, 327.
Chief burgess of borough, 55.
Chief Justice, 238, 287, 312.
Chile, strained relations with, 408.
China, treaty of 1881, 400.
Chinese, native-born are citizens, 18;

the naturalization of, forbidden, 20;

other facts concerning, 401, 402.
Chisholm vs. Georgia, 343.
Church and State, 330, 338.
Circuit: a large district of the country,

to which a Justice of the Supreme
Court makes periodical visits for the

administration of justice,
Circuit Court of Appeals, 315.
Circuit Courts, abolished, 314.

Circulating medium, 391.
Cities in Pennsylvania, 55–70, 170, 171.
Citizen, defined, 18; privileges of, 321,

Citizenship, defined, 18; application for,

154; relation to the right to vote, 251;
some children born abroad are citi-
zens, 276; does not necessarily imply

right to vote, 346.
Civic courage, 366.
Civic duty, 364.
Civic pride, 360.
Civics: the science of civil government.
Civil: pertaining to a citizen in his re-

lation to other citizens or to the

State; not criminal; not military.
Civil cases in Pennsylvania, 122, 126; in

Federal Courts, 314, 341.
Civil engineer, the city, 63.
Civil government: the regulation, con-

trol, and direction of the affairs of
civil society. Its function is to make
it easy to do right and difficult to do

Civil liberty, defined, 18.
Civil rights, relation to Congress, 347.
Civil service, 304; commission, 304; per-

sons classified, 304.
Civil service reform: the substitution of

business principles and methods for

the spoils system, 304.
Civil War, and the amendments, 344-

348, 432, 433.
Claims for slaves not to be paid, 251.
Claims of the Penn family, 38.
Classes of Senators, 235.
Clay, Henry, 282; first of modern Speak.

ers, 386.
Clearing ships, 270.
Clerk, township, 50; of elections, 52; of

councils, 56; of the courts, 75, 76; uf
the State senate, 89; of the State
house of representatives, 89; of the
Federal House, 234; of the Federal

Senate, 236.
Cleveland, Grover, uses troops to quell

riots, 327; a minority President, 283;

other facts concerning, 283, 372, 416.
Clinton, George, Vice President, 416.
Clôture or Closure: a rule of proce-

dure, adopted by the English Parlia-
ment in 1882, for the purpose of clos-

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ing discussion and bringing matters
under debate to an issue. The
Speaker of the House of Commons
may cut off discussion at the request
of 100 members, if less than 40 mem-
bers vote in the negative. In the
United States House of Representa-
tives, and in the State Legislatures,
the same object is attained by a bare
majority through moving the “previ-
ous question.” In the Senate there
is no clôture of any kind, and a reso-
lute minority can often thwart the
purposes of the majority. This con-
dition strongly tends to make the

Senate unsatisfactory.
Coasting trade, in relation to American

ships, 270.
Coins and coinage, 252; gold and silver,

292; minor coins, 395; relation to cir-
culating medium, 391; free coinage,

Collector of delinquent taxes, 67.
Collector of taxes, 49.
College and university council, members

of, 114.
Colman, Norman J., first Secretary of

Agriculture, 441.
Colon and Panama, cities, 428.
Colonies, government in, 42, 43.
Commerce: trade carried on between

different places or communities; ex-
change of merchandise on a large
scale; extended trade or trafic. Con-

has power to regulate, 251; In-
terstate Commerce Commission, 304.
Commerce and Labor, Secretary of, 301.
Commission: a written warrant or doc-

ument issued by a government invest-
ing a person with authority to per-
form the duties of an office, 102, 106;
a body of men selected for the per-
formance of some specified duty or
the execution of some special trust; a
brokerage or allowance made to an

agent for transacting business.
Commissioner (State) of banking, 110;

of forestry, 111; of insurance, 111; of
health, 113; of fisheries, 115; of high-

ways, 115, 173.
Commissioner of Education, 300.
Commissioner of Fisheries, 302.

Commissioner of Labor, 302.
Commissioner of Patents, 257.
Commissioner of Pensions, 300.
Commissioners, United States, 425.
Commissioners of Civil Service, 304.
Commit: to refer or intrust to a com-

mittee, as a bill or other legislation;
to send to prison; to put in charge of

a jailer.
Committee: a body of persons appointed

to examine or manage any matter.
Committees, enactment of laws expe-

dited by, 91; power in Congress, 242;
by whom appointed, 243; some im-

portant ones, 243.
Common carrier : one who undertakes

to carry goods or persons for hire, 182.
Common law: the unwritten law, that

receives its binding force from im-
memorial usage and universal cus-
tom as expressed in the judgments of
the courts and not from any statutes
now extant; recognized and estab-

lished, 341, 342.
Common pleas, court of, in Pennsyl-

vania, 75, 126; jurisdiction of, 126.
Common schools, 187-211.
Commonwealth: a term meaning the

common "weal” or happiness, and
properly applied to a body politic
having a free or popular form of

Commutation of sentence: the shorten-

ing of a prisoner's term of confine-
ment, or a mitigation of the severity

of the punishment.
Compromise : an agreement reached, by

the parties to a dispute, through con-

cessions made on each side.
Compromises of the Constitution, 234;

slave trade, 267; representation of
States, 330; direct taxes, 332; regu-
lation of commerce, 332; relation of

the States, 333.
Compulsory education, in Pennsylvania,

Concurrent: having the same right or

claim; dealing with the same ques-
tions; agreeing in the same act or

Concurrent powers, defined and enun

merated, 426.

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Confederate debt, not to be paid, 251.
Confirmation by the Senate: the ap-

proval or sanction given by the Sen-
ate in secret session after due consid-
eration of an appointment to office
made by the President. Thus he may
be said to act "by and with the ad-

vice and consent of the Senate.”
Congress (Continental), advises conven-

tions in each colony, 212,
Congress (of the Confederation), enacts

the Ordinance of 1787, its chief glory,
326; passes an Ordinance putting the

new Constitution into effect, 439.
Congress: the name given to the Na-

tional Legislature consisting of two
houses—the Senate and House of
Representatives. It is also the name
of so much of the continuous life of
that body as comes within the full
term of office of a Representative,-as

the Sixty-first Congress, 1909–1911.
Congress, National, 229; bicameral, 229;

representatives in, 230; delegates to,
230; ratio of representation in House,
230; number of Senators in, 232;
must meet at least once every year,
241; long and short sessions, 241;
extra sessions may be called by the
President, 241; the term, a Con-
gress," 241; known by numbers, 241;
regulation of adjournment of the
houses, 242; history of number of
special sessions, 242; members de-
barred from certain offices, 242; privi-
leges and disabilities of members, 242;
contests and quorum, 243; rules and
journals, 243; expulsions, 243; com-
mittees, 243; mode of passing bills,
244; powers of, 248; delegated powers
of, 248; power to tax, 248; duties
levied, 249; direct taxes, 249; implied
powers of, 261; powers denied to, 267–
271; powers of Congress alone, 268;
has power to regulate interstate com-
merce, 304; establishes and ordains
inferior Federal Courts, 257; admits
new States, 323; has power to estab-
lish territorial governments, 324; as a
city council, 365; right to prohibit
slavery in the Territories questioned,

Congressional Library, 306, 397.
Congressmen-at-large, 231.
Connecticut, claims of, 27; plan of dele-

gates in Convention of 1787, 331; re-
quires educational qualification of
voters, 434; ratifies Federal Constitu-

tion, 439.
Conservation of forests, 367.
Constable, of township, 47; of boroughs,

55; in cities, 62; in Philadelphia, 65.
Constitution: the fundamental, organic

law or principles of government of the
Nation or State; the law upon which
all future laws must be based; the
written instrument embodying such
law, 215; every constitution a growth,

215, 349.
Constitution of Pennsylvania, text in ap-

pendix, i-xxxii; development of, 212;
number of, 214; how amendments
may be made, 222; recent amend-

ments, 223.
Constitution of the United States, text in

appendix, xxxiii-xlvii; the supreme
law of the land, 226; a clear sketch of
the fundamentals of good govern-
ment, 226; how it may be amended,
328; compromises of, 330; discussions

concerning, 332; ratification of, 333.
Constitutional rights, 275-283.
Constructions of the Constitution, broad,

263; strict, 263; powers delegated and

implied, 262.
Consul: a person who represents his

country at an important foreign com-
mercial town. His duty is to protect
the rights, commerce, travelers, and
seamen of his country, and to increase
the traffic with his country. Duties,
etc., 289, 303; consular courts, 317;

consular service, 421.
Consulates, 422.
Contempt: disobedience to the rules,

orders, or process of a court, or of the
rules or orders of a legislative body;
such language or behavior as would
disturb proceedings or impair respect

due to authority.
Continental Congress, 212.
Contraband of war, 429.
Contracts, laws impairing, 221, 272.
Controller audits all city accounts, 61,

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Convention of 1787, men present, 352.
Conventions held for proposing amend-

ments and for ratifying the Constitu-

tion, 328, 438.
Conventions of political parties, 159,

Coolies evade the laws, 400.
Copyrights, how secured, 256.
Coroner, 78.
Corporate powers of cities, 67.
Corporations, origin and classes, 175;

how created, 175; defined, 175, 177;
power of the Legislature over, 177;
Governor approves charter, 179; limi-
tation of, by the government, other

facts concerning, 178, 179, 380, 390.
Corruption of blood, defined, 319.
Cortelyou, George B., first Secretary of

Commerce and Labor, 441.
Council, borough, 56; city, 59.
Counterfeiting, how punished, 254.
Counties in Pennsylvania, 71-81; how

erected, seats of government, officers,

and salaries, 71, 72.
Counting a quorum, 385.
County courts in Pennsylvania, 80, 126;

judges and jurisdiction, 126, 129.
County-township system, 43; the county

type, 41.
Court of Claims, 316, 397.
Courts in Pennsylvania, 125; county, 80,

126; superior, 132; supreme, 133;

officers of, 131.
Courts-martial, 261, 318.
Courts of equity, 368.
Courts of the United States, 227, 311;

power of Congress to establish in-

ferior, 257, 397.
Crawford, w. H., 282.
Credit, public, 250, 390.
Crimes, grave and petty, 126, 127.
Criminal courts in Pennsylvania, 126;

relation to juvenile courts, 127; Goy-

ernor's requisition, 99, 321.
Criminal prosecutions, 340.
Cruel and unusual punishments for-

bidden. 342.
Cuba, relation to the United States,

Cumulative voting, 178, 373.
Currency of the United States, 252, 391,
Customs officers, duties of, 250.

Dartmouth College, famous case before

the Supreme Court, 272.
Davis, Jefferson, 433.
Debt, of Pennsylvania, 83; limit of, 166;

in cities, 170; no imprisonment for,
221; of the United States, 250; of the
Confederacy of 1861, 251; of the Con-

tinental Congress, 329,
Decentralization of power, 43, 53.
Declaration of Independence, 337, 350.
Deed: a written instrument conveying

real estate to a purchaser, or person
to whom it is given; it is signed and
sealed in the presence of one or more

subscribing witnesses.
Deeds, recorder of, 76.
Defendant: the person against whom a

suit is brought.
De jure: by right, of right, by law; op-

posed to de facto.
Delaware, once a part of Pennsylvania

by purchase, 26; included in the third
judicial circuit, 314; not affected by
the Emancipation Proclamation, 344;

a banner State, 438.
Delegated powers, 248, 262, 409.
Delegates, rights of, in Congress, 230.
Democracy, defined, 15, 384,
Democratic party, strict construction a

principle of, 263.
Demonetization: withdrawing from use

as money; the refusal of the Govern-
ment to coin a certain metal into

money; of silver, 392.
Departments in great cities, 63.
Departments of government, 82, 83, 227.
Dependencies : territorial possessions be-

longing to the Nation, but not form-
ing an integral part of the United

States, 325.
Deposition: the written testimony of a

witness, made in due form of law, and
sworn to or affirmed before an au-

thorized magistrate.
Despotism : a government in which there

is practically no law but the will of

the ruler,
Dewey, Admiral George, On Naval

Board, 299, 407.
Directors of the poor, 79.
Direct vote for President, 371,
Direct tax, defined, 166,

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unts, 61,

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