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tendent, school-reports, examination-papers, and statistics; Cincinnati, Ohio, public schools, John Hancock, superintendent, reports, examination-papers, and educational statistics ; Cooper Union, New York, for labors in the interest of the working classes ; Cowperth wait & Co., Philadelphia, Warren's wall-maps and books; Grossins, John, Cincinnati, Ohio, patent ventilating school-house-stove; Harper Brothers, New York, school-books, school-slates, tablets, and charts ; Lea, H. C., Philadelphia, Pa. medical text-books, American Journal of Science; National School-Furniture Co., New York City, school-furniture; New York City department of public instruction, Prof. Kiddle, superintendent, school-books, school-reports, photographic views of schools, &c., and specimens of school-labors ; Ross, Joseph L., Boston, Mass., school-furniture; Schedler, Joseph, Jersey City Heights, N. J., terrestrial and celestial globes ; Steiger, Ernest, New York, 7,000 specimens of different American newspapers and periodicals, school-publications; Toner, Dr. J. M., Washington, D. C., collection of the reports of medical, institutions, hospitals, &c.; Wait, William B., educational apparatus; Wilson, Hinkle & Co., Cincinnati, Ohio, school-atlases and other school-publications.
Diplomas of merit or honorable mention.—Baltimore, Ma., public schools, reports of the board and of superintendent, examination-papers in departments of writing and drawing; Barnes, A. S., & Co., New York, school-publications; Bridges, Lyman, for building the American school-house; Canton City, Ohio, school-reports and examination-papers in educational department; Cleveland, Ohio, public schools, school-reports and statistical chart of education in Cleveland ; Columbus, Ohio, public schools, school-reports and papers; Dayton, city of, Ohio, school-reports and examination-papers; Enthoffer, J., United States Coast-Survey, Washington, D. C.; Fremont, Ohio, public schools, school-reports and examination-papers ; Leeds, Lewis W., New York, drawing for ventilation and heating of school-houses; Lippincott, J. B., & Co., Philadelphia, Pa., school. publications; Lowell Institute, in Boston, Mass., dissemination and promotion of science; Newton, Mass., school-reports and educational statistical charts; Scribner, Armstrong & Co., publishers of Guyot's Maps ; Shattuck, G. M., Boston, Mass., school-desks and seats; Springfield, n., schoolreports, educational statistics; Toledo, Ohio, department of public schools, D. F. De Wolf, superintendent, school-reports, educational statistics and examination-papers; Worcester City, Mass., schools, (A. P. Marble, superintendent,) school and statistical reports.
In referring to the Exposition at Vienna, I have thought it far more useful to the educators of the country to print a variety of opinions expressed by others than to give them only my own. On my arrival at Vienna Dr. J. W. Hoyt, originally appointed as an honorary commissioner, had, by the faithfulness and efficiency of his services, been selected as one of the special commissioners, and was the only one present; having in addition acted as chairman of the jury on education, he was specially familiar with whatever there was in the Exposition bearing on this subject, and gave me all the aid which his position and familiarity with this subject in the Exposition put at his control. I am also under special obligation to Baron Schwarz-Senborn, General Director of the Exposition, and to numerous other officers representing our own and other countries, who spared no pains to make my visit pleasant and profitable. By means of the advantages thus afforded, I was able to reach the points of interest with the least possible inconvenience and loss of time, and study the most valuable and essential features of this Exhibition, in the opinion of those best qualified to judge, unequaled in vastness and instructiveness as an epitome of the world's condition and progress by any previous attempt of the kind.
Comments of the press. American educational exhibition.- A writer in the Freie Pädagogische Blätter of June 21, 1873, says:
I have traveled a great deal and have seen many rural school-houses, have taught in several myself, but such a school-room as this I have never before seen anywhere. It is almost provoking to see how the Americans produce something so beautiful from such a cheap and simple material, (wood,) and then to remember how insufficient our school-houses are, which often are erected at a considerable expense. The Americans
are very practical in the erection of their school-houses and are masters in combining the beautiful with the useful. This school-room is calculated for forty-eight children; and how roomy, how airy! It does an old teacher's heart good to see this, and he sighs, "Alas, if this were so everywhere!” * * * The only fault to be found with the American school-benches is that there is no difference in size and in the relative position of their different parts. * * * The physical geography is excellently represented on large maps, to the great honor of M. Guyot, whose name they bear.** In the text-books, which lie about on the desks, we were particularly pleased with the good, thick paper, something which our own “blotting-paper-text-book publishers" might make note of.
This writer also expresses his admiration of the colored natural-history-charts, the charts showing the different colors, “ something new to the German schools,” and the calculating-machine; but confesses his surprise “ that America, the home of machinery, in its rural school does not exhibit a single physical instrument, not even a thermometer."
A subsequent number of the same journal speaks admiringly of the “large photographs, representing truly palatial school-houses, from different States of the Union," and of the stereoscopic views showing the interior of the school-rooms, with the children in their seats ; thus we get a vivid picture of Ainerican school-life, and a picture of the most cheerful description.” Prang's natural-history-series is highly commended; also the photographic views used as a means of imparting geographical instruction. The style and arrangement of the Boston slates are considered worthy of special attention and commendation and the single Boston desk and seat is highly praised. The mathematical objects are considered “too small;' but the writer “ left the educational exhibit of the United States very well pleased on the whole."
The Neue Freie Presse, of Vienna, says of the American school-house : We have before us a "model school, an ideal which the majority of American rural school-honses, many of which are as yet only log-houses, will, in all probability, not attain for a long time to come. * * * The chairs are constructed in a very practical manner. * * * In the educational department in the Exposition-building, the variety and the beauty of the apparatus and text-books on exhibition, the magnificence of the city school-houses, as shown by models and photographs, excite our admiration, which, however, is considerably diminished by looking at the work done by the scholars. For this convinces us that the results obtained by the American schools bear no proportion to the vast amount of money spent for them, and that they are far behind the European schools. The written essays from a German school in Ohio actually swarın with calligraphic, orthographic, and grammatical mistakes.
(This is illustrated by a number of examples.) The Vienna Volksblatt says:
The arrangement of a separate scat for each scholar, and the shape of the desks, which prevents any crippling of the tender bodies of tho children, deserve the bighest praise. Worthy of admiration also are the maps exhibited, from which the more mature youth learns to know his pative land.· We note especially an atlas of Pennsylvania, which, in completeness, clearness, and fullness of explanation, is quite superior to what we are accustomed to place in the hands of our children. Tbe principle “ For children only the best is good enough” finds its happy realization in the American school-louse. Not less instructive and worthy of admiration are the maps from which the younger ones are taught to know the earth and its inhabitants. *** * Prominent among the charts and tablets is “An analysis of the Constitution of the United States," which on the other side of the ocean is counted as a part of the teaching-apparatus. When will our children learn, while yet in school, what are the rights and duties of a good citizen and what it means to live in a constitutional state ?
The Vienna Tagesblatt praises the arrangement of seats and desks and the character and variety of the school-utensils, these “giving a wonderful illustration of the excellent school-regulations of the United States. The school-house is the bright spot in the American exhibition.”
The London Engineering says of American school-furniture:
There is no luxury whatever in the accommodations, though elegance and comfort are not entirely eliminated. Our schools and colleges would greatly gain in appearance if a little more attention were only paid to those two points. Austerity and gloom, almost proverbial, seem to be the leading features of our school-system ; and is would doubtless be a progressive step to borrow a little of the American amenity.
The Danube speaks in the following terms of the American school-house : It is composed of a study-room and recitation-room. These things should serve us as models for our schools; for, what with their lighting, ventilation, and healthfulness, they leave absolutely pothing to be desired. The books, the maps, and other instruments of teaching are also perfect. They prove conclusively that primary instruction in the United States has been developed to an extent unknown in Europe.
Foreign educational exhibitions.—“The English educational exhibition," the Freio Pädagogische Blätter says, " is even less than unassuming and really offers next to nothing." A series of maps intended as aids for instruction in natural sciences, some geographical maps, and particularly a geological map of Queensland are highly commended. A mineralogical collection is considered worthy of mention; also an exhibition of Bibles printed in all the different languages of the world. The London Engineering says of the French exbibition :
The French gallery shows that much attention and a large share of talent are concentrated upon devising the best means of primary instruction, of smoothing the asperities and rendering the first stages of learning easy and agreeable to youth. We know no country in which more vigorous and successful efforts are made to encourage and stimulate the young student. There are arithmometers, to facilitate the simple rules; geographical reliefs in plaster, to give accurate notions of the fundamental definitions ; variously-colored maps, showing by their difference of shades the altitudes of countries above the sea-level; and models of solids, with sections, to render tangible the principles of practical geometry. After a careful examination of the various systems of drawing, we think that the French department is pre-eminently the best. We mean the course of linear drawing, with zinc- and plaster- models of penetrations and architectural designs, as well as the card-board-arrangements for descriptivo geometry, of he Christian Brothers.
The Bund remarks :
The final impression made upon our mind on leaving the French exhibition is about the following: Higher instruction, as far as it can be judged by such an exhibition, seems to flourish, also the elementary schools of the city of Paris, while in the provinces both higher and elementary instruction seem to be neglected."
Of the German exhibition the Freie Pädagogische Blätter says: “The German educational exhibition is next to the Austrian, which, of course, from local causes was especially favored-the most complete of the whole Exposition.” Regret is expressed that it was not arranged on a uniform plan. “Objects from one and the same state are placed in different parts of the building, which prevents a clear and comprehensive view of the whole.” Among the aids to instruction especially commended are “the pasteboard-models of blossoms and other portions of plants on a very large scale, exceedingly useful in classes where it is impossible to procure fresh plants for every scholar; *** the physiological and anatomical models of Fleischmann, of Nürnberg, and Ziegler, of Freiberg; the physical apparatus for elementary schools; colored charts for the illustration of botany and natural history, all on a very large scale; the globes, tellaria, maps, and other aids to geographical instruction; the drawing-copies and models; and the chomical laboratory exhibited by Hagersdorff, one of the finest objects in the educational exhibition." Tho work done by scholars in Realschools and industrial schools is highly commended. Among the specimens of women's work, the amount of useless embroidery is commented upon somewhat severely, and it is remarked that “this branch of instruction is in most cases far from being what it ought : to be."
The Bund, an official Swiss paper, in noticing the German exhibition, makes special mention of the collections of ores, minerals, and fossil-plants; the new apparatus for instruction in mathematical geography, which meets a long-felt want; the aids to object-teaching, with a view to instruction in natural sciences in elementary and secondary schools; the wall-charts, for instruction in botany and zoölogy ; and the aids to instruction of the blind. Of the work performed by scholars this paper says, (referring especially to the industrial schools of Hamburg and Würtemberg :) “the drawilgs, plaster-casts, &c., show us what the youth of our age are learning and how greatly the community is profited by creating such institutions. We know full well that the work of the scholars which is on exhibition is not in every respect the proper criterion for the standard of excellence of a school, for talented scholars will produce
astonishing results, even in a badly-conducted school; but the mass and variety of the work on exhibition nevertheless shows that a great deal is taught and a great deal is learned." The drawings from several industrial schools in Bavaria are excellent and great admiration is expressed for the work done by the Munich Kindergarten.
The same paper also says of the Swiss educational exhibition :
The preliminary exhibition held in Winterthür, in February, 1873, was far more imposing than the one at Vienna. Many very valuable educational objects, collections, apparatus, maps, &c., have been sent to Vienna in vain, because they have either not been unpacked or are totally hidden from view. The most significant feature of the exbibition, as illustrating the progress of education and the changes in the charactor of instruction durivg the last few years, is the collection of text-books, apparatus, and charts for instruction in natural science. A set of these charts, adapted for every grade of instruction, attracted universal attention in Vienna. The Zürich exhibition displayed a collection of these objects for primary and secondary schools as complete as we have not seen them in any other canton or country.
The Bund, speaking of what has been done for education in Zürich during the last few years, says:
The authorities have thoroughly understood the spirit of the times. They have succeeded in bringing the great achievements of science into a happy relation with the elementary schools, and ihereby with the education of the whole nation. A healthy and beneficial mutual relation bas been established between the university and the primary school, such as is scarcely found anywhere else.
The Freie Pädagogische Blätter says:
We must make special mention of all the aids for instruction in natural sciences, for these are truly admirable in their selection and arrangement, all of the three natural kingdoms being well represented by a school-collection and by a scholar's collection, The object of the former is explained by its name, the latter is collected by the scholars themselves. Exact rules regulate the manner of making these collections. The collection of pbysical apparatus seems to have been made on the principle "little, but good.” The aids for geographical instruction are equal to the demands of the time. Also by magnificent illustrations are the young made acquainted with the history of their nation.
The Bund pronounces the Austrian educational exhibition “ magnificently gotten up and beautifully arranged. The material for every grade of instruction is exhibited in natural divisions and groups corresponding with each other. The only novelty in the primary livision is a rotating-slate of galvanized rubber, which, if durable, will doubtless be introduced into inary schools. The herbaria of the scholars in an elementary school in Styria are highly praised. The collection of physical apparatus is very fine; also the anatomical preparations for superior schools. For the first instruction in geology and paleontology the geological pictures will render good service."
This paper says of the schools in Vienna: All the city-schools are well managed, have excellent text-books and apparatus and, in most cases, energetic and enlightened teachers. In the infants' pavillion we read a placard telling us the following: Crèche, where poor parents, during their hours of work, (from 6 a. m. to 7 p. m.,) can take their children aged between two weeks and two years for a daily charge of 3 to 5 krenzers,”(14 cents to 2 cents.) Then follow the addresses of seven such crèches in different parts of Vienna.
The Freie Pädagogische Blätter calls special attention to the maps of the Imperial Geological Institute and to the collections of minerals, crystals, plants, and prepared insects, of which, as in nearly all the European exhibitions, there were a number. “All the aids for instruction in mineralogy, geology, zoölogy, anthropology, botany, &c., were brilliantly represented by the famous public and private institutions of the city of Vienna." "There was a perfect wealth of aids to instruction in physics and chemistry. The number of globes was also very large. The maps of Fuchs, on black-slated paper and printed dimly in colors, were mucb admired. They are of decided value just because one can write on them, and that thus the dumb map gradually becomes a living and speaking one." A collection of drawing-models and utensils is highly commended.
This journal also finds especially admirable the geographical part of the Hungarian exhibition. The maps are “in the bighest degree creditable.” The “ reliefmaps” are particularly excellent. “Illustrations of natural bistory in the shape of charts show that the study of nature is not neglected in the Hungarian schools. Col. jections of “admirably-prepared insects, anatomical specimens, and elegantly-finished
physical apparatus complete the aids for instruction in natural sciences.” “For objectlessons there are a few, but very useful, pictures. In some of these we see an idea which a future time will carry out-group-pictures executed in a truly artistic manner." Mention is made of "two-seated school-benches," “ drawing-copies,” and “a rich collection of needle-work done by scholars.” “In quantity Hungary might have given us more, but as regards the quality we must express our entire satisfaction.”
The Blätter commends the simplicity and practical character of the Swedish schoolbouse, and says:
The Swedish government does more than almost any other European government for good school-bonses, especially in a sanitary point of view. The Swedish government not only distributes plans of school-louses, but accompanies these by a printed pamphlet, giving numerous and valuable hints as regards the location and surroundings of the school, the quantity of space to be allowed to each scholar, the different methods of ventilation, &c. A very important problem, the construction of schoolbenches, may be almost considered as satisfactorily solved in the Swedish school-house. The seats which are exhibited have, it is true, as yet, only fat boards, which deny the scholar every comfort, and the slightly slanting position of the board does not compensate for this defect; but not one of the seats is without a back, which, although essential to a confortable seat, is found in but very few of our school-bouses. We must draw special attention to the fact that in the Swedish school-house there is a separate seat for each child. The long school-bench should not be tolerated auywhere, bat separate seats should be introduced into all schools, as the Swedles and Americans have done. A peculiar feature of the school-room is a number of guns and a drum, used in the military gymnastics and the practice of arms, which forms an important branch of instruction in all the elementary schools. Religious instruction is obligatory and occupies a considerable number of hours every week. Of the 212 objects exhibited in the Swedish school-house, no less than 20 have reference to religious instruction. The only object among them deserving attention is a collection of pictures for instruction in biblical history, which are really valuable. All the books in the Swedish school-house are got up in the cost practical manner; the binding is elastic and cannot be torn. This also applies to the people's library, which, numbering several hundred volumes, forms a specialty of the Swedish school-house. Fifteen years ago the first people's libraries were established in Sweden, and now, in accordance with the regulations of the Swedish school-law, nearly every village possesses one. No better place could be found for it than the school-house and no better librarian than the teacher. Among tho aids for instruction in natural history the glass cases with insects deserve special mention on account of their practical arrangement. These cases have not only glass lids and sides, but also glass bottoms, and the insect can, therefore, be inspected from all sides. The physical apparatus which is exhibited excels through accuracy and the greatest possible simplicity. We were struck with a large drawing-slate made of dull glass, which forms an excellent drawing-surface for colored pencils. A part of the drawing-copies are in the shape of gigantic wall-maps. The calculating-machines are few in number, which may be accounted for by the circumstance that instruction in arithmetic in Sweden aims more at rapid skill than at a clear understauding of the arithmetical process; but a calculating-inachine illustrating the decimal system is considered worthy of mention. An interesting feature of the exhibition is a collection of aids for instruction in vocal music, which is much cultivated in Sweden.
The same journal remarks thatOu entering the Belgian educational exhibition, one sees at once that in Belgium, with its busy marts of industry, but little has been done for the education of the masses. The Belgian department excels in the many mathematical objects made of tio. The collection of apparatus for perspective drawing is of real value, as well as the wire network, also for drawing purposes. In a calculating-machine we were struck with the combination of vertical and borizontal wires. A beautiful map of West Flanders, in relief, painted blue and the towns marked by shining white spots, which can be seen from afar, is extremely useful for large classes. The female-work exhibited is characterized by simplicity and usefulness. Besides the objects mentioned we find nothing in the Belgian department which is worthy our attention. Of Italy it also says:
The Italian educational exhibition shows us more than anything else the transalpina superior and special schools. Tho technical schools particularly are represented in a brilliant manner. This is not astonishing, for, in a country which has produced the men who pierced Mont Cénis, we expect to find a high degree of technical education. The elementary schools are not so well represented. A school-bench is exhibited with a movable seat. We saw a sinilar arrangement in the French exhibition, but we cannot admire it. There is absolutely no necessity for turning seats. The fiuest part of the Italian elementary-school-exhibition is the female-work. Here we see the artistic trait