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"Now travel, and foreign travel more particularly, restores to us in a great degree what we have lost. When the anchor is heaved, we double down the leaf, and for a while at least all effort is over. The old cares are left clustering round the old objects; and at every step, as we proceed, the slightest circumstance amuses and interests. All is new and strange. We surrender ourselves, and feel once again as children. Like them, we enjoy eagerly; like them, when we fret, we fret only for the moment: and here the resemblance is very remarkable; for if a journey has its pains as well as its pleasures (and there is nothing unmixed in the world), the pains are no sooner over than they are forgotten, while the pleasures live long in the memory.
Nor is it surely without another advantage. If life be short, not so to many of us are its days and its hours. When the blood slumbers in the veins, how often do we wish that the earth would turn faster on its axis, that the sun would rise and set before it does; and, to escape from the weight of time, how many follies, how many crimes are committed! Men rush on danger, and even on death. Intrigue, play, foreign and domestic broil, such are their resources; and, when these things fail, they destroy themselves.
Now, in travelling we multiply events, and innocently. We set out, as it were, on our adventures; and many are those that occur to us, morning, noon, and night. The day The day we come to a place which we have long heard and read of, and in Italy we do so continually, -it is an era in our lives; and from that moment the very name calls up a picture. How delightfully, too, does the knowledge flow in upon us, and how fast! Would he who sat in a corner of his library, poring over his books and maps, learn more or so much in the time, as he who, with his eyes and his heart open, is receiving impressions all day long from the things themselves? How accurately do they arrange themselves in our memory, towns, rivers, mountains; and in what living colours do we recal the dresses, manners, and customs of the people! Our sight is the noblest of all our senses, 'It fills the mind with most ideas, converses with its objects at the greatest distance, and continues longest in action without being tired." Our sight is on the alert when we travel; and its exercise is then so delightful, that we forget the profit in the pleasure.
"Like a river, that gathers, that refines as it runs, like a spring, that takes its course through some rich vein of mineral, we improve, and imperceptibly nor in the head only, but in the heart. Our prejudices leave us one by one. Seas and mountains are no longer our boundaries; we learn to love, and esteem, and admire beyond them. Our benevolence extends itself with our knowledge. And must we not return better citizens than we went? For the more we become acquainted with the institutions of other countries, the more highly must we value our own."— Samuel Rogers.
"Even of those who wish to profit by travelling, there are many who do not sufficiently consider that, to see and hear with understanding, they should come provided with some other stores besides a purse and a passport; and that one who is unacquainted with the
language, history, and geography of the country through which he is passing, is as incapable of gaining information from intercourse with foreigners as if he were deaf or dumb. Necesse est facere sumptum qui quærit lucrum ;' or, as Johnson has well said, must carry knowledge with him, if he would bring home knowledge.' J. W.-Quarterly Review.
"The enjoyment of travelling, like other pleasures, must be purchased at some little expense; and he whose good humour can be ruffled by every petty inconvenience he may chance to encounter, had unquestionably better remain at home." - Captain Hamilton.
Travelling may be said to be a state of great pleasure mixed with great annoyance; but by management the former may be much increased, and the latter proportionably diminished.
"Wherever you are, it is good to fall into the customs and habits of the place; for though sometimes they may be a little inconvenient, it is generally much more so to run counter to them. Those who have their own way never succeed, but at a much greater cost than success is worth." Walker's Original.
"One of the greatest annoyances in travelling is continual exposure to imposition; but this may, by good management, be frequently avoided, either altogether or in part, as by bad management it may be greatly increased.
My observation tells me there is no preventive against these different kinds of imposition so sure as a certain quiet composed bearing, indicative at once of self-respect, and of consideration for others. I have made many experiments in the matter, under various circumstances, both in this country and abroad, and the result seems to me to be, that by such behaviour you insure greater attention at a lower cost than by any other course; and having adopted such a course, I think that on the Continent you may still be exposed, when actually travelling, to imposition to the extent of about ten per cent. upon your expenditure, to which, for comfort's sake, and to avoid the chance of being wrong, which frequently happens in small matters, it is wise to submit, without keeping yourself in a constant fever and state of distraction from the objects only worthy of attention." Walker's Original.
The reflections of Tristram Shandy on this head are not to be surpassed: - "Yet, notwithstanding all this, and a pistol tinderbox, which was, morever, filched from me at Sienna, and twice that I paid five pauls for two hard eggs, once at Radicofani, and a second time at Capua,—I do not think a journey through France or Italy, provided a man keep his temper all the way, so bad a thing as some people would make you believe. There must be ups and downs, or
* Quoted in Brockedon's Road Book.
how the deuce should we get into valleys, where nature spreads so many tables of entertainment? It is nonsense to suppose they will lend you their voitures to be shaken to pieces for nothing; and unless you pay twelve sous for greasing your wheels, how should the poor peasant get butter for his bread? We really expect too much; and for the livre or two above par for your supper and bed, at the most they are but one shilling and ninepence halfpenny. Who would embroil their philosophy for it? For Heaven's sake and your own, pay it-pay it with both hands open!" - Sterne.
"Not the least important of the requisites for a traveller, is the temper in which he should undertake to perform his journey. It is not sufficient for a pleasant excursion on the Continent that he has money enough to meet his expenses. The comfort with which an Englishman who understands the word better than any other — is likely to enjoy an excursion in lands where the language, manners, and customs are so different from his own, will greatly depend upon his carrying with him a ready stock of good temper and forbearance, which have more certain currency than gold in the purchase of civilities and efforts to please. A man will see more, enjoy more, and learn more, by carrying with him his head and heart in good travelling trim, than can be obtained by having his pockets full of letters of credit, without this necessary state of mind and feelings. It is a fact deeply to be regretted, that many vulgar and half-witted Englishmen think, if they leave home with money, they can command anything; that it is mean to be civil, and beneath them to feel grateful for any efforts to oblige them made by those for whose services they pay. The presumption of our countrymen is proverbial on the Continent; fortunately, the exceptions are numerous, and we are spoken of as an unaccountable people, when some men of unquestionable character and fortune display examples of suavity and true gentility which cannot be surpassed on earth: the foreigner is thus puzzled to know how to estimate our national character. It is a vulgar prejudice, that all foreigners cheat the English, and that caution is necessary to guard against the constant attempts to overreach them. That some such characters are met with, cannot be denied; but those whose rapacity is thus made to characterise a class have been often created by the meanness and prejudices and thoughtless extravagance of the travellers themselves. It is a bad feeling to set out with, that you must be always on your guard. Custom has established certain charges, and any deviation from them is soon detected; but it too often happens that things are demanded by the traveller which are very expensive, or difficult to procure: the charge for these is protested against as extravagant, though the injustice is entirely on the side of the grumbler. Firmness in not paying more than what is customary, unless such extraordinary trouble has been given, will always succeed; and good humour will lower a bill more readily than violence." - Brockedon.
"It may not be useless to inquire why, with good hearts and gene
rally ample means, the English should be considered neither generous nor always just; and seldom, we are afraid, agreeable.
"That a permanent residence on the Continent is injurious to the English character (in every sense of the word), there cannot be a question. But there is another description of our countrymen, the Summer Tourist-many of whom, without any intention of doing wrong, contribute in no inconsiderable degree to bring us into contempt.
"It is amongst the great and often-noticed faults of the Englishman in a foreign land (and particularly of the class we allude to), that he seems to think every man's hand is against him, and that he assimilates himself with difficulty to the habits of the people amongst whom he resides.
"His self-created troubles commence on landing, and follow him like a spectre on the road. If the postilions wish to change employers, as is customary when they meet a carriage coming in the direction of the station they have left, the Englishman generally objects, in the belief that something sinister is intended; and we have heard the sharp No, no, no!' from within, confirmed by the travelling-servant from without, in an oracular Milord ne change jamais;' when it has been obvious that he must have been a gainer by the proposed arrangement.
"Arrived at his resting-place, he either finds or makes fresh grievances. In a German hotel there are generally beds in the best room; but this is so offensive to the notions of an Englishman, when travelling with his family, that he immediately demands, rather than asks for, a sitting-room, which the landlord has not to give-and remains in an ill-humour during the remainder of the evening, under the impression that it has been reserved for some more honoured guest. This often leads him to quarrel with his dinner, to dispute his bill, and to proceed on his journey with the conviction that he is a much injured, rather than a most unreasonable, person.
"A great deal of this ill-humour is increased by his being unable to explain himself in the language of the country, and by his finding the German menials unusually slow at rightly comprehending any other, particularly those specimens of the 'unknown tongue,' of which our countrymen so frequently make use upon the Continent. Indeed, it is surprising how some of them are able to get on at all. Not only what Horne Tooke called the 'wings of speech,' but one half of its body is often cut off; and in place of nouns and verbs, the medium of communication is reduced to mere nouns.
"On his arrival at his destination, he finds that the handsome exterior of his hotel is a deception, the rooms it incloses being comparatively small, hot, or inconvenient, and, without a single exception, bed-rooms or salles publiques. The table-d'hôte is a style of dinner opposed to all his home-born notions of comfort or enjoyment. As the meats are carved by the attendants, he is teased by being offered dishes for which he has no inclination, and sees those he desires to taste vanish from before him-never to return. The wines of the country he deems no better than vinegar;-the carte presents a list of names that recal no accustomed flavour; and as their prices are as unintelligible as their names, he is puzzled what better beverage to select.
"It is thus, without any intention of doing wrong, and merely from a disregard to the feelings and opinions of others, that many of our countrymen who go abroad produce so unfavourable and false an impression of the national character. If we would follow the sensible advice of Mr. Brockedon, by leaving home with a determination to be pleased - if we would submit cheerfully to those petty overcharges which in a summer excursion in England we should scarcely notice if we would fall easily into the customs of those around us, and not consider that every stranger who approaches us has a sinister intention - if we would believe that habits may be endurable though different from our own, and that the laws of a country are formed rather for its own regulation than for our annoyance, we should more truly enjoy the tours upon which so many thousands are annually spent, and make the inhabitants of the Continent more disposed to believe that an Englishman is not a particularly disagreeable person.
"It may seem easy to give this advice, and to say, with Master Faithful, Take it coolly! to the traveller who, after a long day's journey under a powerful sun, has to encounter the vexations of a late arrival at a crowded hotel, and to perplex his already-troubled brain in vain attempts at making himself intelligible, or in resisting what he deems an unreasonable demand; but till we can bear these things with greater equanimity than hitherto, and avoid becoming mean because we are apprehensive of being cheated, we must be content to acknowledge, that there is some (though not a very flattering) resemblance in the portraits for which we have sat." W. M. T.
"It is particularly desirable to make the necessary arrangements with respect to luggage, passports, &c. a little beforehand, and not to be in a feverish heat and bustle at the last moment, with the chance of forgetting something of importance. Setting out at one's ease is a good omen for the rest of the journey. With respect to luggage, I recommend the greatest compactness possible, as being attended with constant and many advantages; and, in general, I think people are rather over-provident, in taking more than they want. Avoid being intrusted with sealed letters, or carrying any thing contraband, for yourself or others. The necessity for concealment causes a perpetual anxiety, and has a tendency to destroy that openness of manner which is often very serviceable in getting on. Avoid also commissions."-Walker's Original.
Jamque ascendebat collem, qui plurimus urbi
Imminet, adversasque aspectat desuper arces. - VIRG.
The quickest mode of acquiring a good idea of any place, is to take the earliest opportunity of ascending some tower or eminence, from which there is a commanding view, with some person who can point out the most remarkable objects. If this is followed up by wandering about without a guide, and trusting solely to your own observation, you will be as well acquainted with the localities in a few hours, as the generality of travellers would be in a week, or perhaps better, because