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MAY 12, 1830.)

The Tariff

(H. OF R.

North take their flour and corn, and would desire to fur- | and I believe it might, but for the indiscriminate zeal and nish them with salt in exchange. Both are necessaries, for unwarrantable violence of a part, at least, of those who rich and poor, and the exchange might be mutually bene- manifest great hostility against all manufactures. I thiuk ficial. It has been carried on to some extent, and was par- nothing is wantiug to effect beneficial amendments, but a ticularly beneficial during the late war.

temper of moderation and forbearance which will result It has been urged, with great spirit, that certain mono- in mutual compromise. polists have charged an extravagaut price for salt, and It has been urged with warmth by a number who have oppressed the people. I am as hostile to monopolies and spoken , upon the subject, that salt is a necessary of life, monopolists as any man. But one case of the kind, I be used by the poor as well as the rich, and that on that lieve, is knotrn. Where is that i Far in the interior, where account the duty ought to be repealed. It has been the a duty of five or ten cents could not in the smallest degree wisdom and policy of all civilized nations to produce, if affect the price. Monopolies in this free and enterprising possible, within their own country, the necessaries of life. country, can never exist to any considerable extent, and is such policy questionable i Our own wants and distresses, they will be of short duration. A high price will bave the and especially the distress of the poor for salt within the effect to call forth the efforts of the enterprising-new salt recollection of some gentlemen who now hear me, ought springs will be discovered, and transportation will be facili. to be a conclusive answer upon this point. The duty paid tated--the price will be reduced-good will come out of upon salt for a number of years past, has not increased, evil. Our legislation ought not, in the present case, to be although the number of inhabitants has doubled. The influenced by these cases of complaint, because we are le- manufactories have increased as fast as the people. Destroy gislating for the nation; and if our laws are particularly these manufactories, and the price of salt would not prepared for tha few exceptions pamed, they will be illy diminished, even in time of friendly intercourse with foadapted to the wants and interests of the nation; and, be- reign nations, because present prices would not more than side, it is a perfect answer in the present case, that our pay a reasonable freight, and, if twice the quantity were legislation could not afford the relief so much desired. imported, it could not be brought in ballast, as at present,

The gentleman from Georgia, (Mr. Wayne) who has for little or no compensation ; por would merebants conjust taken his seat, is greatly displeased with the proposi- sent to do it, were it not for their manufacturing competi. tion to reconsider the vote of yesterday. He speaks iofcors. But suppose any interruption of our friendly relations barsh language, and calls it bargain and sale. Sir, I trust should occur, what would then be our situation Rich and gentlemen will not be deterred from doing their duty by poor, but especially the poor, must suffer as they have done, any censure of denunciation from any quarter. Our whole for the want of salt. As an independent nation, we ought Government, from its commencement to this time, has been not to be subject to such casualties, but we ought to have a system of concession and compromise. We could not the means of subsistence within ourselves. exist if it were otherwise. By compromise, I mean honor I am ready at any time to examine and revise the tariff. able and just compromise-I mean that mutual forbear. I have no doubt it can be improved; but I protest against ance and regard to the interests of others which should taking a single article. No portion of the country has been induce each to yield something of what might seem most in my opinion) so severely taxed as that which I reprefor the interest of his constituents

. We are legislating for sent: and no interest so severely taxed as the pavigating all. The South have called upon us loudly to afford them interest. Shall they have no relief! Is salt the only arrelief. They complain of great distress. They ask us to ticle affecting manufactures worthy of our potice! I have yield, to comproniise. Distress is comparative, and the always believed that we could easily ameliorate the politirelief called for may be questionable but that the North, cal tariff of 1828, without injury to any interest. the majority, are bound to examine and investigate the sub Salt is an essential of life. The importance of its manuject, I have no doubt. We are bound to examine, because facture cannot be questioned. The greater part used is it may be the duty of the North to yield something of their pow manufactured in this country. The manufactories are owu interest by way of compromise. The various interests increasing and improving. The price of salt, owing to the of the country are a subject of compromise, and so are the competition of manufacturees and importers, is kept pretty various manufactures of the country: One part of the steady and low, and will be gradually reduced. I trust, country produces one article of manufacture, and another under such circumstancns, we shall not repeal the duty on part of the country another article. If a reduction of du- salt, and that the vote of yesterday, which I think passed ties be proposed, the whole subject ought to be thoroughly without mature consideration, will be recousidered. and candidly examined. The subject ought not to be The subjoined table shows the quantity imported into touched under the influence of local or political feeliogs. the country from the year 1801 to 1826 : The true spirit of an honorable compromise, regarding the good of others as well as our own, ought to influence our A statement exhibiting the quantity of salt annually im. conduct. Iron is produced in some parts of the country,

ported, with the duties which actually accrued after desugar in others, lead in others, &c. Shall we repeal the

ducting the drawback payable, from the 1st of January, duty at once, on one of the articles named, because our 1801, to the 31st of December, 1826.

Bushels.

Duties. Owo part of the country may not happen to produce the article, and, of course, are consumers? If that narrow

1801 2,881,803 576,360 60 principle should prevail, we should immediately repeal the

1802 3,244,809 648,846 80 tariff on every article. For in the production of what ar

1803 2,760,648 652,129 60 ticle are one-third of the United States directly interested ?

1804 2,439,241 487,848 20 We must act upon the principle of mutual compromise,

1806 2,816,450 563,291 00 and that liberal principle of political as well as moral duty

1806 3,184,099 686,819 80 which shall induce us to regard the good of others as well

1807 3,842,672 515,920 24
1808

There being so duty on salt after
In application to the subject immediately before us, I do

1809

the 31st December, 1807, the renot object to considering the tariff; I think it might be

1810

cords of the treasury will not i modified, amended, and partially repealed, much for the

1811

exbibit the quantity imported in benefit of all. But this is not the proper course.

1812 should not take one isolated article, and repeal it. By so

1813 doing, we should not act liberally, or as statesmen ought

379,112 75,822 40 to act. I hoped that the tariff would have been modified,

1815 4,268,185 853,687 00 VOL. VI-122.

Years.

as our own.

We

these years.

1814

H. OF R.]

The Tariff

(MAY 12, 1830

NOTES.

1816 4,923,469 984,693 80

State at seven or eight hundred thousand bushels. In the 1817 2,309,209 461,841 80

tabular statement of the return from Ohio, I notice a mis 1818 2,752,396 550,479 20 take has been committed of sixty or eighty thousand bush. 1819 2,975,862 595,172 40 els; the return of the manufacture in une neighborhood 1820 4,019,569 803,913 80 being eighteen or twenty thousand barrels, wbich in the 1821 3,121,847 624,369 40 table is erroneously set down at that number of bushela 1822 3,538,323 707,664 60 only. There are in the district that I represent several 1823 4,449,740 889,948 00 manufactories not noticed, which must produce some forty 1824 3,092,052 618,410 80 or fifty thousand bushels in all. The Treasury Department 1825 3,537,378 707,475 60

I presume, were not apprised of their existence; and there 1826 8,140,616 620,923 20

are doubtless many other small establishments in different

sections of the country, of which they have no koowledge Total, 63,376,985 12,525,668 24

at that department. The amount of capital invested in this branch of manufacture may be put down at five millions of

dollars, all of which, I shall endeavor to show, will be po The act of the 10th of August, 1790, laid a duty of

in jeopardy by the reduction of duty. The domestie i twelve cents per bushel on this article.

now rapidly gaining ground upon the imported article. The act of 8th of July, 1797, laid an additional duty of in the year 1796, when the population of the country was

The consumption of salt imported into the United States eight cents, making twenty cents per busbel. The act of 7th of May, 1800, continues in force for ten sumption for the year 1828, that year being the last tres

only about one third its present number, exceeded the cos years from the 3d of March, 1800.

The act of the 3d of March, 1807, repeals the act of 8th sury return. The importation for the three years preceding July, 1797, and declares salt imported after the 31st of

1828 considerably diminished, till, in that year, it fell down

to the amount before etated. December, 1807, to be free of duty.

How is this fact to be accounted for ? Has the consumpThe act of the 29th of July, 1813, lays a duty on salt im. tion of the country diminished in this necessary of life

, ported of 20 cents per busbel

, which duty it is now subject while its population has been increasing! The true solu to under the act of 27th of April, 1816.

tion is, that the domestic production has been rapidly in TREASURY DEPARTMENT, Register's Office, Dec. 11, 1827. JOSEPH NOURSE, Register.

creasing, and by its competition pressing the foreign salt

into narrower limits, or driving it out of market. The Mr. VINTON said: After the repeated decisions of the effect of this competition is to cheapen the price of tbe House, during the present session, against the reduction foreign article. It is a consideration of much importance. of the duty on salt, I must confess I did not anticipate the that the manufacture of salt is more generally diffused vote of yesterday, on that branch of the amendment of the through the country than any one of the great interests, gentleman from South Carolina [Mr. McDUFFIE) to the the protection of which has engrossed the attenti di bill then under consideration. It was my intention to have Congress. Nature bas so distributed her bounties in the given a silent vote on that bill; but considering that pro- diffusion of the sources of this branch of manufacture, that position to be a blow struck at the whole system of domes no considerable section of the couutry veeds be dependent tic industry, dependent as that system is, aud ever must be upon another for the supply of this necessary article of bir upon all its parts for support, I cannot refrain from saying man subsistence, that that vote did not merely surprise me, but filled me Massachuscits, New York, Penosylvania, Virginia, and with alarm for the safety of the manufacturing interest in Ohio are the States that take the lead in its manufacture general. Could I have at all anticipated the result of the But there is scarcely a State in any section of the Unico, vote then about to be given, I should not have permitted it that does not manufacture it to a greater or less extent to pass in silence. The only apology I shall now offer for On the whole line of our seashore, and especially along throwing myself upon the attention of the House, is, that the coast of the southern States and Florida, great ns some of my constituents have a direct, and all of them ad tural facilities must every where exist for its production, indirect, interest in this question, and they all would, in my while the interior is supplied with ipexbaustible subteropinion, be materially injured by the proposed reduction ranean springs of salt water. Permit me, sir, to direct of duty. I cannot think the extent of the domestic manu- your attention to the state of this manufacture in the diffacture of salt, and the importance of that interest, were ferent districts of country where it is carried on, and see generally understood, or had been attentively considered whether it can be sustained under the proposed reducby the House, before the vote of yesterday. In the scale tion of duty. Among the New England States, Massachuof importance, I think the manufacture of salt stands decid-setts is the most deeply interested, having near two miledly uext after the great fabrics of cotton, wool, iron, and lions of dollars invested in that braneh of business. The leather. The annual consumption of salt in the United document before mentioned shows that it is there barely a States does not vary very far from eight millions of bushels. living business, the profits being reduced, at least, to a level Of this amount about five-eighths are of domestic produc- with labor in other employments

. tion. It appears from the last financial report, that the The proposed reduction, must, therefore, inevitaby ruin importation of salt during the year A. D. 1828, which the manufacture in that section of country. How will it went into the consumption of the country, amounted to be in New York, where the manufacture is carried on two million nine hundred and ninety-three thousand four more extensively than in any other part of the Uojon i hundred and eighty-six bushels of fifty-six pounds each. The same document also shows that it is with difficulty the The home manufacture may be set down at about five manufacturer cap sustain himself. I understand the domestic millions of bushels. The report of the Secretary of the salt finds its way into the city of New York, and is strogTreasury, made at the present session, on the subject of gling with the foreign production for that great market. the manufacture of salt, gives the returns of the home The domestic competition bas so reduced the price, that manufacture at three million eight hundred and four thou- imported salt will not bear the expense of freight, and band two hundred and twenty-nine bushels. It will be re- comes in almost wholly as ballast; and, coming in this collected that, for want of precise information, the amount way, it pays little or no freigbt. manufactured in the State of Penosylvania is omitted. He Suppose, sir, you reduce the duty to ten cents, how would bas, however, collected such data as to justify us in esti- the matter stand between the domestic manufacturer and mating the amount manufactured in different parts of that the importer ?

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MAY 12, 1830.]

The Tariff

(H. of R.

annum.

The average value of foreign salt is set down in the and Lake Erie. The cost of production is supposed to be commercial report at eight cents per bushel, which, from about twenty cents, say twenty-five cents per busbel, inthe best information I can get, is at least its full cost abroad;cluding the barrel. duty, ten cents; making the cost, independent of freight, There can be but little doubt that if the present duty is eighteen cents. The cost of production at the New York retained, the salt of western Pennsylvania will, so soon as works is eight and a balf cents , duty to the State, twelve this canal is opened, compete with the imported article and a half cents; cost of barrels, five cents per bushel; for the market of Philadelphia, precisely as the salt of making the cost twenty-six cents per bushel when ready western New York dow does for the market of the city of for market; making a difference in cost, ivdependent of New York. Should this be the case, the tolls and transfreight, of eight cents per bushel in favor of the importer. portation arising from the business will be of do inconThe foreign salt comes in bulk as well as in ballast, thus siderable importance to that State. It is therefore the unsaving the expense of barrels. But the domestic salt has doubted interest of Pennsylvania to sustain and foster its not the advantage of going to market as ballast-it must manufacture. Going still further west, the principal pay freight and tolls on the canal, and freight dowu the seat of this description of manufacturing interest in that Hudson to the city.. Is it not apparent that, in this state section of the United States, is on the banks of the Great of the trade, the foreigu salt would drive the domestic out Kenbawa, in western Virginia. Manufactories on a small of the market of New York, and transfer the theatre of scale are found on the Ohio, the Muskiugum, and in many competition from the city to the very doors of the manu- other parts of the western country. The manufacture on facturer, and, in any great revulsion of trade, break him the Kephawa amounts to about million of bushels per down even there !

I believe the production has, under peculiar Permit me, sir, to present this operation in another as. excitements, gone much higher than that amount, reaching pect. The foreign and domestic salt meet and enter into a million and a half; but the result was a very general competition in the city; the foreigo would pay a duty of bankruptcy of all who were engaged in the business. ten cents, and the latter of twelve and a half cents per Taking all the manufactories in the western country, in bushel. I say he would pay it, because to the manufac- the aggregate, the average cost of production to the maputurer it is precisely the same thing whether he pays that facturer may be set down at about twenty-five cents per sum into the treasury of the State of New York, or into bushel, when packed in barrels ready for market. Let the treasury of .the United States. He would pay, then, the duty on salt be reduced to ten cents, cost of foreigo two and a half cents per bushel more duty than the im- salt eight cents, freight at half the cost, say four cents, porter. The cost of the foreign article being only eight and the cost of foreign salt in New Orleans would be cents, the difference is thirty-two per cent on that cost, twenty-two cents per bushel. The cost of production at and is exactly the same thing as if a discriminating duty of the door of the manufacturer, when ready for market, thirty-two per cent. were imposed in favor of the importer would be, at least, equal to the cost of the foreign salt in of the foreign product. It is veedless to say that this New Orleans to the importer. Now, sir, permit ine to ingreat and valuable concern must sink in that State, if such quire, bow would this trade operate in that state of things an advantage is given to the foreigu over the domestic pro- lu the first place, the foreign salt is considered the better duct. The competition is now so closely contested, ihat article, and consequently, would take possession of the the consumer of foreigu salt is, in point of fact, relieved market at the same price. In the next place, it becomes from the payment of freight. But suppose the duty re- material to look at the geographical position of these manuduced, and the domestic manufacturer broken up, what factories, their markets, and the means of transportation. then, would be the course of trade? The importation These establishments are situated on the very margin of would then become a regular business, and salt could afford the navigable waters leading into the Mississippi. to pay freight.

Their products descend the Obio, and ascend its tribuA part of the navigation of the country would go into taries, penetrating into the heart of Indiana, Kentucky, the salt trade for the freight. The consumer would pay Tennessee, and I believe into the country bordering on ten cents less duty than before ; but he would pay ten cents the Mississippi, meeting the imported salt, and competing more for the freight, and consequently would find him- with it on that river. The transportation is now mainly by self precisely where he pow is, with this important differ- steam. The amount of steam tonpage, now very great, is ence--he has andibilated a large amount of capital, and every year increasing, and has a constant tendency to overlost a valuable domestic market. Complaints have been do itself. Wbat would be the operation on all that vast made here of the duty paid to the State of New York by theatre that may be denominated the middle ground bethe manufacturers, and they who make them would com- tween the manufacturers of the upper country, and the pel her to repeal it. I understand the duty is pledged by importer of salt at New Orleaus? The descending cargo the constitution of the State to the payment of the canal consists chiefly of bulky agricultural products, while the debt, and is therefore immutable, and put under the con return freight is composed of manufactured articles, occutrol of her Legislature. I do not think it a just subject of pying much less space. It is therefore apparent, that, in complaint, so as to justify us in enacting laws to bear upon the regular course of business, and in that state of things that fund and upon the constitution of the State. It ought to which that navigation is fast approximatiog, the amount to be borne in mind that the New York canal was the first of tonpage required to perform the descending will far grent enterprise of the kind undertaken in this country. exceed that of the ascending navigation. To make up this It was important to give it stability to the credit of the deficiency of freight, salt would be carried up the river at State, and nothing could more effectually do that, than the almost a nominal price; (at least at a freight not exceeding provision in the constitution. The rest of the country, the price of downward freight;) and, coming into New surely, owes that State something for the experience we Orleans in the first place as ballast, and then up the Missishave all acquired at her expense, and for the moral in sippi and Ohio from a similar necessity, there can be dofuence she has spread over the Union by her example. thing plainer than that the manufacturers would be overNor ought the inultiplied benefits that almost every sec- whelmed with a flood of foreign salt at their very doors, tion of the country derives from her canals, to be wholly whenever the steam navigation went a little beyond the forgotten here. Passing on from New York to Pennsyl- business of the country, which an active competition gives vania, we find her salt manufactories situated in the west- it a constant tendency to do. It is peedless to add that the ern district of that State, and directly ou the line of the manufacturer must sink under this state of things, and, canal now constructing over the Alleghany mountains, to when once down, could never rise again. These manuunite the waters of the Atlantic with those of the Ohio factories are indeed far in the interior; but in the present

H. of R.1

The Tariff

(May 12, 1830.

state of steam pavigation, distance is almost appihilated, , 1816, a period when the revenue of the country was pros and the perfection to which that navigation will no doubt perous and abundant beyond any precedent. That was the shurtly arrive, will place them in almost the precise situa year when the foundation was laid of the whole protective tion they would be, if a navigable arm of the sea put up to system, and tbis duty must have been imposed as a pro them from the Gulf of Mexico. I am fully convinced the tective duty. The duty bas existed now for seventeen proposed reduction of duty would greatly endanger, if it years without interruption, and in the mean time a large did not destroy, the capital now iovested in that section of capital, confiding in the faith of the Government, bas gone the country: While the farmer would lose the valuable into the manufacture. To force them to change their emarket which these establishments create for his products, cupation, is, in my opinion, not only impolitic, but cruel is he would, at the same time, be compelled to pay more for the extreme. bis salt than he now does. To the manufacturer, the capi Mr. DODDRIDGE said, be must ask the atteotion of the tal employed would become in a great degree valueless ; he House to a few remarks, by way of explanation. They will could not convert it to any other use, as some gentlemen to brief, [said Mr. D.] as the state of my health at present seem to imagine. For example, he has a well perforated would forbid an exertion, were I disposed to make one, into the bowels of the earth, through solid rock, three, and as the argument of my friend from Ohio (Mr. VINTOX] four, five, and even six hundred feet

, until be strikes the bas nearly exhausted the subject. salioe water. What could he do with this expensive hole I must confess that n waut of tbat kpowledge of finanin the earth! To what other business or use could be trans- cial detail which more experienced members of this body fer it? Certainly to node.

possess, led me to vote yesterday evening for the proposed While speaking of the salt manufacture in the West, I reduction of duty on salt. I did this on account of the beg leave to direct your attention for a few moments to a manifest urgency of southern members. My mistake is topic of a local character, connected with this subject. not to be wondered at, when it is considered that, though The district of country along on the Ohio, and particularly not a young man, I am a young member of this House, at Cincinnati and its vicinity, is largely engaged in the ex- and that peither my private pursuits nor public duties ever port of pork to New Orleans, and from thence to other before imposed on me the necessity of acquiring that intiporty. The salt manufactured in the interior does not ap mate acquaintance with the operations of our commercial swer the parpose of pickling for exportation as well as and fiscal systems, and their minute details, wliich are ne the coarse imported salt. On that account, pork goes to cessary to the merchant, the manufacturer, and the states New Orleans imperfectly pickled, where it is repacked in man. "My attention beretofore has been turved to the geforeign salt at a considerable charge. Now, sir, I noticed neral principles alone, on which our systems of revenue that my colleagues from that immediate neighborhood and protection are founded. voted, yesterday, to reduce the duty on salt, thinking, no Perceiving the great excitement of hope on one side, and doubt, the reduction would have the effect of transferring alarm on the other, produced by the vote which I proposthe business of packing from New Orleans to Cincinnati. ed to reconsider, I have availed myself of the short time The object is certainly very desirable. But, if my col- that has elapsed, to consult some of the public tables and leagues will pardon me for presenting a single considera. official documents that have a bearing on the subject; and tion to them in particular, I think I can satisfy them that I am now satisfied that a reductiou of the duty io ques the proposed reduction of duty would not effect their ob- tion, at the present time, would be prejudicial to the pul ject. Let the duty be reduced ten cents, and we will sup- lic interests, and, in a peculiar mabner, destructive of those pose a corresponding reduction would take place in the of my constituents. price of salt. You have changed the actual price both at I did not know before now, that a capital of so many New Orleans and at Cincinnati; but the relative price re millions was vested in the home production of this artiele maing unaltered.

of first necessity, nor that, of the whole amount of salt imThe packer, who pickled a barrel of pork in foreign salt, ported from other nations, three-fourths parts come from at Cincinnati, New Orleans, or Boston, would pay precisely ibe ports of Great Britain and her dependencies-from the same amount of duty, whether that duty be ten or those very ports which are sealed against the introduction twenty cents. By the reduction, therefore, the packer at of our bread stuffs and other provisions. From all other Cincinnati gains do advantage over the packer at New Or- pations we import into the whole United States a quantity leans. The relative price must change io favor of Cincin but little exceeding the produce of the Kenhawa works pati, before the packer can bave any inducement to trans I can recollect to have seen in my county twelve dollars fer his business from New Orleans to that place. If you given for a busbel of alım salt. I recollect when the price can practically appihilate the space between the two cities, of that article was reduced to eight, and to five dollars, or make an approach to it; io other words, if you can get by the improvement of our mountain roads. To the best rid of the burden and cost of transportation between New of my recollection, the price stood at about three dollars, Orleans and Obio, you will then change the relative price until the Kenbawa and other works displaced the foreign of salt, and effect your object. As things now are, the article from our markets and consumption. I remember packer must pay the freight of bis salt up the river, and the time when twenty-four bushels of wheat would bot then pay freight back again on the same salt after it is con- pay for more than one bushel of alum salt; and I have verted into pickle. To avoid the payment of these two seen the price of salt 80 reduced, that a barrel of it would freights, it is his interest to use the foreign salt at New Or not pay for a barrel of wheat flour. And this great and leans instead of Cincinnati. The proposed' remedy most beneficial change is the result of improvements in the obviously does nst reach the evil.

modes of conveyance, and of the protection afforded to It is my belief that domestic competition reduces the home production by tariff lawa--by the imposition of price of salt, every where, below what it would be if it reasonable protecting duties on foreing importation. Wera came into the country duty free, without that competition, we to exclude foreign salt altogether, we could produce From the close of 1807 to 1813, salt paid no duty, and I the quantity necessary for the whole consumption without am informed that during that period the price was higher inconvenience. In the western country, tbe exclusion of than it has been since, and more fluctuating. I have but foreign salt has been eo effectual, that, in more than half one consideration more to present, and that addresses of my district, I do not suppose that one busbel of foreign itself to the good faith of the nation. It bas been said the salt has beeu consumed within the last fifteen years. The duty is a war duty, and ought to be repealed on that ac reduction in price would continue, except at a particular count. Such is not the fact the act of 1813 expired of its place, if foreign salt were entirely excluded. Home proown limitation a year after the war, and was revived inducers are so numerous, and so scattered over the country

MAY 12, 1830.)

The Tariff.

[H. OF R.

as to create that competition which is the life and soul of According to the doctrine of some, all concessions and all manufacturing and producing operations.

compromise in legislation are immoral; whereas it is a uniNor is this reduction of price the only benefit the farm-versal maxim, acknowledged by the wise in every country, ing and other consuming classes have derived from the pro- that all wise and beneficial legislation must be the result of tection given to home producers. The home manufacture mutual concession, of mutual forbearance, and of comproproduces a constant supply, to be had in any quantities, mise. Where a country is so large as to embrace a great Jarge or small; and as the produce of our farnis and shops variety of climate, of soil

, and of pursuits, it is impossible enters into the consumption of the manufacturers of salt, to legislate wisely, without much consultation on the sepathis indispensable article of daily use can be bad at ev-rate interests of each. Io seeking to revder our agricul. ery village, at any time, and in any quantity, and ,can be ture and manufactures independent of foreign intermedpurchased and paid for, at a reduced price, by our own pro-dling, it was thought necessary, in the infancy of those duce or manufactures. Salt has thus beéome a constant interests, to foster and encourage them by the imposiarticle of trade and exchange in the interior commerce of tion of bigb duties on such articles imported from abroad the country: Nothing can be more obvious than the truth as might come into advantageous competition with them in that these incalculable benefits are the fruits of our sys- our consumption. To afford this universal protection has tem of protecting duties, in modern times called the been the aim of this Government, from the year 1789 to American system. And shall I be asked to surrender these the present time; and no portion of the United States advantages, in order to admit the productions of that coud-pressed this policy sooner, or more earnestly, than the try, which excludes ours, by a permanent system from southero section.

which she never relaxes, except when compelled to it by Yesterday evening, it was plainly discoverable, tbat, 1 Decessity!

should we give up the protection of the great capital vested The principal staples in my district are bread stuffs, by New England and New York in the manufacture of beef, pork, and manufactured articles. These are, by salt, we would be in duoger of losing the efforts of those u England, excluded from her West India ports in our neigh- States in furthering that protection which is indispensably $ borhood, while the friends of free ftrade, as they style necessary for our interests in the West; and in so far as,

themselves, would import from those places at which our on that account, we may be more disposed to protect our pork and beef are prohibited, the very salt with which the eastern friends, we are to meet the censures of the South.

prohibited article is cured. Such a trade would not be Like the gentleman from Vermont, (Mr. Mallary) I uni reciprocal, and would be ruinous to western agriculture. derstood the gentleman from Georgia (Mr. WAYNE) 48 I admit that the immediate effects of a reduction in the holding out a hope to some of the friends of the tariff

, duty on salt would be a diminution in the price of the that, if they would persevere in the reduction of duties on article. This diminution in price would contioue until salt, be might be induced to vote for the bill under con

our own establishments would be ruined and abandoned,sideration, the passage of which every real friend to dous and our dependence on the foreign English supply again mestic protection has so much at beart, and to wbich the i restored, when the price would be increased, as formerly, gentleman from Georgia bud appeared to be so much op

at the pleasure of foreiguers, and when cash would be deposed. The gentleman from Georgia, however, saya be manded in payment, and the supply rendered precarious was misunderstood in this respect, and I therefore do not by all those accidents and vexations attendant on foreigu press the remark further than to say, that, understanding

the gentleman, when be was up, as throwing out this inThose who now live by the manufacture of salt have ducement, I did not censure him for that course. I thought their capitals vested in their wells and furnaces, their ket- it perfectly fair, but considered it as very inconsistent in tles, and other implements and fixtures, and in sums him to censure in others the very course which I thought necessary to carry on their business. Reduce the duties him openly pursuing himself

. This opinion I cheerfully on foreign salt, and that article will ascend the Ohio at withdraw, because the gentleman's explanation removes such reduced prices as to fall below the actual cost of pro- the grounds of it, and convinces me of my mistake as to him, ducing it at home. When this is done, the owners must But, however censurable it may seem in the eyes of abandon their works, and vest their capitals in other pur- some of our opponents, that, in legislation, members suits. For a short time, our supply from abroad might be should concede any thing of their views, measures, and regular and cheap, and might continue so uutil the domestic wishes to others, in returu for mutual concessioo, on their manufacture would be every where abandoned ; and then part, it is evident to me that some of our opponents do we would be inevitably compelled to purchase at higher not concur in this opinion, but actually practise what prices, in an uncertain market, for ready cash, instead of others of them seem openly to condemn. This morning, Articles of domestic growth and the fruits of our own a friend of mine, whose sent is mear me, (Gen. FINDLAY] labor. If we wish to secure our salt at low prices, we must and who, in relation to the protecting system, differs with discourage importation from abroad, and encourage that me io nothing but the policy of reducing the duties on salt, competition at home which has succeeded to the utmost of informed me that oue gentleman, (whom he pamed,) if not our wishes.

two or three amoug those opposed to us, would vote for The gentleman from Georgia (Mr. Wayne) has spoken our tariff law, if we would retaiu in it the clause reducing of our system (including, I suppose, the motion I have had the duty in question ; and that gentleman will so vote, and the honor to submit) as one of " bargain and sale,” and with that expectation. I did not inquire how my friend having a necessary tendency to corruption. I understood obtained this assurance. I suppose he had it from him, or him as having particular reference to the speech of the those alone able to give it; and, if so, I looked upon it as gentleman from Massachusetts ; [Mr. GORHAM] but, whe-l fair play. It would be the result of a calculation of the ther to that gentleman or to myself, inasmuch as the geu- choice between supposed evils. tleman from Georgia concluded by saying he meant no dis I feel compelled to take a respectful notice of the rerespect, I suppose I have no cause to complaio. These marks of a gentleman from North Carolina, [Mr. BARRINwords, therefore, of “ bargain and sale," are not understood GER) in relation to my vote yesterday evening, and my moas conveying any personal reproach, in the vocabulary of tion to-day, which has given rise to the present discussion. the day. But, whatever the gentleman from Georgia may That gentleman has made an allusion to the kiss and treathink of my course here, or by whatever epithets describe son of Judas. I am at a loss to know whether he meant to it, that matters me but little, as neither the opinions or be witty or satirical. If wit was his object

, he failed: for épithets of others can “ pick my pockets, or break my I could not perceive that a single smile was elicited in the shins."

hall. Should I presume, as that gentleman did, to offer an

commerce,

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