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r. Doesborgh. (Inn: Heerenlogement.) A fortified town at the confluence of the old and new Yssel, 2540 inhab., was taken from the Spaniards and pillaged, 1585, by the English, under the Earl of Leicester.
7. Dieren: near this is the curious old moated house of Middaghten.
r. Zutphen. (Inns: Keyzerskroon; -Zwaan.) A strong fortress and ancient town, 10,500 inhab., at the junction of the Berckel with the Yssel.
The chief Protestant Church (of St. Walburga) is a fine Gothic building (1105); its tower has been rebuilt since 1600, when the original one was destroyed by lightning. Within, are monuments of the Counts of Zutphen, over one of which is hung a Gothic chandelier of iron gilt, and a modern monument to the family Van Heckeren. There is a curious Gothic font of copper, and the bas-reliefs on the pulpit merit notice. In the church is a library of old books, many of them fastened to the shelves by chains.
The Roman Catholics and the Anabaptists have churches here.
The Chimes are placed in the tower of the Weighing House: there is another large square tower called Drogenass.
It was on the battle-field of Warnsfeld, a little to the E. of Zutphen, that the gallant Sir Philip Sidney received his death wound, Sept. 22. 1586, after an action in which the English had signally defeated the veteran Spaniards under the Marquess of Guasto. Stretched on the ground, bleeding and parched with thirst, the English hero displayed the well-known instance of humanity, in desiring that the cup of water intended for him should be given to the dying soldier at his side.
r. Deventer. In Route 8.
r. Katerveer. Coaches go hence to Zwolle (p. 77.).
7. Kampen (Inn, Portheine's, called the Dom of Cologne, may be recommended). This sea-port on the Zuider Zee lies at the mouth of the Yssel, here crossed by a fine bridge. It has about 8000 inhab. Anciently one of
the most flourishing Hanse Towns; it is now utterly without commerce. The Town-hall, a genuine Gothic building, with statues of Charlemagne, Alexander, and of the Cardinal Virtues; and 2 fine churches, bespeak its former prosperity. Count Horn, beheaded by Alva, was buried here.
A Steamer goes every day except Saturday to Amsterdam: in summer at past 1, in correspondence with the last train to Rotterdam.
ROTTERDAM TO ANTWERP BY BREDA,
12 posts=62 English miles. Diligences daily, in 12 hours.
Steamers daily, in 10 hours, by Dort, Fort Batz, and the Scheldt. (See p. 92.)
In travelling by land 3 ferries require to be crossed; at Rotterdam over the Maas, at Dort over the Merwe, and at Moerdijk over the HollandsDiep. The ferry boats are steamers, and are very well managed. Steamers also ply daily direct from Rotterdam to Dort and Moerdijk.
2 Dort. In Route 12., p. 86.
At Willemsdorp, the borders of the Hollands-Diep are reached, an arm of the sea, rather than a river, which takes 20 minutes to cross to Moerdijk. Noordhaven is sometimes chosen as the place of disembarkation: it is 3 posts from Breda.
23 BREDA. Inns: H. de Flandres, very good: Goude Leeuw, or Golden Lion: Couronne, comfortable.
Breda is a fortress on the rivers Merk and Aa, whose waters, together with the surrounding marshes, render it almost inaccessible to an enemy, but very unhealthy.
The principal Protestant Church has a lofty and graceful Gothic tower, injured by being surmounted by a Dutch bulbous spire. Within it is the Tomb of Count Engelbrecht II. of Nassau, favourite general of the Emp. Charles V., and his wife, attributed to Mich. Angelo, It resembles in its plan the monument in Westminster Abbey of Sir F. de Vere.
seum of arms. (See Quar. Rev. No. 166. p. 441.)
Their effigies, formed of Italian ala- | stocked model room, and a small mubaster, repose upon elaborately carved mats; while 4 statues of Julius Cæsar, Regulus, and 2 other classic heroes, in a half-kneeling posture, support on their shoulders a table of stone, on which lies the armour of the prince carved in marble. M. Angelo might have made a sketch of the design; but the awkward pose of some of the figures, the feebleness of the anatomical details, the meanness and angularity of the drapery, and the minute finish of some of the accessories, prove that M. Angelo could have had no hand in the execution. There are some other monuments which are interesting memorials of the days of Spanish rule. Their ornaments are elegant, and in plataresco style: one of Count Henry of Nassau, with kneeling figures; another, bearing the date 1536, to the memory of the Sieur de Borgnival, chief engineer to Charles V. Behind the high altar is an altar tomb of the Knight of Renesse and his Lady. At the end of the N. aisle is a fine monument to some of the Aschendaal family, with a vigorous and excellent relief of the Last Judgment. Many of these monuments have been injured by violence. In the choir is a highly ornamented brass, commemorating William of Gaellen, a Dean of the Chapter; and curious and well executed carvings in wood, representing monks in ludicrous attitudes, intended to satirise the vices of the clergy. There is also a very fine brass font, the cover of which is raised by a crane.
The old castle was built, 1350, by Count Henry of Nassau; the modern Château by William, afterwards the Third of England. It is a square surrounded by the waters of the Merk. Here is a military academy for infantry, cavalry, artillery, and engineers, capable of accommodating 192 cadets. exclusively from this academy that the Dutch army is now officered. Here are good stables and an ample stud, a swimming school and an extensive plateau, with cannon of every calibre, which supplies the means of drill applicable to each branch of the service. It contains also a good library, a well
Breda was taken from the Spaniards, in 1590, by means of a singular stratagem concerted between a brave veteran captain of Prince Maurice's army, named Harauguer, and one Adrian Vandenberg, owner of a barge which supplied the garrison with turf for fuel. On Thursday, Feb. 26., Harauguer, and 80 picked soldiers, entered the barge, and were carefully covered over with a cargo of turf. Though the boat had not many miles to go from the place where it was laden, it was so much impeded by contrary winds, and by the frost which had covered the water with a thick coat of ice, that the third day passed before it arrived within league of the town. To add to the perils of the crew the vessel sprung a leak; the soldiers stood up to their knees in water; and one of them, named Matthias Helt, began to cough so violently that for fear he should cause their detection he entreated his companions to run him through with his sword. Luckily they were not rigorously examined by the guard, and the sacrifice of the brave soldier was not required. It was not till midnight on the 3d of March (5 days after they had embarked) that the sluice-gates of the citadel were opened, and the boat was dragged in through the ice by the very, garrison who were so soon to suffer from its entrance. They carried off so much of the turf for their use, that the boards which covered the concealed band were nearly laid bare; but, by another piece of good fortune, they did not inspect the cargo very minutely; and Vandenberg, with considerable cleverness, contrived by his wit and jokes to turn away their attention, and lulling all suspicion, finished by making them drunk. As soon as they were asleep, Captain Harauguer and his soldiers issued forth from their miserable retreat; the sentinels were killed, and the rest of the garrison, terrified at the sudden and unexpected attack, abandoned the castle without even the precaution of breaking down the drawbridge leading from it into the
town, which was entered a few days, afterwards by Prince Maurice and his army. After several fruitless attempts on the part of the Spaniards to regain Breda, it was taken in 1625 by Spinola, who burnt the famous barge which had contributed to its capture by the Dutch in 1590, and which had been carefully preserved by them. The surrender of Breda to Spinola has been commemorated by Velazquez in his finest picture, Las Lanzas," now in the Madrid gallery. Span. Hdbk., 752., 1st. ed. Charles II. resided at Breda during part of the time of his exile from England.
About 24 m. from Breda is Bois-le-duc (den Bosch or Hertogenbosch), a fortress and chief town of N. Brabant, with 21,000 inhab. (Inn, Goude Leeuw.) The Church of St. John (1312) is one of the finest ecclesiastical edifices in Holland. It is well preserved, and has double aisles and apsidal chapels (date 1260-1312), an earlier chapel at the N. W. end, and a Lady-chapel N. of the choir. The Stadhuis is surmounted by a tower containing a fine set of chimes.way to Bois-le-duc is Tilburg (Inn, Goude Leeuw) - a town of 11,700 inhab. possessing extensive cloth manufactories.
2 Grootzundert. The last place in Holland: examination of passports here by the Dutch and at West- Wesel (custom house) by the Belgian authorities. A desolate tract of heath forms the border land of the two countries. At Hooghstracten, a few miles E. of West-Wesel, so called from the Roman high-way which passed through it, a handsome Church contains monuments to the noble family of La Laing, one of whom built the steeple, 364 ft. high, in 1546
and 12 painted windows. The château of the La Laings is now the Poor-House (Dépôt de la Mendicité.) 12 Gooring. 1 Breschat.
1 ANTWERP. In Route 22.
2. ROTTERDAM TO ANTWERP BY WATER. Steamers daily in summer. The distance is about 80 miles. The time
now taken by the new iron boats between Antwerp and Rotterdam is 7 hours; the return passage is 2 hours longer, as the tide does not serve to pass the banks, which it does in going, and therefore a circuit is obliged to be made to avoid them. The voyage is preferable to the land journey in fine weather; but the broad estuaries divid ing the islands which form the province of Zealand are nearly as much agitated as the open sea by storms.
After quitting Dort (R. 12.) the vessel threads a narrow channel, having the appearance of an artificial canal, called Dordsche Kill, leading into the wide estuary of the Hollands- Diep, and Volke Rak, arms of the Maas, flowing between the Islands of Zealand. The places passed on the voyage from Dort are S' Gravendeel, Willemsdorp, the fortress of Willemstad, and forts Ruyter and Oostgenstplaatz, 2 block-houses covered with red-tiled roofs, erected by the French to defend the entrance of the Hollands-Diep against the English, Philipsland, and Stavenis. On the l lies Tholen, and on the r. the island of Schowen, with its port, Ziericksee, memorable for the daring exploit of the Spaniards, under Requesens, 1575, who forded the channel called Keeten, by a passage 6 miles long, and before untried, wading for the most part up to their necks in water, and in the face of a fleet of boats manned by the Zealanders, who annoyed the Spaniards by a deadly fire, and actually cut off their rear-guard. They thus gained possession of the island, and soon after of Ziericksee. At Zijp a carriage is stationed to convey passengers to or from Ziericksee (Inn, Hof van Holland), less than an hour's drive; its square tower is conspicuous from the steamer. Passengers bound for Flushing (R. 18.), Middleburg, and Goes, are set down at Jerensdam. Emerging from the narrow channel of Tholen, the steamer calls at the Jetty of the town and fortress of
Bergen op Zoom (Inn, Hof van Holland), one of the strongest places in Holland, considered the masterpiece in the art of fortification of Coehorn,
7500 inhab., situated in a marshy country which can easily be laid under
Among the numerous sieges and attacks which it has endured, the most interesting to the English is the attempt by Gen. Graham to carry the place by storm, on the night of the 8th of March, 1814, which was nearly successful. Two of the four attacking columns succeeded in establishing themselves on the ramparts, with very trifling loss. No. 1, the left column, attacked between the Antwerp and Waterport gates; No. 2 attacked the right of the New Gate; No. 3 was destined only to draw attention by a false attack near the Steinbergen gate; No. 4, the right column, attacked at the entrance of the harbour, which could be forded at low water. They were ultimately repulsed, by a bold attack of the garrison, with very severe loss. The names of the British officers who fell on this occasion may be seen in the church, recorded on a monumental tablet erected by their brother officers. In the great Protestant Ch. is the tomb of Lord Edward Bruce, killed in a bloody duel, 1613, with Lord Sackville, to fight which they came over from England. (Guardian, Nos. 129. 133.) The church, which has suffered greatly, is the remrant of a fine building.
A line of posts and branches of trees point out to the pilot the very narrow channel called het Kreek Bak, close to
the edge of the extensive sandbank called Verdronken, or Drowned Land, because overwhelmed by an inroad of the sea, and thus cut off from the island of Zuid Beveland. We enter the river Scheldt abreast of Fort Batz. The description of the voyage up the Scheldt to Antwerp will be found in Route 18.
Travellers going from Antwerp to Rotterdam, and wishing to visit Breda, should land at Bergen op Zoom, drive to Breda, and sleep there, and rejoin the steamer at Moerdyk the next day. (From Moerdyk to Dort in steamer 1 hour, Dort to Rotterdam 1 hour.) From Antwerp to Fort Batz 1 hour, a delay of about hour at Fort Batz on account of custom-houses: thence to Bergen hour. Bergen op Zoom is a bad place to land at in wet weather; a long jetty and dyke has to be traversed before reaching the town. From Bergen op Zoom to Breda is a drive of 4 hours: there is an intermediate post station at Rosendaal; but the landlord of the Hof v. Holland, who is the postmaster, will furnish a carriage and horses which easily perform the whole distance. There is much heather land between Bergen op Zoom and Breda.
If the traveller should not find the steamer at Moerdyk, he may cross to Willemsdorp by the steam-ferry, and proceed thence to Dort, where steamers going to Rotterdam are easily found.
19. Money.—20. Posting.-21. Diligences,· Hired Carriages, Roads. 22. Railroads.-23. Inns.-24. General View of Belgium.-25. Belgian Cities and Architecture.-26. Chimes ( Carillons). — 27. Works of Art: Schools of Van Eyck and Rubens.
27. Brussels to Aix-la-Chapelle
28. Brussels to Namur by Hal,
28 A. Charleroi to Morialmé
THE Belgian minister in London issues passports to all who may require them, gratis, at his house, 51. Portland Place, between 11 and 3. A passport may be obtained from the Belgian Consul in London (between the hours of 12 and 4 only), upon payment of 5 shillings.
Excepting in the frontier towns, and at Brussels, the capital, passports are now seldom required by the police in Belgium. More strictness is observed since the political events of 1848. The under-functionaries of the Belgian police, and custom-house officers, often display in their conduct instances of insolence, dilatoriness, and neglect of their duties, very annoying to the traveller, and contrasting singularly with the invariable politeness and punctuality of similar officers in Prussia and Austria.