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geon to the Infirmary of Aberdeen, in which satisfactory reasons
(No. 116, January 29, 1831.) will be given why the candidate, who had the majority of votes at one period of the canvass, declined to attempt to operate, and there
ADVERTISEMENTS, fore withdrew from the contest; also extracts from certain Lectures on Physiology, or lustitutes of Medicine, published in London, to Connected with Literature, Science, and the Arts. show the exact similarity which exists between them, and Lectures on the same subject delivered in Aberdeen; by a Tory, not of the Coostitution, but of the Aberdeen Medical School.
THEATRE-ROYAL. CHIT-CHAT FROM DUNDEE -Poor Bass continues to play to mi: THE Public is respectfully informed that Me serable houses. This, after all, is not to be wondered at, when it is JONES'S BENEFIT, and LAST APPEARANCE, is apconsidered that he has to contend with three rival establishments,
pointel to be on (admission from one penny upwards,) which are supported by the
MONDAY, January 31, 1831, real patrons of the drama here-the lower orders. The 25th day of When will be performed O'Keefe's favourite Comedy of January-the natal day of our immortal Burns-has again passed
WILD OATS, over us without any meeting here in commemoration of the event.
OR THE STROLLING GENTLEMAN. -A young artist of great promise has arisen amongst us. He is a
Rover by Mr Jones, native of Dundee, and was bred to the medical profession. His name
Lady Amaranth hy Miss Jarman.
To which will be added the Comedy of is Mr William Alexander. His paintings are allowed to be excellent, and his likenesses very striking.
THE CLANDESTINE MARRIAGE.
Arranged in Three Acts. Chit-CHAT FROM GLASGOW.-We can at least boast of one bril
Lord Ogleby by Mr Jones, liant evening in Glasgow this season that of Nicholson's and the
Tickets and Places to be had at the Box-Office, and of Mr Joxes, Stockhausens' Concert. Our fine Assembly Room was crammed No. 39, George Street, with six hundred people, comprising every thing that was lovely and fashionable in Glasgow. It was a treat in more ways than one, for No. 32, EAST SIDE ST ANDREW SQUARE. the performers were each admirable in their own departments. They
GRAND STATUE were much pressed to return, but exercised the rare virtue of self. denial, although a large sum was guaranteed to them by Mr Alexander, if they would give a concert in the 1 heatre.- Henderson, one of
IMMORTAL BURNS, our best portrait painters, has a collection of Scotch Proverbs in the
-who walk'd in glory and in joy, press. He has been engaged in forming it for many years, and it
Behind his plough, upon the mountain side," will be unique.
Sculptured in stone by GREENSHIELDS, of the size of life, and Theatrical Gossip. It is said that a new Theatre is about to be
from the original painting by the late Mr PETER TAYLOR, is now erected in London, vear Bishopsgate Street, towards which L.20,000 on Exhibition. have been already subscribed. The following good story has ap
Open from 10 till 4, and 6 till 9 evening. peared in the London papers: “Vesters's Lecs.-A young fellow Admittance-Ladies and Gentlemen, 1s. Children, 6d.--Season was charged at Marlborough Street Police-office, some days ago, with Tickets, 5s, not transferable, to be had of CoxsTABLE and Co., and stealing several plaster casts from the work-shop of Mr Papera, the at the place of Exhibition. Italian modeller. Among the casts stolen, were the legs of Madame Vestris, a little above the knee, and including the foot. The Magis.
This day is published, trate thought it possible that other artists might have spanned the
in demy 8vo, cloth, price 5s. legs of the fair lady; but Mr Papera said that it was impossible these
Dedicated to casts could have been made by ary other artist, because he was the
THOMAS CAMPBELL, Esq. only person to whom Madame Vestris had ever stood' to have a cast THE SIEGE OF CONSTANTINOPLE. taken of her leg; and from that cast he had made onc mould or model,
A Poem, in Three Cantos. and only one, and that was always kept with the greatest care under
By NICHOLAS MICHELL. lock and key, except when required to be used in his model-room, so
SMITH, ELDER, and Co., Coruhill, London. that no person could possibly obtain access to it except some one in his employ; and, as for any attempt at imitation, that was impossible
Just published, to do with success, for so beautiful and perfect was the symmetry of
Price 5s. the original, that it was from it alone the various natural niceties of
Beautifully priuted, and neatly done up in canvasse the complete whole could be acquired, and to perfection formed. (Is
THE DEATH-WAKE, the reporter a penny-a-line adorer of Madame ?] It seems Madame's
A NECROMAUNT. legs were not kept on ordiuary sale, like common shop legs—they
In Three Chimeras. were only cast to order, for amateurs and others. Mr Papera com. plained of the indignity offered to Madame, by exposing her legs
By THOMAS T. STODDART. indecently in a shop window. The legs, Mr Papera explained, pot
** Is't like that lead contains her: only sold dearer than other legs, but more readily, for most of the
It were too gross gentlemen who bought them took toth. The prisoner had been
To rib her cerecloth in the obscure grave."
SHAKSPEARE. already committed, on a former charge ; so the Magistrate advised the artist to add the legs to the indictinent. Mr Papera was told he
“ Never, werelleve, since the days of Percy Bysche Shelly, hath must produce them in court, and identify them; which he said he
so truly original and powerful a poein as this been given to the pub.
lic."'-North Briton. could easily do."-Ducrow is doing great thiugs in Liverpool.- Mil
“ We look upon Mr Stoddart as possessing genius of great proman's tragedy of “Fazio" is to be produced here next weck, with
mise."-Edinburgh Literary Journal. Miss Jarman as Bianca. Jones is to takc a benefit on Monday, which
“ Contains a story of wild and original interest and power."-Scots is announced as his last appcarance. We are sorry for it.
Shepherd. Stoddart has genius.
“ North. He has."-Blackwood's Magazin JANUARY 22-28.
" A very tender, imaginative, and beautiful poem it is,- better, we SAT. Wild Oats, $ High Life Below Stairs.
think, than any of the kind which has appeared since the advent of Mon, The Maid and the 3gpie, The Youthful Queen, Gilderoy. Coleridge, or the first wild strains of Barry Cornwall-stamped with TUES. Der Freischutz, Hc Lies like Truth, $ The Robber's Wife.
the true impress of genius."-Inverness Courier. WED. The Rivals, & Masaniello.
“ Contains some very beautiful ininor poems."-Saturday Eren
ing Post. THURS. Rob Roy, & High Life Below Stairs.
"" The best of the whole last year's productions.- Mr Stoddart is FRI. Guy Vannering, & Gilderoy.
full of imagination of the right sort, and can penetrate the mysteries of human feelings successfully."- Atlas.
" The passages we quote say more for the genius and powers of TO OUR CORRESPONDENTS.
originality which Mr Stoddart possesses, than could any elaborate The Drama, entitled “ 'The Lombard Bride," lies at the Publish.
critique or commonplace encomium."-Edinburgh University Ma. ers'.-The Book of Autographs will be returned in a day or two. gazine.
Several articles with which we have been favoured this week must " There is a wonderful power of poetry in the Death-wake, and Jie over for the consideration of the new dynasty i-among these are something like that decidedly original and characteristic force of es. the communication from Dr Poole, and various poetical effusions, pression, which we hold to be one of the indispensable tests of a first
rate mind."-Edinburgh Advertiser. all of which are in safe custody, for, until its improvement becomes perceptible, we feel convinced that no change will take place in the
“ We augur favourably of Mr Stoddart's poetical talents from the
little volume before us."Elgin Courier. intrinsic spirit of the Literary Journal, and we trust our numerous
" We have plerlged ourselves that it is a book of decided-and and valued correspondents will continue to leud, as heretofore, a superior talent. There is in the work much genius-much trueand helping hand in support of the only weekly literary periodical of taintless originality."- Aberdeen Observer. Scotland, to secure for it, if possible, a still farther increase of that Edinburgh: Henry CONSTABLE; London : HURST, CHANCE, extensive popularity, which, with their aid, it at present enjoys. and Co. ; and THONA8 ATKINSOX and Co. Glasgow.
EDINBURGH LITERARY JOURNAL;
ITS Volume; every instance but the “ mere outbreak of a generous
tween son and mother, as Mr Moore seems to believe ;
but doubtless, her alternating leniency and tyranny-now Leiters and Journals of Lord Byron, with Notices of his giving all scope to his untameable disposition,--now irri
Life, by Thomas Moore. Vol. II. London. John tating it by senseless oppression—must have strengthened Murray. 1831.
the natural violence of his temper. Lastly, his education
at Harrow and Cambridge produced the same effects as (Concluding Notice.)
The dissipation in which young men of his We have on two former occasions laid before our rank generally indulge at the latter place, is in almost readers copious extracts from
itself must mind." It brushes off the first ingenuous bloom of youth, possess a far higher interest than any remarks we could which, sooner or later, must go, in our rubbing through offer. But we have now, in the discharge of our duty the world ; but it rarely overthrows a mind which has as journalists, to undertake a far more dificult task-to originally been well disciplined. Then, again, the mode express our opinion of the great Poet who forms 'the sub- of tuition pursued at English schools and universities, ject of these memoirs. We assume our pen with reluc- although' lamentably deficient in regard to every thing tance, although proposing nothing higher than to sketch, that fits man for the real business of life
, cherishes, never in a conversational style, a slight outline of the conclu- theless, by its almost exclusive devotion to the two sions we have arrived at respecting him, while perusing literatures most redolent of “ generosity and self-devotion," Mr Moore's book.
the noblest sentiments. The young man, too, by ha. In attempting rightly to appreciate Lord Byron's chaving his attention fixed upon the glory of the states-racter, it will be found materially to facilitate the forma- man, the orator, and the patriot, longs to display himself tion of a correct judgment, if we take a review of his in similar characters in his own country. There may character as displayed at different periods of his life, thus be something exclusive-narrow in his sympathies, but making ourselves masters of the details, before we look at they are honourable as far they go: “the world must the whole. The periods to which we allade are,—that make or mar him.""} which elapsed from the day of his birth till the time that We now turn to the character upon which these cirhe first went abroad—that which intervened between the cumstances had to work, and to which they gave occasion last mentioned date and his separation from Lady Byron of display. The most striking features of Lord Byron's -his residence in Switzerland Lhis residence at Venice character were excessive irritability and stubborn endu-his life from the time of his connexion with the Guic. rance. " Equal in strength, although, of course, less percioli till his death.
ceptible to common observers, was his susceptibility of It is necessary, on reverting to the first period of his attachment." His passion for the sex early displayed life, that we pay particular attention to the circumstances itself, and, by the desire it necessarily awakened of standunder which it was spent ; both because they had mate- ing well in their eyes, tormented him between the conrial influence in forming his character,' and because the sciousness of general beauty and of one blemish. His manner in which he bore them is the only indication we intellect was vigorous-his desire of information strong ; can have of his natural tendencies. He was elevated at but then it must be such knowledge as his own inclinatuo early an age into the pecrage, to admit any feelings of tions prompted him to seek : he made an indifferent figure the commoner to gain strength within him, but late in the matter of set tasks. His mind, too, was rather enough to let him feel more decidedly than those who powerful than acute. Joined to a vigorous mind, was have been born into it, the difference between the two its never-failing concomitant in youth, an indeterminate ranks. His own and his mother's straitened circum- longing after distinction—it might be as a poet, a statesstances, joined to the cold neglect of their connexions, left man, or merely as a gymnast-or one or all. him to spend the whole of this portion of life, during The character which such circumstances formed out which he was not at school or the university, among the of such predispositions, at the close of the first period, middle classes. This had a twofold influence upon his may easily be traced. It was that of a young man poscharacter. In the first place, it showed how much defer- sessed of much but ill-digested information. The sentience his title obtained for him, while at the same time ment of poetry had awakened within him, and his ear it made him feel that he was scarcely recognised by his for versification was pretty well formed; but imaginaown class : at once exaggerating his notions of the dis- tion could as yet only be descried by the friendly obsertinction, and rendering him more jealous of any encroach- ver, like summer lightning on the verge of the far horizon. ment upon his privileges. In the next place, the stricter His disposition, headlong and unbending, and, although observance of morality among the middle classes, and not insensible to generosity, difficult to convict of error, their less unintermitted festivities, preserved the tone of had involved bim in disputes, to which the energy of his his mind more firm and pure, than if he had been early character bad lent an appearance of ferocity, which the initiated into the gay world. Nor must the wayward tem cause scarcely warranted. His heart was warm; but per of his lady mother be omitted among the circumstances the neglect of those connexions who stood aloof, the which contributed ultimately to make him what he was. sycophancy and coming readiness of most of those who Childhood is too elastic, too forgetful, to retain such deep sought bis acquaintance, had made him feel alone in the impressions, from the strange scenes which passed be world, and thrown an unnatural degree of coldness into
his language and manners. His moral conduct-using companion indispensable to his happiness, he was thrown the phrase in its English sense—was not worse than loose upon the world, debarred from approaching that that of most young men of his rank and time of life. individual with whom alone, of all the sex, he could live There was a purity in the inmost recesses of his mind—without dishonour to her, and moral destruction to himmore, however, the prompting of his natural disposition, selfconfirmed by habitual deference to the feelings of that
“ The clankless chain had bound him.” society in which he had most moved, than the child of principle and conviction.
The brief period of his residence in Switzerland is Seeking to lay a firm foundation, we have been obliged only remarkable as it favoured the developement of his to expand this portion of our sketch to what the reader poetical powers. His intimacy with Shelley awoke a may think an undue length. The succeeding periods faculty within him which had hitherto been all but shall be treated with more brevity.
dormant-pure intellectual imagination. His earlier On going abroad, Lord Byron found himself exposed works evince all the poetry of sentiment and passion, but to temptations from a certain class of the other sex, more the glimpses of real imagination are comparatively rare, dangerous to a mind like his than those which he had to It is in the third and fourth canto of Childe Harold that encounter in this country,—with more appearance of we first recognise his imaginative powers in their full sentiment, and more skilfully-concealed selfishness. force and mastery. Not one atom of reliance is there Wandering in the regions of the East gave a peculiar upon foreign costume, or sentimental free-booters, or stamp to the power of imagination, which was now fairly whining lovers. He grapples with the first elements of awakened; but which in him, as in all young poets, was nature, with the achievements of human genius in emlong of ripening to that maturity which finds pleasure in pire, art, and learning ; and ho moulds his incongruous the contemplation of the poetical for itself. In its first materials, with a giant's strength, into one glowing stage, it rather awakens the desire to enact what it ad-whole. The mood of mind in which he was at the time mires in person, than to comprehend and reproduce it as was favourable to the developement of a new power. a work of art. In Lord Byron, at this period, we find Every passion of his nature was in a state of excitement. a restless desire to encounter danger merely as an excite The colossal character of the scenery around him, its ment, an affectation of something outré in his dress and constant interchange of fairy beauty and tempest, were modes of life, a morbid brooding over his own feelings, well calculated to work upon such a temperament. But and a perverse delight in picturing himself and his cir- it was the interchange of thought with the most ethereal cumstances, as worse, and more desolate, than they really of imaginative poets,—the most subtle of self-torturing were. On returning to this country, his mind was de- sophists, that finally struck the rock, worn almost to pressed on one hand by his failure as a public speaker, and yielding, and bade the waters gush out. Manfred is the elevated on the other by the rapid gr th of his poetical fairest specimen of his powers this period. It indi. fame. The latter event, together with the round of adu cates an immense stride into the realm of poesy. He has lation and dissipation into which it led him, fairly car raised himself above romance, and attained to the higher ried him (to use a homely phrase) “ off his feet.” This order of mysticism. He has soared above mere sense ; was no difficult task with one upon whom had been be- and although yet surrounded by mists and fogs, he is stowed
rising to the clear region of mind. “ So much of earth, so much of heaven,
The period of his life which Byron spent at Venice, And such impetuous blood ;"
is, we know, one upon which his best friends are averse to
dwell. We do not entirely coincide with them. We whose goodness, too, was the child of impulse, not of re feel as much disgust as they do at the gross libertinism flection. The intervals of his intoxication were filled up into which he there plunged. We feel perhaps more with annoyances paltry in themselves, but gigantic from distaste than they do at the vulgar slang in which he their number and continual recurrence. To save him frequently chose at this time to express himself. Most from the withering effects of a perpetual revel, and from of all are we pained at the perversity with which he the pain of embarrassed circumstances, Mr Moore kindly, thought proper to run a tilt against all the finer affections but injudiciously, pressed his marriage with Miss Mil- which link society together. But we are less distressed bank. Esteeming, but not loving the lady, his lordship at all these evils, because the too brief after-period of his unfortunately yielded. He did not foresee that two spirits, life shows that they were transient stains; and in the the one cold and reflective, the other fierce and rapid, case of Byron, who had scarcely one friendly and at the must quarrel if brought into constant proximity; and same time judicious enough to understand him—from that the quarrel, as both were alike stubborn and relent- / whom the world chose to stand aloof in childish terrorless, must be deadly. Both were to blame, but her lady- and who was thus left without “a guide, philosopher, or ship most, for she added hypocrisy to forgetfulness of the friend”—we regard them but as the outbreak of a disease oath she had sworn to bear with her mate's infirmities, which lurks in all such minds, and if not gradually exand in good or in ill to swerve not from his side.
tracted by skilful hands, will work itself out under some Qar remarks on this portion of his lordship's life need loathsome form. not be long. During its lapse, the determination of his Our meaning in this may be briefly explained. Youth character certainly received a false bias. His aberrations, has an undefined anticipation of, and sympathy with, however, were little more than the unavoidable mistakes whatever is great and good in human nature.
It feels a made by every man, when let loose to grope his way into yearning to assimilate itself to what it admires. But our the busy world. He had forgotten himself, but his bad vague instincts, our passions, are awake" long before the habitudes were not confirmed. The disagreeables with clear dawn of reason; and not only do they impel us to which he had to contend were those which we must all action under delusive appearances, but they bear us up, make up our mind to at the first outset of our struggle foating in an atmosphere of delightful but confused for fortune. They might easily have been conquered ; anticipations—a world of gay dreams. This is the and their shadows would have passed away from his state of mind to which the term romantic is generally brow. The burst of popular indignation, elicited by his applied. The person susceptible of it is worthy of quarrel with Lady Byron, would have died away. His love, but he cannot be relied upon. No man is vir misconduct would have been forgotten, if not forgiven, tuous—that is, no man is trustworthy — who is genand his future life might have amply atoned. But one | tle, and kind, and good, merely from impulse. Such step had been taken, which, although it could not yet dispositions deservedly conciliate affection, but admirashow its workings upon his character, had stamped his tion and confidence are only for those who control and future fate. With dispositions which rendered a female direct them by reason and principle. We have seen
already that the mind of Byron was richly gifted by na- allowed free scope, so far from interfering with his poetry, ture. But bitherto he had been living in a world of his we regard rather as a proof that his mind was now maown, prizing his own imaginations, without enquiring ture and firmly knit. The manner in which he could what relation his high thoughts bore to the world around afford to dally with himself and his subject, shows that him. It was time that he should awake to the realities his mind had lost every tinge of that morbid sentimentalof life. The way in which he was destined to be roused ism which it had at one period contracted. was a trying one. He was to be taught to feel how We have now gone over the leading features of Lord easily the loftiest aspirations, if undirected by a firmer Byron's life seriatim, and it appears to us that we have and more enduring principle, subside into the most de- succeeded in establishing, not his freedom from crime, grading indulgences. He was to be abandoned to a but the general and indestructible goodness of his characcourse of life which, while it lowered him in his own ter. His genius has never been questioned by any person eyes, whetted the tongues of his enemies against him. worthy of an answer. He was irrascible and haughty ;
It must be a noble soul which stands a trial like this but he was also ingenuous, benevolent, and just. His -the heat of a sevenfold furnace, which only the pure power of discriminating character has seldom been equalgold can endure. A man in whom sentiment and ima- led. The business talents which he displayed during the gination were weak, and intellect narrow, must have latest period of his life were of a commanding order. The sank beneath the proof. His heart would have been few friends to whom he was attached he loved with arseared and dried up. If his constitution survived the dour, and to the last. His wit, if not so fine as Moore's, shock, he would have remained an idle, selfish jester for was powerful and manly; his perception of the beautiful life. Not so with Byron. When he awoke from his was intense and delicate. In passionate sublimity, no fever-fit, he had learned to see in its true shape the reality poet of the day has come near him. His works can never which was before him. He had learned to laugh fre- die ; and it is time that his vexed spirit were no longer quently, and occasionally bitterly. But the appreciation troubled with controversies about himself. Let us keep of kindliness and of the beautiful, the soaring imagina- | in remembrance the inscription he wished to have on his tion, and the searching intellect, were indestructible with own tomb : in him. The first thrill of young emotion, it is true,
“ Implora pace." had died away for ever ; he could no longer feel as once ke had felt. But we do not look in the full-grown oak for the rich juiciness of the sapling : it is the tough, ma- Journal of a Nobleman : comprising an Account of his jestic, ragged form, speaking of victories over the winter Travels, and a Narrative of his Residence at Vienna storms of a century, that we admire. It is grandeur we during the Congress. In two volumes. Post 8vo. look for, not beauty,
Pp. 368, 390. London. Colburn and Bentley. 1831. We have arrived at the last period of our retrospect. Byron was recovering from his Venetian intoxication,
WHETHER these volumes be indeed the production of a when he met with the Countess Guiccioli, who threw nobleman, is to us a matter of the most perfect indifferherself headlong into his arms. It must be evident to
The work is one which deserves to be read for every one who has read Mr Moore's notices with atten- amusement; but it is not likely that any one will pin tion, that in this liaison there was no very strong attach- his faith in matters of historical detail to an anonymous ment on his lordship's side. It seems to have been more
author, even though he lay claim to a title. The noble an unwillingness to pain, by rejecting, so lovely, so gentle, author starts from Moscow, passes through part of Poland and so devoted a creature. He could appreciate this and the Ukraine to Odessa ; thence to Constantinople ; attachment, and return it too; but he could not overlook and finally through Moldavia and Hungary to Vienna. that something higher than love was necessary to satisfy The most interesting part of his narrative at the present his capacious mind; and was cool enough to keep in
moment is that which relates to Poland. For the truth view the danger which the romantic girl was rushing of his anecdotes of course we cannot vouch, but his geneupon, and to remind her of it. The wish, too, which ral remarks evince a person well acquainted with his had always been more or less present to his mind-the subject. The following passage is extremely character. wish to take an active and commanding part in the busi istic of the Polish nobles: ness of men, was now gaining the ascendency over him,
“ An incident occurred to me on the morning after my and the aspect of the times promised him full employ- return to Toulchin, which might be referred to as illustra. ment. During the whole time of his residence with the frequently treated in the houses of the nobility in Poland.
ting the extreme contempt with which money matters are Countess Guiccioli, however agreeable her company I say the nobility, because the whole wealth of the country might be as a resource during his idle hours, his mind is confined to that class; and whenever it happens to be was almost incessantly engaged in planning how to acquired elsewhere, its possessor is soon admitted to a parmingle effectively in the contest between “ kings and ticipation of aristocratic privileges. While I was traversing peoples." Italy, South America, Greece_all of them the great court of the palace, a peasant came up to me, and were in turn contemplated as the theatres of his future complained that for three days he had been endeavouring to deeds.
We have met with nothing more striking, than prevail upon some one to take charge, for the countess, of a the calm, just view which his diaries show him to have without being able to succeed. I took the money and car
bag he was holding in his hand, containing 1500 gold ducats, taken of the characters of those around him, conjoined as ried it to the countess, who seemed much amused with the it is with his unshrinking attachment to the cause he account I gave her of the man's fears lest he should never had adopted. This cause he forwarded by every means have got rid of his burden, and his apparent thankfulness in his power, wherever it seemed to be making exertions. in meeting with some one at last, who was willing to relieve And, finally, when Greece arose, he did not write books
him of it. on the heroism of its sons—or dabble in its stocks or seated at the lower extremity of the table, of whom no one
“ On that same day there was a young man at dinner, contribute ten guineas to its aid; he transported him took the least notice, and who hardly ventured to raise his self, body and fortune, to the spot, and offered up his life eyes on his neighbours. I enquired of the countess who for freedom.
this seemingly modest person was: she informed me he was Nor did this strong practical bold which he had taken the of a former agent of her husband's estates, adding, of the world and its concerns interfere with his poetical I cannot help admitting such people occasionally at my powers. On the contrary, most of the poems which he table, as I do not wish it to be said that pride is among the composed during this period, evince, along with a more
defects of my nature.' Count Wimitzi, who had heard my
question and the answer given to it, added, that the stranger severe taste, equal delicacy in their beautiful, equal daring in question was about to proceed on his travels abroad for in their loftier passages. We need only instance Heaven the completion of his education, and that his father had and Earth, and Cain. His wit, too, to which he now made him an allowance of 150,000 forins a-year for his
travelling expenses. 'In that case,' I observed to the coun an aversion for agricultural pursuits, which would not be tess, 'if it be thought a spirit of humility that you admit easily conquered." They do not wish to adopt any professuch poor devils at your table, I suppose those who are sion but that of trade; and as their ruling passion is an deemed fully worthy of that honour are entitled to dishes avidity for money, they think that it is more easily gratiof melted gold.””
fied by the exercise of their skill in cheating their neigh
bours in matters of traffic, than by honest industry. Their What follows may serve in some measure to fill up the intolerant religion, too, which
teaches them to despise, and outline:
accustoms them to detest, other nations, strengthens their “A great number of the Polish nobility come to Kioff aversion against any mode of life at all calculated to separate with their families for mere amusement, so that the place them from each other, and weakens that esprit de corps presents perhaps one of the most animated and bustling which is peculiar to their race. But all these difficulties scenes that can be met with in any part of Europe. Din would be removed by the progress of time and good governpers, concerts, balls, and fetes of all kinds every day succeed ment. Meanwhile, I do not see why they should not be to the transactions of business; and at night, perhaps more compelled to establish manufactures, whereby the indigent money is won and lost at play than by any of the regular might gain support, the children be brought up in habits of bargains entered into in the morning. 'I håre been assured useful industry, and themselves abandon a life of sloth and that many Polish noblemen, of moderate fortunes, spend idleness, so extremely detrimental to the proper balance of eleven months of the year on their estates in the strictest social order.” economy, that they may lay by a sufficient portion of their incomes to pass in splendour and extravagance the month objects of contemplation, and their character augurs more
The sturdy peasantry of the Ukraine are more pleasing of January at the contracts of Kioff. It may be easily imagined that rogues and sharpers are to be met with there favourably of their nation's future fate : in great numbers, and from all parts of the world ; and it
“ The Dnieper, from Kioff to the cataracts, divides the is calculated that they generally contrive to come off with
Polish from the Russian Ukrania. The peasantry bere a considerable booty. The passion of many of the Polish are in a more flourishing condition than in Little Russia. nobility for play blinds them to such a degree, that they | This is owing to their industry, as much as to the greater are totally unmindful as to the character of the persons productiveness of the soil. Their houses are well built they associate with for the purposes of gambling, and, as and commodious, and generally surrounded by gardens and must necessarily happen, they generally pay dearly for their orchards, the trees of which produce excellent fruit. Their want of precaution.”
cattle are among the finest in Europe. Their corn-fields
are sometimes exposed to the voracity of locusts, which An important portion of the population of this fair come in swarms, and, in the course of a few hours, comand unhappy country are the Jews. More numerous pletely destroy every thing they alight upon ; but when than in any other part of Europe, and equally oppressed, they give indications of their approach, large fires of dried they have been degraded, until they have become a moral dung are lighted near the corn-fields, the smoke of which poison, lurking in every vein of the state :
not only prevents their approach, but also suffocates them
if they happen to come within its reach. “In this part of Poland, the Jews are extremely nume “The Ukranian peasants are remarkably expert in the use rous, though it would be difficult to say what greater at of the axe. Not only do they employ it in the construction of traction they find here than in any other part of the em their houses, their boats, their carriages, and their household pire. Their mode of living is as distinct in Poland, as it furniture, but also in carving a variety of small things, such is in every country they inhabit. They take no part in
as little boxes, spoons, and other kitchen utensils. I puragricultural pursuits, nor are they to be found residing chased a very handsome snuff-box from one of them, which elsewhere but in towns and populous villages. The streets had been cut with a hatchet, commonly used for felling of Rougin were filled with them when we entered that timber. In the province of Masovia, they are still better place, and crowds of them followed our carriage, and sur. exercised in the art of rendering the axe universally availrounded us when we got out of it, clamorously offering able. I have been assured by several persons, whose testitheir services as factors, as they call in this country those mony I could not doubt, that they have themselves seen whose avocations correspond with the duties of a valet de peasants, who wore their hair long, go and place themselves place in France.
against the trunks of trees, raising their hair as much above “The Jews in Poland begin to read the Old Testament their heads as it would reach, while others would take aim at the age of nine; at ten they read the Jewish law; at at a certain distance, and fling their hatchets with so much thirteen the commandments, and at fifteen the Talmud; dexterity, as to cut the hair in two parts, and be driven at eighteen they marry; and at twenty they study trade, deep into the trunk of the tree! Similar feats beat William and every means whereby money is to be acquired. Their Tell's hollow. They are not, however, the only kind by clothes are always made of plain stuff, and they practise which dexterity was practised in Poland, at the risk of a ablutions every morning. They do not eat the flesh of any tragic end. In former times, it was customary, in the animal which ruminates. Their law prescribes, that, on chateaur of the nobility, after banquets given on great occathe Sabbath day, they shall neither light nor extinguish a sious, for the host to show his guests his skill in firing a fire, neither must they speak of business, handle any pre- pistol, by making the heel of the shoe on his wife's foot his cious metals, or even bathe. A strict adherence to all these target ! 'I could hardly convince myself that the higher precepts is necessarily productive of great inconvenience to
classes among the Poles, who have always considered detravellers, as, in the minor towns of Poland, the trachtirs, votedness to the fair sex the glory of curs, should have sufor houses of entertainment and accommodation, are all, fered a practice, so directly at variance with every feeling without exception, kept by Jews, and no lodging is to be of common humanity, to prevail among them—those men, obtained among Christians. The vexations of ali kinds to whose notions of gallantry, in the present day, are apt to which the Jews are subject in this country appear to me in carry them to so extravagant enthusiasm, that I have seen various ways impolitic, besides being wantonly oppressive. them at table take the shoe off the foot of the mistress of Much might be gained, if, instead of their being kept under the house, drink wine out of it, and pass it round !" a pressure of humiliation, a policy were adopted whereby their faculties were directed to the public good. · In a
Whether the conversation we are about to lay before country where they form so large a portion of the popu- the reader ever took place we care not, knowing the facts lation, this could not fail being productive of general stated in it to be materially correct : utility. Their peculiar aptitude for arts and manufactures “ The conversation turned chiefly on the constitution would render their industry highly useful to the commu which it was in contemplation to give to the Poles, and of nity. A great number of agricultural hands would be which M. Novossilsoft was one of the framers. “The Polish acquired, and the landowner, as well as the state, would nation,' said the Russian statesman, 'had too long relied on derive considerable benefit from their co-operation in the promises of a man, to whom, after all, their independence matters of husbandry. Thus, instead of being, as they was a matter of personal indifference.'— Their illusions were are, a species of leeches on their Christian fellow-sub- excusable enough,' answered the Prince de Ligne; "there jects, and an unavailable and useless portion of the sub are no sacrifices for which nations do not easily console themjects of the state, they would ease the former of public selves when they are called for by the prospect of such an burdens, and increase the income of the latter. It is true achievement.'- Generally speaking,' replied M. Novosthat great difficulty would be encountered, in the early part silsoff, this would be perfectly justifiable, but the Poles are of the attempt, to induce them to change their mode of ever carrying back their thoughts to the brilliant times of living. Their education and their habits have given them their history, and they want their country to reassume that