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to co-operate in a pension plan against each other. They compete rather than cotheir will as a condition of retaining their operate," said Mr. Pinchot. positions.

William Jennings Bryan, who was a dele

gate to the meeting of the Council, spoke THE FEDERAL COUNCIL

to immense audiences in popular meetings, OF CHURCHES

chiefly on peace and arbitration and on temThe third quadrennial meeting of the Fed- perance. Addressing the Council itself, Mr. eral Council of the Churches of Christ in Bryan said : “ America should stand at the America, held in St. Louis from December 6 door and knock, saying to the nations at to 11, considered some important social, eco- war that any day we are anxious to bring nomic, and religious problems. This organi- them together in an honorable peace. If zation is a federation of thirty Protestant this Nation cannot take this step, why can't denominations (including almost all of the the churches of this country appeal to the principal ones); and the delegates who churches of both countries to stop this war ?" attended the meeting were officially ap- The Rev. Dr. Frank Mason North succeeds pointed by the denominations they repre- Dr. Shailer Mathews as . President of the sented.

Council for the next quadrennial. The Council has entered the field of international relations. The General Secretary THB CONSUMERS' LEAGUB reported correspondence with the Govern- At the seventeenth annual meeting of the ment in Berlin concerning the attitude of National Consumers' League, in Springfield, Germany toward a league of nations. Reso- Massachusetts, last month, the President, lutions were passed for the protection of Mr. Newton D. Baker, better known to the aliens ; calling upon the press for a sympa- country in his more familiar rôle of Secrethetic treatment of the Japanese question ; tary of War, described the League from its expressing righteous indignation at attempting initial days when its function was that of the to incite race prejudice; appointing a Com- "teaching and preaching brotherhoods and mission on Oriental Relations and expressing sisterhoods," under the leadership of John friendship toward Japan; making provision Graham Brooks. for the relief of the suffering in Mexico and Mr. Baker dwelt effectively upon the directing the Executive Committee to con- importance of the legal defense of labor laws sider the matter of a commission on relations before the Supreme Court after that significant with Mexico and Latin America.

day in the year 1908 when, upon the invitation The report of the Social Service Commis- of the Attorney-General of the State of Oregon, sion placed the chief emphasis upon economic Mr. Brandeis appeared before our highest justice, although it dealt quite fully with National tribunal and created a new method social welfare, unemployment, housing, recre- that which we have come to call the "atmosation, commercialized vice, prison reform, and pheric” method of trying cases. the equal status of women. The economic Mr. Baker contrasted dramatically the old aspects of the liquor problem were given a and the new methods. “ When I was a large place in the report of the Commission young man, I studied law, and I was taught on Temperance.

twenty definitions of the law—all equally Family life in its various relationships was dead. . . . If you go into an old-fashioned comprehensively covered by the commission court, where a case is being tried by the old dealing with this subject-marriage and di- method, you will find the judge sitting with vorce, the decline in the birth rate, and the his hand on a book a thousand years old, and factors in social and economic life which a deep furrow on his brow. You will see result in the disintegration of family soli- and hear a weary lawyer drearily pleading darity.

his case, citing only the law and the preceGifford Pinchot, Chairman of the Commis- dents. If you go into a court where a case sion on the Church and Country Life, pointed is tried in the modern way, you will see the out the necessity of greater co-operation judge sitting on the front of his chair, leanamong the churches in the rural districts, the ing forward over the bench, eagerly listenrecommendation being based upon a some- ing to the facts that relate this case to the what extensive study of the country churches lives of working men and women.

Now in Ohio. “ Churches in the country ordi- counsel says to the judge, 'Do not hang this narily work against instead of working with waist or skirt upon the wall and say, “ Ab

stractly considered, this is a desirable garment,” but view it in relation to this man or this woman.' Never again in the history of the world can jurisprudence be what it was before Mr. Brandeis pleaded the Oregon case.

For the coming year the new feature of the League's work is indicated by the resolution suggesting to President Wilson that he include in his legislative programme a bill, modeled on the Federal Child Labor Law, to establish the eight-hour day for women who work on goods subject to inter-State commerce. A second resolution pledged the League to support any bill appropriate to this purpose which may be introduced. A third resolution recommended to the hundred Consumers' Leagues in many States that they continue the efforts begun in 1910 to promote laws for the shorter working day during the coming winter, when forty Legislatures will be in session.

objects are put forth as seasonal products whose makers should be granted exemptions. Granting and refusing them is a difficult task for State commissions. Commissioners who oppose granting exemptions lengthening the working day are always in danger that at the expiration of their first term of office they must give way to more pliant officials. Mrs. Dewey therefore besought the advocates of the eight-hour law to oppose all exemptions. If, however, any are provided, the responsibility for them should be shouldered by Legislatures, and the terms clearly placed in the statutes. The National Consumers' League indorsed Mrs. Dewey's position.


At this same meeting of the National Consumers' League Mrs. Davis R. Dewey, the woman member of the Massachusetts State Board of Labor and Industry, called to the attention of both organizations a vice common to many laws limiting the working hours of women. This consists in bestowing upon a State commission power to extend the working day beyond the limit specified in the statute in the case of seasonal trades. Mrs. Dewey quoted the question of a candy manufacturer: “Why is manufacturing glass eyes a seasonal occupation? Why can't people who make glass eyes wait ? Candy has to be rushed for Christmas ; then the trade dies down in Lent. It is dead all summer.

In hot weather people want cool drinks, not candy. But what's the hurry about glass eyes?"

The astonished Board to whom this query was addressed learned, in the end, that the glass eyes in question are prepared not for people but for animals, and are in great demand, occasioning “rush" orders, at the close of the hunting season, when successful hunters are impatient to have the skins of their trophies stuffed and mounted.

Candy and glass eyes are merely two of a long list of products for which exemptions are demanded under the labor laws of many States. Baby carriages, traps for wild beasts, costly jewels, Easter bonnets, and many other


On the list of special lecturers at Harvard University this season will be found the name of Raymond B. Fosdick, of the Rockefeller Foundation. His theme will be “ Police Administration in Europe and America.” He will speak as an observer and investigator who, at close range, has studied the problem about which he speaks.

Inclusion of this topic in the course of lectures on municipal government to which the public is now invited by Harvard University is not a chance affair, for Harvard College has always interested itself in the affairs of the city in which it exists. Added interest is aroused by Mr. Fosdick's lectures from the fact that the Mayor of Cambridge is planning to increase greatly the efficiency and special training of the local police force, and he intends to have men of the department present at the lectures by the New York expert. It will be strange if Boston's progressive Police Commissioner, Mr. O'Meara, does not show equal alertness and order some of his subordinates to take the course.

European universities have long since made provision for this form of education, in which Harvard now has the chance to pioneer. If, as the outcome of this initiation of formal relations between a university and a police force, either Cambridge or Boston or both communities alter the traditional attitude of their citizens toward policemen and come to see them in their right light as potential educators as well as protectors of life and property, they will do a National service. All other callings that have come under the influence of universities have broadened and deepened their ideals. Policing will not be an exception.





the Crown Prince of Austria furnished the

occasion. The offer to arbitrate the question Germany is now willing to take part in of Servia's responsibility for that crime, the that general European conference which, on urgent request of England, seconded not only the part of Great Britain, Sir Edward Grey by France and Russia but by Germany's own proposed in the last days of July, 1914. At ally, Italy, to attempt a peaceful settlement that time Germany flouted the proposal, pre- by an international conference she promptly, ferring the appeal to arms.

After two years

not to say haughtily, refused. Her time had of experiencing this appeal to arms, she ad- come, and she struck the blow for which she mits it in the words of her Chancellor) to be had been long preparing. “a catastrophe . . . which inji re; the most In the war which followed she was as ruthprecious achievements of humanity," and she less as her military leaders could have denow proposes to talk the matter over.

sired. She violated treaty rights, disregarded In estimating this offer of peace we must international law, made war upon non-combatacquaint ourselves with the causes of the ants, perpetrated murder on land and piracy war, the “ obscure fountains from which its on the high seas, by her methods drove Italy stupendous flood has burst forth,” and the into the ranks of her enemies, and set the purposes of those who are responsible for the moral sentiment of practically all neutral war. If the advocates of Germany are nations against her. She has failed. True, right-if England, France, and Russia were she has kept her enemies off her soil ; leagued together to destroy Germany; if she true, she has won some dramatic victosaw them contriving to hem her in, preventing ries. But she is a nation besieged. Her her normal development, and planning to colonies are gone.

Her fleet is bottled up. destroy her, as a traveler sees bandits lurking Her hopes of conquest are destroyed. Her in ambush in the road before him, and she people, wonderfully submissive to her authorattacked them in self-defense, and has now ity, wonderfully loyal to their Fatherland, are succeeded in thwarting their murderous de- perplexed. They are still submissive; they signs—then her peace proposals may be are still loyal ; but they do not understand, regarded as magnanimous.

or, to speak more accurately, they are beginBut we do not so read history. On the ning to understand. She cries, Halt ! and contrary, we believe that Germany inherited

calls for peace. the ambitions of Frederick the Great and This is our reading of history. If we imported the ambitions of Napoleon the Great. read it aright, the object of her proposal is Germany believed that the Teutons should clear. It is to unite her people, to justify dominate Europe and control the civilization herself to the mind and conscience of the of the world. Her overweening ambition neutral world, to introduce dissension in the poisoned her miseducated conscience. She councils of her enemies. The answer of the was as conscientious as Philip II of Spain Allies should be prompt. And it should inand Louis XVI of France.

clude some statement of the lines upon which was as abhorrent to her ruling powers as they are willing to negotiate for peace. Protestantism to the Duke of. Alva. She Those conditions should at least include the prepared to crush democracy and watched following: for her opportunity. Her preparation was The immediate evacuation of all foreign made with extraordinary efficiency. Her soil by the German armies. navy, her military railways, her army register A declared readiness to make some comincluding every man capable of bearing arms, pensation for the irreparable injury inflicted her extraordinary equipment prepared and upon Belgium and northern France. ready for every possible contingency, made The expulsion of the Turk from Europe. clear her designs to the few thoughtful men The freedom of the Dardanelles for the of Europe, but were all disregarded by the commerce of the world. thoughtless—that is, the majority. She waited And a council of European Powers, perand watched for the opportune moment and haps of world powers, to consider what measthe justifying occasion. The discontent in ures should be taken for protecting the Ireland and India, the factional fights, relig. rights and well-being of the people of Alsace ious and political, in France, the rising revolt and Lorraine, Poland and Lithuania, and the of the repressed peasantry in Russia, made Balkan States; and pre-eminently what measthe time opportune. The assassination of ures can be taken to prevent future wars


between civilized nations, and to lift off the burden of an intolerable militarism from the overburdened people.

It has been claimed by some English newspaper writers that Germany should be punished for her crime against humanity. It is not the business of other nations to judge and punish a sovereign nation. Judgment and punishment may be left to God. The example of the United States may be pointed to as one which worked well and is worth following. The North made no attempt to punish the South, or even the leaders of the Southern revolt. But it is the duty of the nations to take such measures as will forever make it impossible—or at least improbable—that the spirit of Frederick the Great or Napoleon will ever inflict another such tragedy on Europe as the war of 1914. Justice and mercy unite in demanding that the war, terrible as it is, go on until that protection for future generations is assured. Peace without that assurance would be more terrible than war.

THE WAY TO WIN The remaking of Cabinets which has been going on in Great Britain and France has a common cause and a common purpose. It does not mean despondency; much less despair It means determination. The Allies were never more fixed than to-day in their purpose to fight the battle of civilization and democracy until that cause is won. This Germany and her dependent nations will speedily find out in the answer of the Allies to any proposals of peace that Germany may make which aim at German ascendency over Europe and ultimately over the world.

In a word, this political change in France and England means concentration of war leadership. This does not involve the overthrow of democracy; it means the application of the power of democracy effectively. As in this country a school of political thinkers urges the doctrine of the short ballot” in the belief that democracy can often best accomplish its ends by deputing its power to a small executive body, so in France and England democracy is true to itself when it asks that the vast issue of war and the still vaster issue of the future of Europe be controlled by a centralized executive power.

It is not a question of a man or of men, but of methods. Thus in France, where Briand has

been a splendidly efficient leader, the change does not disturb him in his power, simply because he is the right man in the right place. In England the people, that is, the democracy (for England, with its King, its House of Lords, and its aristocracy, is none the less truly democratic)-has become convinced, first, that a large War Council is cumbrous, and, secondly, that the one man in England who should be at the head of affairs is Lloyd George. The change in England, therefore, unlike that. in France, involves the retiral of Mr. Asquith and the placing of the war power in the hands of a small council.

This does not discredit Mr. Asquith ; nor in France will it throw discredit upon General Joffre if, as reported, he is replaced by General Nivelle in command of the Allied armies in France. Mr. Asquith's services in bringing all England together politically at the outset of the war will always be remembered. General Joffre's services in organizing the French army, in planning to meet the terrible German onslaught at the beginning of the war, and in turning retreat into victory at the Battle of the Marne will never be forgotten by a grateful nation. Viscount Grey also; who gives way to Mr. Balfour as Secretary of State, has, splendid achievement to his credit for keeping Great Britain's record right in trying to prevent the war, and later in ranging herself in behalf of Belgium and justice.

But every day brings. its own problem in a world crisis like this. England and France must do now that which is the best thing for the immediate problems and the immediate future. What is being done in both countries is well epitomized in a phrase in a despatch from Paris, which says: “New blood for old, economy and efficiency for wastefulness and lack of concentration, in governmental administration—this is what Premier Briand is aiming at in reconstruction."

Carry on ” and “ Stick it out” have been watchwords of the British private soldier ; “ Mr. Britling Sees It Through " is the title of the most significant English war novel. England means to carry on, England means to stick it out, England means to see it through. And so does France.

No doubt party politics has its part in the reconstruction of the English Ministry. Mr. Sydney Brooks's article in the last issue of The Outlook gave a clear picture.of the situation as it stood. Now that Lloyd George has announced his Cabinet, it is certain that





the coalition idea in the English Government leader in the House of Commons, winie Mr.
remains intact. In the War Council itself Lloyd George, unlike Mr. Asquith, does
three of the five members are Unionists— not act as political leader in Parliament nor
Bonar Law, Lord Milner, and Earl Curzon. does he hold a portfolio.
But note that Earl Curzon is also to be Every one knows that the British people
political leader in the House of Lords, and have risen to war needs splendidly. In the
that Bonar Law is to be political leader in the number of volunteers, in the slow but finally
House of Commons, so that the three men complete organization of industry, in the fight-
who will really control the War Council are ing in the field, and in many other ways Great
Lloyd George, Arthur Henderson, who is the Britain has done her part. But both in England
head of the Labor party, and Lord Milner, and in France it has come to be feared that
who holds no secretarial portfolio. It is in the “ team work” so praised a year ago is no
the decisions urged and the action initiated longer what it should be. Gallipoli and Meso-
by these three men that the conduct of the potamia have been partly forgotten ; the de-
war centers. In this fact is the answer to fense of Verdun and the joint attack in the
the criticisms on the make-up of the Cabinet. Somme sector are recognized as valorous

Why, people ask, is Mr. Balfour in the and fine. But when the swift conquest of Ministry when the press, and especially the Rumania by a sudden German thrust is dispowerful papers under the control of Lord cussed, the man in the street says that, Northcliffe, have declared that Mr. Balfour wherever the blame lies, whether with Ruis a brilliant intellectual, but that he is too mania for entering into a vain and foolish old and too much a philosopher to be placed, campaign, or with Russia for not bringing as he now is, at the head of the Foreign support in time, or with General Sarrail for Office? Why is Earl Curzon in the Ministry not lending aid, the whole affair showed a lack and in the Council when he has been criticised of common planning for the common good. in the same quarters as too egotistical and Whatever else is involved in the conquest of too heavy in action ?

Rumania, certainly it has shown lamentable The answer tɔ this is simple. Despite lack of “ team work" on the part of the possible defects, these men are able and Allies. The Englishman also growls in his patriotic, and their presence in the Cabinet, truly English way because the Greek question like that of the Labor leader, himself once a has not yet been settled. worker in a colliery, welds together a coalition Now, we are not arguing that this dissatof party elements for united action, with- isfaction is entirely wise or always well out unduly limiting or hampering the real based. But is one explanation of the new executive power of the Prime Minister. On effort towards concentration and united the other hand, it is an absurdity to speak of action. An editorial writer in the New York Lloyd George as holding a dictatorship, as “World ” says truly and concisely that there some writers have done. English political is only one dictator in Great Britain, and that methods are eminently flexible. If Lloyd is Parliament. Because England is really George stands at the helm, it is because the democratic the new Government, and any people want him there ; and if next year, or government, is only a committee of Parliaeven next month, they want some other man ment. It can exist only with the consent to lead, the parliamentary method of bringing of Parliament, and may be driven out of about such a result will again do the will office any day that the House of Commons of the people, just as it has done in replacing disapproves of its measures and its methMr. Asquith by Mr. Lloyd George.

ods." Another carping comment is as easily This is true of France also, and the Paris answered. It has been said that Lloyd despatches describe the object of the small George refused to agree to a War Council of Ministry of five members (the Ministers of which Mr. Asquith should be an active mem- Foreign Affairs, Finance, Interior, War, ber, on the ground that a Prime Minister and Marine) as being to simplify adminought to be concerned with other things. istrative machinery and to subordinate all But now, say the carpers, Lloyd George the services to the exigencies of national is Prime Minister, and behold him at the defense. With such a fighting Cabinet, so to head of the War Council. This is only an speak. a war council may prove unnecessary. apparent inconsistency. The new plan pro- It is for this that, as a French paper says, vides that Mr. Bonar Law should be political the Premier, M. Briand, has decided to throw

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