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THE

OR,

UNIVERSAL MISCELLANY.

AUGUST 1783.

98

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Enriched with the following truly elegant ENGRAVINGS: 1. A fine HEAD of the EMPRESS of Russia, from a Painting in the Possession of

his Excellency the Russian Ambassador.-2. A most delightful View of the West Front of BLENHEIM, the Seat of his Grace the Duke of MARLBOROUGH.

CON TEN I S.
Page

Page Modern Biography.

Elegy on the Death of Mr. Robert Levet. Empress of Russia 87 By Dr. Johnson

136 Miscellany:

Verles addressed to Mr. Wright of DerPhilosophical Survey of the Works of

by. By Miss Şeward

137 Nature and Art. Number VIII.

A Charm for Ennui. A Matrimonial Philosophical Transactions.

Ballad. By William Hayley, Esq.

ibid. Experiments on the Power of Animals

Sonnet to Dr. Beattie

138 to produce Cold, when placed in

Prologue to the Young Quaker ibid. certain Circumstances. By Adair

Epilogue

ibid. Crawford, M D. Communicated

Prologue to the Birth Day

139 by Sir Joseph Banks, Bart. P.R.S. 101 Prologue to the Receipt Tax

ibid. Copy of a Letter from the Right Honour.

Prologue to the Lawyer

ibid. able Lord George Gordon, to Elias

Epilogue

140 Lindo, Esq. and the Portuguese; and

A National Cafe. Addreffed to Bri
Nathan Salomon, Esq. and the Ger-

tannia's Physicians

ibid. man Jews

105

Shakespeare and Voltaire. By Mr. HolMoral Trifles.

croft

ibid. I. A Sentimental Sketch 107 Epigram. By the same

ibid. II. A Reverie

109 Public Amusements. A Satire and Panegyric on Small Beer TIO Haymarket. Memoirs of a Cornish Carate, concluded ibid. The Birth Day; or, Prince of Afragon 141 Ode to Fame. By Mrs. Brooke 115

The Receipt Tax

14% The Touchstone. Number I.

ibid.
The Lawyer

ibid. Review and Guardian of Literature.

Seeing is Believing

143 Lord Sheffield's Observations on the

Miss Bannister

ibid. Commerce of the American States 118 Gretna Green

ibid, Sir William Jones's Moâllakat 126 State of the Drama

144 Mrs. Macaulay Graham's Treatise on

Vauxhall

143 the Immutability of Moral Truth 127 | Parliamentary History. Dr. Lettlom's Account of the late Dr.

House of Lords

ibid. John Fothergill

129
House of Commons

147 The Reverend Mr. Crabbe's Village.

Political Retrospect

150 A Poem 132 Foreign Intelligence

152 Poetry.

Gazette

157 Ad Sereniffimum Georgium Walliæ Monthly Chronicle Principem, Annum Ætatis fuæ 21,

Births

162 Die Duodecimo Mensis Augusti, A.D.

Marriages

ibid. 1783, perficientem 135 Deaths

ibid. Trandation. By the Author ibid. Civil Promotions

163 Sylvana, a Pastoral. By Master George Military Promotions

ibid. Lewis Lenox 136 Ecclefiaftical Preferments

164 On Miss Lenox. By the same ibid. Bankrupts

ibid.

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159

LONDON: Printed for HARRISON and Co. No. 18, Paternoster.Row; by whom Letters to

the EDITORS are received,

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THE firs) Article in the Contents of the present Number will be a fufti

cient Answer to P. P. Ii's polite Enquiry. We are greatly obliged to Stella, for transmitting us Mrs. Brooke's beautiful Ode to Fame; as well as to Amicus for Dr. Dunkin's excellent Poem on Small Becr; both inserted in the present Number,

We shall with Pleafure receive the proffered Correspondence of O. S.

The Lines on the Prince of Wales's Birth-day, by S. S. are well meant, but they are too incorrect for Publication.

The Ode from Dublin, on the fame Subject, has considerable Merit; but it falls so infinitely short of the Cambrian Bard's elegant Composition inserted in the present Number, that Hibernia would appear to great disadvantage.

The Verses addressed to Mr. Perfect would be considered as a perfeet Puff.

Clockwork's good-humoured Letter came to Hand; and he may rest assured that we feelingly participate in every Pang he has suffered; the Repetition of which we hope and believe he will never again experience.

The Epithalamium to Mr. S. and Miss E. F. is very sensible, as every Thing must be from the Pen of the truly ingenious Author; but it's interest is confined to the Circle of Friends for whole Amusement it was evidently composed. The Bagatelles by another Hand, inclosed in the fame Packet, are all of them on Subjects either too old or too trifling.

The Review transmitted us by Candor, is sensible, and most probably juft; but the work to which it relates is unknown in London, and is at any rate of too confined a Nature to merit the Attention of our Readers.

The Cantata from the Haymarket is evidently a juvenile Performance; but the Design is certainly new, and there are some Flashes of Genius discernible in the Composition, though it is upon the whole much too imperfect for our Miscellany.

The Commissioner, a Poem, will be inserted in our next.

The Articles communicated by G. H, chiefly Epitaphs, are much too trifling

Sir John Barleycorn's Address to the poor Poet, and the Sketch which accompanied it, are not without some Degree of Humour, but it is of too vulgar a Species. We shall have no Objection to hear from this Gentleman when his Genius is sublimed into more polished Regions.

The Efay on Happiness has no Novelty to recommend it, but the CompoSition has considerable Merit.

The Evils of which L. P. Q. complains, will probably be handled in the new Paper of the Touchstone.

The Epigram by W, is wholly destitute of Wit, even were the subject of sufficient Importance to entitle it to our Notice.

The Elegy to neglected Genius came too late for the present Namber....ii

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THE

BRITISH MAGAZINE AND REVIEW;

OR,

UNIVERSAL MISCELLANY.

AUGUST 1783.

MODERN BIOGRAPHY.

CATHARINE II.

reigner; he openly avowed his conEMPRESS OF RUSSIA.

tempt of their religion, their manners, HIS great princess, who is the and their laws; and was on the point

daughter of the late Christian of commencing a war with Denmark, Auguftus, Prince of Anhalt-Zerbst, for the recovery of his Holstein do was born the ad of May 1729; mar

minions; he had personally ill-treated ried to Peter III. grandson of the ce, and injured the Emprefs, and his im- . lebrated Peter I. usually distinguished prudence and folly had long alienated by the appellation of Peter the Great, every heart: the Empress, though the ift of September 1745; and pro- likewise a German, had in the mean claimed sole Emprefs of all the Ruf. time studied the language of the fias, on the deposition of her husband, Russians, affiduously conformed to July 9, 1762. Her maiden name was their customs, and expressed on all oca Sophia Augusta; but, on her marriage casions the utmost zeal for the Greek with the late Emperor, she assumed church. This being premised, the that of Catharine Alexiewna. grand event we are about to mention

It will be expected that we should will seem less extraordinary than it give some account of the surprizing might otherwise appear. revolution which placed the Empress

The revolution was for some'time on the throne of this mighty. empire, in agitation, and persons of every though the transactions are perhaps rank embarked in the design. To too recent to be dispassionately in- provide against the consequences of a vestigated by those who have had the discovery, each of these persons had beft opportunities of being able to an able spy always near them, that if discuss them with historical fidelity: one should be seized, the others might little more, we apprehend, can on this have timely notice. The wisdom of occasion be looked for from us, than this precaution was justified by the a display of such reasons as were pub- event: M. Paffick, lieutenant in the licly given by the court of Rullia on Preobazensky Guards, through the the occasion, the authenticity of which imprudence of one of his men, was we by no means feelourselves disposed taken into custody on the 8th of July to question.

1762.” The Spy acquitted himself of It is said that this unhappy prince his duty, and the conspirators faw brought with him to St. Petersburgh they had not a moment to lose. The all the illiberal prejudices of a fo. Princess Datschkow, at whose house

the

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the principals usually met, sent a poft- form the Emperor of what was paffing chaise to Peterhoff for the Empress, in the city. As foon as he received this who arrived at Petersburgh in dif- intelligence, he embarked in one of guise, escorted by Prince Orloff, ma- the imperial yachts for Oranienbaum, jor of the guards, about seven in the which is situated on the shore of the morning.

Gulph of Finland, hoping to reach Papers were instantly posted up at the fortress of Cronstadt, which is the corners of streets, and in all pub- nearly opposite, and where he would lic parts of the city, importing that have been out of danger. This place, religion was despised, the Clergy however, the Empress had taken care were disgraced, the true Russians ops' to secure; and, when the yacht appressed, ftrangers exalted, and the proached, he was defired to keep off, Krength of the nation wafted in the - and the gans were pointed to fink quarrels of other countries; for all him. He had several ladies in the which evils there was but one reme, vessel; and their terrors increafing dy. While the people were busy his own, he returned to Oranienreading these papers, the guards pro- baum, without attempting to land. claimed the Empress, and immedi. It was afterwards reported that these ately the streets echoed with the ac- guns were not loaded. clamations of Long live Catharine The Empress, in the mean time, " the Second!'

continued advancing; and when the She was then 'proclaimed fole was at a little distance from Petersreigning Empress, and Sovereign of hoff, sent the Emperor word that all the

empire of Russia; and the several resistance would be vain, and that he officers, ecclesiastical, civil, and mic would do well to submit if he wished litary, took the oaths of fidelity to to prevent worse consequences. The her Imperial Majesty, and to her son, old Felt Marechal Count Munich, the Great Duke Paul, her lawful heir, who had been newly recalled from his

The authority of the new sovereign long exile in Siberia, was with him being.efablished in the capital, and at this critical emergency, and gave more-troops assembled, every partage him the only advice which could leading to the Emperor's residence possibly have saved him; he implored was carefully guarded; the Prince of him to go boldly and meet the Em. Holstein, the fenator Woronzoff and press, charging the guards, on their his daughter, Adjutant Gudowitz, allegiance, to obey him as their foSecretary Wolkow, with other known vereign, and offered to lose his own favourites, were secured; and, about life in his defence. Peter, however, fixat night, the Empress, dressed in the had not fufficient magnanimity and ancient uniform of the guards*, fetout greatness of mind to embrace this for Petershoff, at the head of 15,000 conduct: but, consulting only his men, to seize the person of her hus- fears, he threw himself on the groundo band. As he had arrived at the palace burst into all the impotence of tears, about noon, with an intention to dine and conditioned barely for his life, and there, he was surprized at not finding paternal dominions of Holstein. He the Émpress; and, being informed was accordingly conducted to the pa. that she had fet out for Petersburgh, lace of Petershoff, were he figned he dispatched several expresses, one his resignation of the throne. Several after another, (who were all ftopped covered waggons were in the mean and detained) to know the reason of while provided, which took different her absence. At length, however, roads, that it might not be known fome grenadiers, disguised as pea- where the depofed prince was .confants, found means to escape and infined; and this mighty revolution, * In the palace of Peterhoff

, there is a painting of the Empress, as fae appeared on this occa. casion, booted, and fitting aftride a white horse, with an oals bough in her hat, the insignia of her adhérents.

AUTOCRA

which transferred the greatest empire fight, he still kept up fome appearon earth, was effected in a few hours, ance of decency; but, in his heart, almost without confusion.

he considered the affection the thewThe following Manifetto was pub, ed him, as a relation only, as an inlised at Petersburgh on the occasion. fupportable yake. Nor could he fo

well conceal his sentiments, as not *CATHARINE, BY THE GRACE or

even then to thew, in the eyes of GOD, EMPRESS AND

our faithful subjects, the most preTRIX OF ALL THE RUSSIAS,

&c. &c.

sumptuous ingratitude; which mani..

fefted itself lometimes by personal Our acceflion to the Imperial contempt of the Empress, and some. throne of all the Russias, is a proof times by an avowed hatred of the nathat God himself directs thofe hearts tion. At last, preserving no bounds, which act sincerely, and with good he rather chose to give a loose to his intentions,

passions, than to conduct himself like “We never had any design or desire the heir of a mighty empire. In a to attain the Imperial power in the word, not the smallest remains of any manner in which the impenetrable sense of honour were to be found in views of the Almighty have placed him. What were the effects? He was us on the throne of Russia. Our dear no sooner afsured that his aunt and country, immediately upon the death benefactress drew near her end, than of our beloved aunt Elizabeth Pe. he resolved in his heart to dishonour trowna, of glorious memory, all true her memory. His ingratitude reach, patriots (now our faithful subjects) ed so far, that he surveyed with an lamenting the loss of fo tender a eye of scorn her body exposed in the mother of her country, placed their coffin; and, when the necessary rites only confolation in obeying her ne, obliged him to approach the corpse, phew, whom the had named her fuc. his looks were those of joy, and he ceffor, that they might shew thereby even shewed his ingratitude by words, a part of their gratitude to their de. Nor would her obsequies have been ceased sovereign; and, though they at all worthy so great and magnani. soon perceived the weakness of his mous a sovereign, if our tender re. genius was too narrow to rule fo vaft spect, cemented by the ties of blood, an empire, they hoped he would be and the extreme affcction which he fenfible of his own insufficiency, and had borne us, had not made us think in the mean while they befought our it our indispensible duty to take care affistance in the government. that they were properly regarded.

But when ablolute power falls to He imagined, that he owed his the share of a monarch who has not absolute power not to the Supreme virtue and humanity enough to con- Being, but to chance alone; and that fine it within juft bounds, it becomes he held it not for the good of his a fruitful fource of the most fatal subjects, but for his own pleasure. evils; this our country soon expe. Joining, therefore, licentiousness to rienced, and with terror beheld her- power, he made all the alterations in self subjected to a prince who, be the state which the weakness of his ing enllaved to the most dangerous genius suggested, for the oppression pallions, thought only of gratifying of the people. Having effaced from them, without any concern for the his heart all traces of the orthodox welfare of the empire,

Greek religion, (though he had been • Daring the time when he was sufficiently instructed in it's princiGreat Duke, and heir of the Ruffian ples) he first endeavoured to destroy throne, he frequently caused the bit- the true religion so long eftablifhed terest chagrin to his auguft aunt and in Russia, forlaking the house of God, sovereign, as all our court knows; and the public devotions; insomuch sestrained, however, by fear, in her that several of his subjects, (moved

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