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St. C. was greatly invoked in times of pestilence, or when people were digging for treasures, to frighten away the spirits who watched over them. The forinula used was called a Christopher's prayer. He was also the patron of an order of moderation, founded in Austria in 1517, for the purpose of checking excessive drinking and swearing, and which was called the order of St. Christopher.
CHRISTOPHER'S, ST., or, popularly, St. Kitts, an island near the n.e. bend of the great arch of the Antilles, 46 m. to the w. of Antigua, and 2 m. to the n. of Nevis. With a very unequal breadth, it is 20 m. long from s.e. to n.w., containing about 44,000 acres, and (1881) 29,137 inhabitants. It belongs to Great Britain, and has a legislature of its own, with an executive immediately subordinate to the governor-in-chief of the Leeward group, residing in Antigua. In 1880, the revenue of the colony was £32,000, having been only £3,638 in 1834 ; so that, under the system of free labor, it had increased nearly nine-fold in 46 years. During the same interval, the imports had risen in value from £63,018 to £168,000, and the exports from £105, 267 to £186,000. The staple exports are sugar, rum, and molasses. The debt of the island in the year 1880 amounted to £3,700. Éducation is in a promising condition. In the year 1876, the average attend ance at school was 1,525 ; 2 schools obtained a first-class, 4 schools a second-class, and 14 schools a third-class certificate.
The chief towns, both of them seaports with open roadsteads, are Basse-Terre, defended by fort Smith, and Sandy Point, protected by fort Charles and Brimstone Hill. Of fort Smith, the exact lat. and long. are 17° 17' 7" n., and 62° 48' west. The mean annual temperature of these places, and of the coast generally, is about 80° F.; but the mornings and evenings, even of the hottest days, are agreeably cool. The length of the island is traversed by a well-wooded ridge of volcanic origin, which has in its center & crater; and towards the w. extremity of the range, rises the nearly perpendicular crag of Mt. Misery, with an altitude of 3,711 ft. above the level of the sea. Over the adjacent slopes, which gradually descend to the water's edge, this central range sends down several streams-almost every plantation, in fact, receiving its rivulet in the rainy season. The springs, though numerous, are yet mostly brackish; and indeed the southern extremity of the island presents a number of salt ponds.
St. Kitts, appropriately named by the natives the fertile isle,” was discovered by Columbus in 1493, and colonized by the English in 1623, who were almost immediately joined by some French adventurers. After treacherously exterminating the Caribs, the French and English, often quarreling, occupied the island, till, in 1713, the treaty of Utrecht gave the whole to England. În 1782, during the war of American independence, St. Kitts was captured by the French, but restored. On July 31, 1865, a terrific fire took place at Basse-Terre.
CHRISTOP'ULUS, ATHANASIOS, 1772–1847; a Greek poet, the son of a Wallachian priest. He studied at Buda and Padua, and became teacher in the family of the Wallachian prince Mourousi, and, after the fall of that prince, he assisted the hospodar Caradja in drawing up a code of laws for the nation. He wrote love ditties and drinking songs, which are very popular among the Greeks. He is also the author of a tragedy, and some philological works.
CHRIST'S COLLEGE, Cambridge, was originally founded by Henry VI., under the name of God's house, and was intended by him to consist of a master, 12 fellows, and 47 scholars. In 1505, however, there were only three fellows besides the master, when lady Margaret, countess of Richmond and Derby, mother of Henry VII., "counting herself, as of the Lancaster line, heir to all Henry VI.'s godly intentions,” made up the full number, and endowed the college liberally, changing its name to Christ's college. Edward VI. added one fellow, and three scholars; and sir John Finch and sir Thomas Baines increased the number of fellows to fifteen. C. C. possesses many rich benefactions for the encouragement of students, amongst which are specially to be noticed four studentships founded by Christopher Tancred, worth £107 per annum, and tenable for three years after taking the degree of B.A. A student is elected annu. ally before coming into residence. Amongst the illustrious men connected with this college may be noted bishop Latimer, John Milton, and Ralph Cudworth, author of the Intellectual System.
CHRIST'S HOSPITAL, Newgate street, London, was founded on the site of the Greyfriars' monastery, by Edward VI., June 26, 1553, as a hospital for orphans and foundlings. It is usually called the “ blue-coat school,” on account of the dress worn by the boys. . This consists of a blue woolen gown or coat with a narrow red-leather girdle round the waist, yellow breeches, and yellow stockings, a clergyman's bands at the neck, and a small blue worsted cap, buť this last they seldom wear, and are generally seen going about bareheaded—such has been the costume of the boys since the foundation of the school in the reign of Edward VI.; the persistency in it through successive generations, affording a curious instance of the unchangeableness in some of the English usages. No boy is admitted before seven years of age, or after 10, and none can remain after 15, with the exception of “king's boys” (i.e., those who attend the mathematical school founded by Charles II. in 1672) and “ Grecians” (i.e., the highest class of scholars in the hospitai), of whom eight are sent on various scholarships to the universities of Oxford and Cambridge. Altogether, about 800 boys can be admitted. The right of presentation is vested in the managing governors. These are the lord mayor of London, the aldermen, and 12 common councilmen. Besides these, all noblemen and gentlemen who benefit the hospital to the extent of £400 are governors. The manag ing governors are the patrons of several churches, chiefly in Surrey and Essex. The most of the income of C. H., which amounts to about $70,900, is derived from legacies subsequent to its original charter. King Charles' foundation enriched it by £7,000, with an additional annuity of £370 108., for the purpose of educating yearly 10 boys for the sea-service. Most of the building perished in the great fire of 1666; but, through the generosity of the corporation of London, and the liberal help of wealthy Englishmen, it was soon rebuilt, under the superintendence of sir Christopher Wren. In the course of time, the new hospital fell into decay, and in 1825, a third structure was erected by Mr. Shaw. The great hall of the hospital is a magnificent room, second only to that of Westminster. c. H. is essentially a classical institution, Latin and Greek being the basis of education; but, to satisfy the wants arising from the changed condi. tion of society, the modern languages, drawing, etc., are also taught. In 1683, the gov. ernors built a preparatory school at Hertford, where the children are trained till they are old enough to enter the hospital. The girls, however, remain permanently here. It can receive about 400 of both sexes. Dependent schools in Newgate street accommo date 1200 children. Several eminent persons have been educated at C. H., such as Camden, Stillingfleet, Coleridge, and Lamb.
CHRIST'S THORN. See JUJUBE and PALIURUS.
CHROMAT'IC, in music, is a term applied to a series of notes at the distance of a semitone from each other. Such a series is produced by dividing the whole tones of the diatonic scale into semitones, so that with the two diatonic semitones, already in the natural scale, the octave is divided into 12 semitones. The word C. is from the Greek, and means colored. Ascending C. passages are formed by the whole tones of the diatonic scale being raised or elevated by a sharp or a natural, according to key, and descending passages by their being lowered by a flat or a natural, thus:
It is usual to speak of the C. scale, but that is wrong, as it is only a melodious progression of semitones, certain notes of which belong to, and form the diatonic scale, showing that the foundation of the system of music does not rest on a C. basis, but on the natural diatonic progression of sounds.
CHROMATIC, in optics. See ACHROMATIC.
CHROMATICS is that part of the science of optics (q.v.) which explains the properties of the colors of light and of natural bodies. Before 1666, when sir Isaac Newton began to investigate this subject, the notions which prevailed respecting the nature of colors were purely fanciful. Till Descartes' time, indeed, it seems not to have been conceived that color had anything to do with light. As examples of the notions prevalent at very early times, we may cite those propounded by Pythagoras and Zeno. According to the former, color was the superficies of bodies; according to the latter, it was “the first configuration of matter”-whatever that may be. It is now settled that white light is not homogeneous, but consists of rays of different colors, endued with different degrees of refrangibility, and that the different colors of bodies arise from their reflecting this or that kind of rays most copiously. According to this, a body that appears red reflects red rays in greater abundance than the others; and one that appears black reflects none of the rays -in other words, absorbs all the light that falls upon it. The analysis of a beam of the sun's light by a prism was the experiment by which Newton demonstrated his great optical discovery of the unequal refrangibility of the variously colored rays, and laid the foundations for the above theory of color. The reader will find an account of this experiment, and of the most interesting phenomena presented by the spectrum, under the article SPECTRUM. Newton concluded from his experiments that white light is composed of seven colors, which he called the primary colors-viz., red, orange, yel. low, green, blue, indigo, and violet, and that all other shades of color arise from the admixture of these in different proportions. Sir David Brewster, on the other hand, conceives that he has established that the primary colors are only three in number—red, yellow, and blue. This result he obtained by examining the rays of the spectrum through different absorbing media—a mode of experiment now admitted to be fallacious in principle. Professor Maxwell, by direct examination of the rays, concludes that the three primary colors are red, green, and blue. Recently, a theory has been propounded, that all the colors are the results of the admixture of white light and of shade, or dark. ness; but as yet no attempt has been made to support this theory by direct experiment on the sun's rays. It is rested on results obtained by combining by motion certain pra portions of white and black pigments on a revolving card. See the articles Light, Dis. PERSION, and NEWTON'S Rings.
CHRO'MATYPE (Gr. chrome, color; typos, impression), a photographic process, thus described by its discoverer, Mr. R. Hunt. One dram of sulphate of copper is dissolved in one ounce of distilled water, to which is added half an ounce of a saturated solution of bichromate of potash; this solution is applied to the surface of the paper, and when dry, it is fit for use, and may be kept for any length of time without spoiling. When exposed to sunshine, the first change is to a dull brown, and if checked in this stage of the process, we get a negative picture; but if the action of light is continued, the browning gives way, and a positive yellow picture on a white ground is obtained. In either case, if the paper, when removed from sunshine, is washed over with a solution of nitrate of silver, a very beautiful positive picture results. In practice, it will be found advantageous to allow the bleaching action to go on to some extent; the picture resulting from this will be clearer and more detined than that obtained when the action is checked at the brown stage. To fix these pictures, it is necessary to remove the nitrate of silver, which is done by washing them in pure water. If the water contains any chlorides, the picture suffers, and long soaking in such water obliterates it-or, if a few grains of common salt be added, the apparent destruction is rapid. The picture is, however, capable of restoration, all that is necessary being to expose it to sunshine for a quarter of an hour, when it revives; but instead of being of a red color, it assumes a lilac tint, the shades of color depending upon the quantity of salt used to decompose the chromate of silver which forms the shadow parts of the picture. Mr. Bingham suggested the substitution of sulphate of nickel for sulphate of copper, as yielding a higher degree of sensitiveness and greater definition. Neither process has been much used.
CHROMIC ACID, composed of trioxide of chromium and water; formula, CrO,Hg. It forms coloring pigments, such as chromate of lead, and chromate and bichromate of potash; and is used as a caustic in surgery.
CHROMIC IRON, or CHROMITE, FeO.Cr,0s, ore of chromium, found in Maryland, Pennsylvania, the Shetland islands, Scotland, France, and other places. It usually occurs in mass, but is sometimes crystallized in octahedrons. Oxides of chromium and iron are its ingredients.
CHRO'MIUM (chrome, color) is a metal, so called from the many-colored compounds it produces. It was discovered by Vauquelin in 1797. C. occurs naturally as the chromate of lead, PbCrO,, and the chromite of iron, chrome iron ore, FeO,Čr,03, at Unst and Fetlar in the Shetlands, and Portsoy in Bantfshire, etc. The metal has been obtained in powder and in scales, but as a metal it possessos no interest. The principal compound of C. is the bichromate of potash, obtained by heating chrome iron ore in powder with one fourth of its weight of niter, and then digesting in water, which dissolves out the chromate of potash, K,Cr01, a yellow salt, and when this is acted upon by sulphuric acid, it is converted into bichromate of potash, K,Cr207, readily crystallizes in orangered crystals, which is soluble in water, and is largely used by the dyer and calico-printer, If this salt be added to a solution of lead, an abundant yellow precipitate occurs of chromate of lead, PbCrO,, or chrome yellow, which is used largely by the painter as a yellow pigment. A sesquioxide of C. (Cr2O.), chrome green, possessing a bright green color, which renders it useful in enamel-painting, and being innocuous, it is now introduced into paper hangings instead of the highly dangerous arsenical green pigment. The bichromate of potash is employed in conjunction with sulphuric acid as an agent in bleaching palm-oil and other oils and fats, and also in galvanic batteries.
CHROMO-LITHOGRAPH.' See LITHOGRAPHY.
CHRON'ICLE (from chronos, time), denotes a history in which events are treated in the order of time. A C. is understood to differ from annals in being more connected and full, the latter merely recording individual occcurences under the successive years or other dates. Most of our older histories were called chronicles, such as the Saxon Chronicle, Holinshed's Chronicle. The term is seldom applied to a modern book, but frequently to a newspaper—as, for instance, The Morning Chronicle.
CHRONICLES, the name of two of the books of the Old Testament, as found in the common English Bible. In the Hebrew canon the C. form but one book, which is entitled Events of the Times—and this appears to have been a designation commonly applied to special histories-in more definite shape, Events of the Times of King David, or the like. The Greek translators divided the long Hebrew book into two, and adopted the title Things Omitted, that is, not recorded in the other historical books. Jerome suggested the title Chronicon, whence comes the English name. The book of C. begins with Adam and ends abruptly in the middle of Cyrus's decree of restoration.
The continuation of the narrative is found in the book of Ezra, which fills up the fragment of the decree of the Persian king. Of the authorship of C. nothing is known except what can be determined by internal evidence. The language implies that the book is one of the latest of the Old Testament. In the Hebrew Bible it is placed last. As to the time of the writing of C., it is argued that the chronicler wrote after the fall of the Persian monarchy. What seems to be certain and important for a right estimate of the book is that the author lived a considerable time after Esra, and stood entirely under the influence of the religious institutions of the new theocracy. This point of view determined the nature of his interest in the early history of his people. The true importance of Hebrew history had always centered in the fact that this petty nation was the people of Jehovah, the spiritual God. The tragic interest which distinguishes the annals of Israel from the forgotten history of Moab or Damascus lies wholly in that long contest which finally vindicated the reality of spiritual things and the supremacy of Jehovah's purpose, in the political ruin of the nation which was the faithless depositary of these sacred truths. After the captivity, it was impossible to write the history of Israel's fortunes otherwise than in a spirit of religious pragmatism. But within the limits of the religious conception of the plan and purpose of the Hebrew history more than one point of view miglit be taken. The book of Kings looks upon history in the spirit of the prophets. But before the chronicler wrote, the last spark of prophecy had become extinct. The Jerusalem of Ezra was organized no longer as a nation, but as a municipality and a church. The center of religious life was no longer the prophetic word, but the ordinances of the Pentateuch and the liturgical service of the sanctuary: The religious vocation of Israel was no longer national, but ecclesiastical and municipal; and the historical continuity of the nation was vividly realized only within the walls of Jerusalem and the courts of the temple, in the solemn assembly and stately ceremonial of a feast day. These influences naturally operated most strongly on those who were officially attached to the sanctuary. To a Levite, even more than to other Jews, the history of Israel meant above all things the history of Jerusalem, of the temple, and of the temple ordinances. The author of C. betrays in every page his essentially Levitical habit of mind. To such a mind, in the fallen condition of the Jews as a political nation, there seemed to be room for a new history, which should confine itself to matters still interesting to the theocracy of Zion, keeping Jerusalem and the temple in the foreground, and developing the divine significance of the history in its causes and results, not so much with reference to the prophetic word as to the fixed legislation of the Pentateuch, so that the whole narrative might be made to teach that the glory of Israel lies in the observance of the divine law and ritual. For the sake of systematic completeness, the author of the C. begins with Adam; but he had nothing to add to the Pentateuch, and the period from Moses to David contained little that served his purpose. He therefore contracted the early history into a series of genealogies, which were by no means the least interesting part of his work at a time when every Israelite was concerned to prove the purity of his Hebrew descent. From the death of Saul the history becomes fuller, and runs parallel with the books of Samuel and Kings. The limitations of the author's interest in past times appear in the omission, among other particulars, of David's reign in Hebron, of the disorders in his family and the revolt of Absalom, of the circumn. stances of Solomon's accession, and of many details as to the wisdom and splendor of that sovereign, as well as of his fall into idolatry. In the latter history the ten tribes are quite neglected, and political affairs in Judah receive attention, not in proportion to their intrinsic importance, but according as they serve to exemplify God's help to the obedient and his chastisement of the rebellious. That the author is always unwilling to speak of the misfortunes of good rulers, is not to be ascribed to a desire to suppress the truth, but shows that the book was throughout composed not in purely historical interest, but with a view to inculcate a practical lesson. The more important additions which the chronicler makes to the old narrative consist partly of full details of points connected with the history of the sanctuary and the great feasts, or the archæology of the Levitical ministry, and partly of narratives of victories and defeats, of sins and punishments, of obedience and its reward, which could be made to point a plain religious lesson in favor of faithful observance of the law. The minor variations of C. from the books of Samuel and Kings are analogous to the larger additions and omissions, so that the whole work has a consistent and well-marked character, presenting the history in quite a different perspective from that of the old narrative. An immense amount of criticism has been expended upon C.; but after all it is safe to conclude, with Ewald and other careful critics, that there is no foundation for the charge that the chronicler invented history in the interest of his practical purpose of exhor. tation and encouragement. But it is not to be doubted that in shaping his narrative he allowed himself the same freedom taken by other ancient historians, and even by copyists.
CHRO'NOGRAM, or CHRO'NOGRAPH (Gr. chronos, time, and gramma, a letter, or grapho, I write), a whimsical device of the later Romans, resuscitated during the renais. sance period, by which a date is given by selecting certain letters amongst those which form an inscription, and printing them larger than the others. The principle will be understood from the following č., made from the name of George Villiers, first duke of Buckingham.
GEORGIVs. DVX. BVCKINGAMIÆ. The date MDCXVVVIII (1628) is that of the year in which the duke was murdered by Felton, at Portsmouth.
CHRO'NOGRAPH. Different forms of time-measures, or time-recorders, under this designation, have been invented within a recent period.
Benson's chronograph is intended to measure intervals of time down to tenths of a second, for use at horse-races and other occasions where a seconds watch is not exactly suited. It has an ordinary quick train-lever movement, carrying hands which move over a dial. One of these is a seconds hand, very peculiarly made. The seconds hand is double, consisting of two distinct hands, one superposed on the other. The outer end of the lowermost hand has a small cup with a minute hole at the bottom; while the corresponding end of the uppermost hand is bent over so as exactly to reach this puncture. The little cup is filled with ink, having a consistency between that of writingfluid and printers' ink. Suppose that a horse-race is about to take place. The observer keeps a steady look-out for the fall of the starter's flag, or whatever the signal may be: he gives a puil to a cord or string connected with the mechanism peculiar to the instrument; by this movement, the outer and bent end of the upper seconds hand dips down through the ink-cup in the lower hand, and through the puncture to the dial. A small black spot or mark is thus made upon the dial-plate; and this is repeated as each horse passes the winning-post. If the eye and hand of the operator are quick and accurate, There is a reliable record thus presented by the instrument of the duration of the race, sometimes as close as one tenth of a second. The instrument is now adopted at the principal races as a suitable one for the purpose; thus it is used for races such as the Derby, the Oaks, the Goodwood, the St. Leger, etc. It is also available for many other purposes.
Strange's chronograph is designed for a more scientific purpose, and constructed with more careful details. The object is to measure extremely short intervals of time, for the determination of longitudes in great trigonometrical surveys. The observer, when a particular star traverses the field of his telescope, touches a small ivory key; and on the instant, a dot or mark appears on a sheet of paper coiled round a barrel. The instrument being connected with an astronomical clock, there is a dot made for every beat of the pendulum; and as these dots are a considerable space apart (considerable, that is, for the refined instruments of the present day), it is possible to determine so wonderfully minute an interval as one hundredth of a second.
Other forms of chronograph have been adopted by astronomers. One was suggested by prof. C. A. Young in 1866 to assume the functions of a recording chronograph, by marking the instant of observation in hours, minutes, seconds, and hundredths of a second, in printed characters, and in a form suitable for preservation and reduction.
Chronographs connected with electric and magnetic apparatus are used for determining the velocity of projectiles. Many forms have been devised by Noble, Bashforth, Navez, Le Bouleugé, and other inventors. The most general arrangement consists in causing the bullet to pass through a series of screens; the rupture of each screen breaks for a moment the continuity of an electric current, sets in action an electro-magnetic apparatus, and makes a permanent mark or record.
CHRONOL'OGY is the science of the divisions of time. It has two main branchesmathematical C., and historical chronology. Mathematical C. is engaged with such of the units for the measurement of time as begin and end with the period of complete, evolution of recurring celestial phenomena. See articles CALENDAR, YEAR, MONTH, Day, and CYCLE, where the chief points in mathematical C. are explained. Historical C. uses these units among others to measure the distance in point of time between events, and to fix their dates. As in geography and navigation, longitude is measured from some arbitrary line, such as the meridian through Greenwich, so in historical C., dates are fixed by giving their distance from some arbitrary point of time, usually chosen because of some remarkable occurrence which signalized it. Such a fixed point, or epoch, forms the beginning of an era. It is thus that dates have been aptly said to be to events in history what the latitude and longitude of places are to the places in geography and navigation. The mathematical, or, to speak more properly, the astronomical units of time above referred to have not been, as has been already hinted, the only units used in historical chronology. In early times, the more accurate methods of mathematics were unknown, and such vague periods as “a generation," or the lifetime of leading persons in a nation, such as the priestesses of Juno, or of the kings, were assumed as units in historical chronology. The great variety of eras, too, in ancient times confuses the student of chronology. Thus the era of the Greeks began with the year of the first olympiad, or that in which Coræbus was victor; being the first celebration of the games at which the victor's name was recorded, and which is calculated to correspond to the year 776 B.C. From this epoch, the Greeks measured time by olympiads or periods of four years. Thus, the 3d year of the 12th olympiad would be the year 729 B.C. The Roman era was reckoned from the founding of the city, being either 752 or 753 B.C. The Roman practice of dating events from the building of the city, seems to be the first instance of the method of reckoning time from a fixed point by single years. It thus forms one of the great stages in chronology. Of other eras we shall merely mention the Mohammedan, which commences with the flight of Mohammed, 622 A.D., and which is called the Hedjrah (q.v.). The Roman and Greek methods of measuring time continued to be in use long after the birth of Christ; the olympiads, indeed, appear to have been employed in Europe down to the 304th olympiad, or 440 A.D. From 312 A.D., however, the public mode of computation throughout the Roman empire was by indictions, which were periods of 15 years, beginning with that year (see INDICTION); and this mode was at one time