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deeply rooted in the minds of men of ment. Whatever may be tolerated in all sections of the country than per- monarchical and despotic governments, haps any one other political idea, - no no republic is safe that tolerates a privgeneral assertion of human rights can ileged class, or denies to any of its citibe of any practical value. To change zens equal rights and equal means to the character of the government at this maintain them. What was theory bepoint is neither possible nor desirable. fore the war has been made fact by the All that is necessary to be done is to make the government consistent with There is cause to be thankful even itself, and render the rights of the States for rebellion. It is an impressive compatible with the sacred rights of teacher, though a stern and terrible human nature.

In both characters it has come The arm of the Federal government to us, and it was perhaps needed in is long, but it is far too short to protect both. It is an instructor never a day the rights of individuals in the interior before its time, for it comes only when of distant States. They must have the all other means of progress and enpower to protect themselves, or they lightenment have failed. Whether the will go unprotected, spite of all the laws oppressed and despairing bondman, the Federal government can put upon no longer able to repress his deep the national statute-book.

yearnings for manhood, or the tyrant, Slavery, like all other great systems in his pride and impatience, takes the of wrong, founded in the depths of hu- initiative, and strikes the blow for a man selfishness, and existing for ages, firmer hold and a longer lease of ophas not neglected its own conservation. pression, the result is the same, It has steadily exerted an influence up- ciety is instructed, or may be. on all around it favorable to its own Such are the limitations of the comcontinuance. And to-day it is so strong mon mind, and so thoroughly engrossthat it could exist, not only without law, ing are the cares of common life, that but even against law. Custom, manners, only the few among men can discern morals, religion, are all on its side ev- through the glitter and dazzle of preserywhere in the South ; and when you ent prosperity the dark outlines of apadd the ignorance and servility of the proaching disasters, even though they ex-slave to the intelligence and accus- may have come up to our very gates, tomed authority of the master, you have and are already within striking disthe conditions, not out of which slavery tance. The yawning seam and corrodwill again grow, but under which it is ed bolt conceal their defects from the impossible for the Federal government mariner until the storm calls all hands to wholly destroy it, unless the Fed- to the pumps. Prophets, indeed, were eral government be armed with des- abundant before the war; but who cares potic power, to blot out State author- for prophets while their predictions reity, and to station a Federal officer at main unfulfilled, and the calamities of every cross-road. This, of course, can- which they tell are masked behind a not be done, and ought not even if it blinding blaze of national prosperity ? could. The true way and the easiest It is asked, said Henry Clay, on a way is to make our government entirely memorable occasion, Will slavery never consistent with itself, and give to every come to an end ? That question, said loyal citizen the elective franchise, – he, was asked fifty years ago, and it a right and power which will be ever has been answered by fifty years of present, and will form a wall of fire for unprecedented prosperity.

Spite of his protection.

the eloquence of the earnest AboliOne of the invaluable compensations tionists, — poured out against slavery of the late Rebellion is the highly in- during thirty years, — even they must structive disclosure it made of the true confess, that, in all the probabilities of source of danger to republican govern- the case, that system of barbarism would


have continued its horrors far beyond by bending to him even when he leaned the limits of the nineteenth century but to the side of error. But all is changed for the Rebellion, and perhaps only Congress knows now that it have disappeared at last in a fiery con- must go on without his aid, and even flict, even more fierce and bloody than against his machinations. The advanthat which has now been suppressed. tage of the present session over the

It is no disparagement to truth, that last is immense. Where that investiit can only prevail where reason pre- gated, this has the facts. Where that vails. War begins where reason ends. walked by faith, this may walk by sight. The thing worse than rebellion is the Where that halted, this must go forthing that causes rebellion. What that ward, and where that failed, this must thing is, we have been taught to our succeed, giving the country whole cost. It remains now to be seen measures where that gave us halfwhether we have the needed courage to measures, merely as a means of saving have that cause entirely removed from the elections in a few doubtful districts. the Republic. At any rate, to this That Congress saw what was right, but grand work of national regeneration distrusted the enlightenment of the and entire purification Congress must loyal masses ; but what was forborne now address itself, with full purpose in distrust of the people must now be that the work shall this time be thor- done with a full knowledge that the oughly done. The deadly upas, root people expect and require it. The and branch, leaf and fibre, body and members go to Washington fresh from sap, must be utterly destroyed. The the inspiring presence of the people. country is evidently not in a condition in every considerable public meeting, to listen patiently to pleas for post- and in almost every conceivable way, ponement, however plausible, nor will it whether at court-house, school-house, permit the responsibility to be shifted or cross-roads, in doors and out, the to other shoulders. Authority and subject has been discussed, and the peopower are here commensurate with the ple have emphatically pronounced in duty imposed. There are no cloud- favor of a radical policy. Listening to flung shadows to obscure the way. the doctrines of expediency and comTruth shines with brighter light and promise with pity, impatience, and disintenser heat at every moment, and a gust, they have everywhere broken into country torn and rent and bleeding demonstrations of the wildest enthusiimplores relief from its distress and asm when a brave word has been spoagony.

ken in favor of equal rights and imparIf time was at first needed, Congress tial suffrage. Radicalism, so far from has now had time. All the requisite being odious, is now the popular passmaterials from which to form an in- port to power. The men most bittertelligent judgment are now before it. ly charged with it go to Congress with Whether its members look at the ori- the largest majorities, while the timid gin, the progress, the termination of and doubtful are sent by lean majorithe war, or at the mockery of a peace ties, or else left at home. The strange now existing, they will find only one controversy between the President and unbroken chain of argument in favor Congress, at one time so threatening, is of a radical policy of reconstruction. disposed of by the people. The high For the omissions of the last ses- reconstructive powers which he so sion, some excuses may be allowed. confidently, ostentatiously, and haughA treacherous President stood in the tily claimed, have been disallowed, deway; and it can be easily seen how re- nounced, and utterly repudiated ; while luctant good men might be to admit those claimed by Congress have been an apostasy which involved so much of confirmed. baseness and ingratitude. It was nat- of the spirit and magnitude of the ural that they should seek to save him canvass nothing need be said. The appeal was to the people, and the ver- with a clean slate, and make clean work dict was worthy of the tribunal. Upon of it. Let there be no hesitation. It an occasion of his own selection, with would be a cowardly deference to a the advice and approval of his astute defeated and treacherous President, Secretary, soon after the members of if any account were made of the illeCongress had returned to their con- gitimate, one-sided, sham governments stituents, the President quitted the ex- hurried into existence for a malign ecutive mansion, sandwiched himself purpose in the absence of Congress. between two recognized heroes, - men These pretended governments, which whom the whole country delighted to were never submitted to the people, honor, — and, with all the advantage and from participation in which four which such company could give him, millions of the loyal people were exstumped the country from the Atlantic cluded by Presidential order, should to the Mississippi, advocating every- now be treated according to their true where his policy as against that of character, as shams and impositions, Congress. It was a strange sight, and and supplanted by true and legitimate perhaps the most disgraceful exhibition governments, in the formation of which ever made by any President; but, as no loyal men, black and white, shall parevil is entirely unmixed, good has come ticipate. of this, as from many others. Ambi- It is not, however, within the scope tious, unscrupulous, energetic, indefati- of this paper to point out the precise gable, voluble, and plausible, a politi- steps to be taken, and the means to be cal gladiator, ready for a “set-to” in employed. The people are less conany crowd, - he is beaten in his own cerned about these than the grand chosen field, and stands to-day before end to be attained. They demand the country as a convicted usurper, a such a reconstruction as shall put an political criminal, guilty of a bold and end to the present anarchical state of persistent attempt to possess himself of things in the late rebellious States, – the legislative powers solemnly secured where frightful murders and wholesale to Congress by the Constitution. No massacres are perpetrated in the very vindication could be more complete, no presence of Federal soldiers. This hor. condemnation could be more absolute rible business they require shall cease. and humiliating. Unless reopened by They want a reconstruction such as will the sword, as recklessly threatened in protect loyal men, black and white, in some circles, this question is now closed their persons and property; such a one for all time.

as will cause Northern industry, NorthWithout attempting to settle here ern capital, and Northern civilization the metaphysical and somewhat theo- to flow into the South, and make a logical question (about which so much man from New England as much at has already been said and written), home in Carolina as elsewhere in the whether once in the Union means always Republic. No Chinese wall can now in the Union, - agreeably to the formu- be tolerated. The South must be la, Once in grace always in grace, opened to the light of law and liberit is obvious to common sense that the ty, and this session of Congress is rebellious States stand to-day, in point relied upon to accomplish this imof law, precisely where they stood when, portant work. exhausted, beaten, conquered, they fell The plain, common-sense way of powerless at the feet of Federal au- doing this work, as intimated at the thority. Their State governments were beginning, is simply to establish in the overthrown, and the lives and property South one law, one government, one of the leaders of the Rebellion were administration of justice, one condition forfeited. In reconstructing the insti- to the exercise of the elective franchise, tutions of these shattered and over- for men of all races and colors alike. thrown States, Congress should begin This great measure is sought as ear

nestly by loyal white men as by loyal Fortunately, the Constitution of the blacks, and is needed alike by both. United States knows no distinction Let sound political prescience but take between citizens on account of color. the place of an unreasoning prejudice, Neither does it know any difference and this will be done.

between a citizen of a State and a citiMen denounce the negro for his zen of the United States. Citizenship prominence in this discussion; but it is evidently includes all the rights of citino fault of his that in peace as in war, zens, whether State or national. If the that in conquering Rebel armies as in Constitution knows none, it is clearly reconstructing the rebellious States, no part of the duty of a Republican the right of the negro is the true so- Congress now to institute one. The lution of our national troubles. The mistake of the last session was the stern logic of events, which goes di- attempt to do this very thing, by a rerectly to the point, disdaining all con- nunciation of its power to secure politcern for the color or features of men, ical rights to any class of citizens, with has determined the interests of the the obvious purpose to allow the recountry as identical with and insep- bellious States to disfranchise, if they arable from those of the negro.

should see fit, their colored citizens. The policy that emancipated and This unfortunate blunder must now be armed the negro

now seen to have retrieved, and the emasculated citizenbeen wise and proper by the dullest - ship given to the negro supplanted by was not certainly more sternly de- that contemplated in the Constitution manded than is now the policy of en- of the United States, which declares franchisement. If with the negro was that the citizens of each State shall ensuccess in war, and without him fail- joy all the rights and immunities of cit. ure, so in peace it will be found that izens of the several States, so that a the nation must fall or flourish with legal voter in any State shall be a legal

voter in all the States.

the negro.



History of the United States, from the Dis- ample scope for the display of those peculiar covery of the American Continent.

literary characteristics with which the readGEORGE BANCROFT. Vol. IX. Boston: ers of his former volumes are so familiar, Little, Brown, & Co.

- his rapid and condensed narration, his

sweeping and sometimes rather vague genThis volume of Mr. Bancroft's History, cralizations, his brilliant pictures, his pointthe ninth of the entire work and the third of ed reflections, and the sharp, cutting strokes the narrative of the American Revolution, with which he carves rather than paints comprises the period between July, 1776, characters. His usual diligence in the and April, 1778, including the battles of search of materials has not deserted him Long Island and White Plains, the surrender here; and he has been even more than usuof Fort Washington, the retreat of Wash- ally successful in the amount and character ington through the Jerseys, the brilliant of what he has found. In addition to very military successes of Trenton and Prince- full collections relating to the war from the ton, the capture of Philadelphia by Sir Wil- archives of England and France, he has liam Howe, and the memorable event which obtained large masses of papers from Gerinsured the success of the Revolution, -- many, among which last are many of great the surrender of Burgoyne. This enumera- importance, especially for the study of miltion is enough to show that, in the ground itary operations in 1777. Very valuable hc has traversed, Mr. Bancroft has found documents from the Spanish have been se.

cured, through the courtesy of the Spanish ter, on the constitutions of the several government and the kind offices of that dis- States of America, as being sound in subtinguished scholar and most amiable man, stance and happy in expression :Don Pascual de Gayangos.

“ The spirit of the age moved the young Investigators of the past are naturally in- nation to own justice as antecedent and suclined to overestimate the value of any new perior to the state, and to found the rights sources of information opened by their own of the citizen on the rights of man. And diligence or sagacity of research, and a little yet, in regenerating its institutions, it was of this feeling is perceptible in Mr. Ban- not guided by any speculative theory or lacroft's Preface ; but, after all, we apprehend borious application of metaphysical distincthat the new evidence he has so diligently tions. Its form of government grew natucollected will not shake the deliberate ver- rally out of its traditions, by the simple redict already passed alike upon men and jection of all personal hereditary authority, events. Here and there a gleam is thrown which in America had never had much upon some single incident, or the motives more than a representative existence. Its and conduct of a particular actor ; but the people were industrious and frugal. Accusgeneral lights and shadows of the historical tomed to the cry of liberty and property, landscape remain undisturbed. The state- they harbored no dream of a community of ments and the views of Marshall and Sparks goods ; and their love of equality never deare substantially sustained. The patriotic generated into envy of the rich. No sucAmerican will not regret to see that Mr. Ban- cessors of the fifth-monarchy men proposed croft's investigations and conclusions lead to substitute an unwritten higher law, interhim to exalt Washington in comparison with preted by individual conscience, for the law the soldiers and civilians who stood around of the land and the decrees of human tribuhim ; and the reader of his pages will have nals. The people proceeded with self-posfresh cause to admire,not merely the firmness session and moderation, after the manner and self-command of that illustrious man, but of their ancestors. Their large inheritance his abilities as a commander and a statesman. of English liberties saved them from the We have especially to thank Mr. Bancroft necessity and from the wish to uproot their for the distinctness with which he shows old political institutions; and as happily how much the success of the Northern army the scaffold was not wet with the blood of was due to Washington's disinterested ad- their statesmen, there was no root of a desvice. His high praise of the commander- perate hatred of England, such as the Nethin-chief sometimes glances aslope, and lights erlands kept up for centuries against Spain. in the form of censure of some of his subor- The wrongs inflicted or attempted by the dinate officers; and we should not be sur- British king were felt to have been avenged prised if some of his strictures provoked by independence. Respect and affection rereplies and led to controversies. Some of mained behind for the parent land, from those whom he criticises have left descend- which the United States had derived trial ants, and those who have left no descend- by jury, the writ for personal liberty, the ants have partisans who are jealous of the practice of representative government, and fame of their favorites, and will not lightly the separation of the three great co-ordinate allow a leaf of their laurels to be blighted. powers in the state.

From an essentially During the period embraced by this vol- aristocratic model, America took just what ume the constitutions of several of the suited her condition, and rejected the rest. States were formed, and the Articles of Thus the transition of the Colonies into Confederation were adopted which gave self-existent commonwealths was free from to the several States a semblance of unity, vindictive bitterness, and attended by no and smoothed the path to the more perfect violent or wide departure from the past." union which was established ten years lat. A considerable portion of this volume is er. These events present themes peculi- occupied by a consideration of the relations arly congenial to Mr. Bancroft's powers of between Europe and America. Advancing brilliant generalization and rapid conden- years do not seem to chill Mr. Bancroft's sation, and tempt him into that field of dis- faith in progress, his confidence in democcursive reflection where he is fond of lin- racy, his love of popular institutions, or to gering, and where we follow him always check his tendency to throw his speculawith interest, and generally with assent. tions into an aphoristic form, and to present We quote with peculiar pleasure the fol- his conclusions positively, and with less of lowing observations from the fifteenth chap qualification and limitation than men of a

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