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of that side may happily suspect he had? used some collusion to betray their
But to take away occasion of cavil, first, we stedfastly believe and plainly confess, that Christ is the Son of God, very God of very God; that “he is the i John v. true God, and life everlasting;” that “he is God blessed for ever;" and that “ whosoever trusteth in him shall never be confounded.” And we utterly detest and accurse the Arians, the Nestorians, the Photinians, and all other like heretics, that either have taught or any way do teach the contrary. Neither is this question moved of Christ himself, unto whom we know all manner godly reverence and honour is due; but only of the mystical bread, which by the witness of the catholic learned fathers is not Christ himself, but only a sacrament of Christ. “Which sacrament,” Irenæus saith, “standeth of two things, the one earthly, the other heavenly:" not that the one is really lapped up or shut within the other, wherein resteth M. Harding's error; but that, as Chrysostom saith, “the one is Chrysost. in sensible, the other intelligibles," as it is also in the sacrament of baptism ; or 83. that, as St Augustine saith, “the one part is the sign, the other the thing August. signified”;" or that, as Tertullian saith, “the one part is the figure, the other contr. Adi: the thing figured 10."
The sacrament is the earthly thing : Christ's body is the heavenly thing. The contr. Marc. sacrament is corruptible: Christ's body is glorious. The sacrament is laid upon the table: Christ's body is in heaven. The sacrament is received into our bodies: Christ's body is only received into our souls.
For manifest proof of this difference St Augustine writeth thus: Hujus rei August. in sacramentum ... alicubi quotidie, alicubi certis intervallis dierum in dominico præ- Irham 26. paratur, et de mensa dominica sumitur, quibusdam ad vitam, quibusdam ad exitium: res vero ipsa, cujus est sacramentum, omni homini ad vitam, nulli ad exitium, quicunque ejus particeps fuerit11: “ The sacrament of the body of Christ is prepared in the church in some places every day, in some places upon certain days; and is received from the Lord's table, of some unto life, of some unto condemnation. But the thing itself,” that is, the body of Christ, being in heaven, "whereof it is a sacrament, is received of every man unto life, and of no man to condemnation, whosoever be partaker of it.” Again he saith: Qui non manet in Christo, &c. 12 : “ He that abideth not in Christ, nor hath Christ abiding in him, doubtless he de Consecr. eateth not his flesh, nor drinketh his blood, notwithstanding he eat and drink discordat. the sacrament of so great a thing unto his judgment.”
By these few examples it is plain that the sacrament of Christ's body is one thing, and Christ's body itself is another thing; and that, in common and natural manner of speech, neither is Christ's body the sacrament, nor the sacrament Christ's body.
By these words of Irenæus M. Harding, as he hath no manner likelihood to prove that he seeketh for, so he utterly overthroweth his whole fantasy of transubstantiation. For Irenæus calleth the earthly part of the sacrament, not the forms and accidents, as M. Harding imagineth, but the very substance and nature of the bread, and that such bread as “increaseth and nourisheth the substance of our flesh.” For so he writeth: Ex quibus augetur et consistit carnis nostra Iren. Lib. v. substantia 13.
But Origen teacheth us, when we receive the sacrament, to say, Domine, non sum dignus; therefore, saith M. Harding, the sacrament was called Lord and God. Alas, what a miserable case is this, that cannot possibly stand without falsifying and maiming of the holy fathers! Of the falsifying afterward. But touching the maiming and mangling of these words of Origen, if 14 it might have pleased M.
[? Hath, 1565.]
(€ Chrysost. Op. Par. 1718-38. In Matt. Hom. lxxxii. Tom. VII. p. 787. See before, page 464, note 2.)
[° August. Op. Par. 1679-1700. Lib. contr. Adi. mant. cap. xii. 3. Tom. VIII. col. 124. See before, page 592.)
[ Tertull. Op. Lut. 1641. Adv. Marcion. Lib. iv. 49. p. 571. See before, page 447.]
[" August. Op. In Johan. Evang. cap. vi. Tractat.
xxvi. 15. Tom. III. Pars II. col. 500; where in dominica mensa preparatur, and cujus sacramentum est.)
["? Id. in Lib. Sentent. in Corp. Jur. Canon. Decret. Gratian. Decr. Tert. Pars, De Consecr. Dist. ii. can. 65. col. 1946. See before, page 519, pote 13.]
[13 Iren. Op. Contr. Hær. Lib. v. cap. ii. 3. p. 294.)
[14 If, wanting in 1611.)
Matt. Hom. 35.
Dist. 2 Non iste.
Harding to have reported them whole as he found them, there had been no manner cause of doubt.
For thus the words lie: Intrat etiam nunc Dominus sub tectum credentium duplici figura, vel more, sc.1: “ Even now the Lord entereth under the roof of the faithful by two sundry ways. For even now, when the holy and godly bishops enter into your house, then through them the Lord entereth: and be thou persuaded, as if thou receivedst the Lord himself. And when thou receivest that holy meat and that uncorruptible banquet, the Lord entereth under thy roof.”
“Our Lord,” saith Origen, “entereth under our roof, both when we receive a holy man, and also when we receive the holy sacrament.” And as Christ entereth
into us by the one, so doth he also enter into us by the other. So saith the same Orig. in learned father writing upon the gospel of St Matthew: Qui ... discipulos Christi
tradit, ipsum Christum tradit2: “ Whoso betrayeth the disciples of Christ betrayeth Christ himself.” Now, if M. Harding will say by force of these words, that Christ entereth really and substantially into our mouths, then must he also say that Christ likewise entereth really and substantially into our material houses.
But for full resolution hereof St Ambrose saith that the body of Christ itself De Consecr. entereth not into our bodies. Thus he writeth: Non iste panis, ... qui vadit in
ventrem ; sed ... panis vitæ æternæ, qui animæ nostræ substantiam fulcit: “ Christ's body is not the bread that entereth into our body; but the bread of everlasting
life, that feedeth the substance of our soul.” And therefore St Cyprian saith: Cypr. de
“ The body of Christ is the meat of our soul, not the meat of our body.” For Orig. in
this cause Origen himself, in the self-same homily, saith thus: Domine, ... non sum
dignus, ut intres sub tectum meum. Sed tantum dic verbo ;. . . tantum veni verbo. Evang. Locos,
Verbum est aspectus tuus): “Lord, I am not worthy that thou shouldest enter
under my roof. But only speak the word: only come by thy word: thy word is Orig. in thy sight.” Again he saith : Per evangelistarum ... prædicationem; per sui... Brang. Locos, corporis ... sacramentum ; per glorioso crucis signaculum ... nobiscum Deus, et ad
nos, et in nobis 6 : “God is with us, and cometh to us, and is within us, by the
preaching of the evangelists, by the sacrament of his body, and by the sign of Orig. in the glorious cross." Likewise again: Fideles credunt adventum rerbi, et libenter Evang.Locos, recipiunt Dominum suum? : “ The faithful believe the coming of the word, and
gladly receive their Lord.”. So saith St Augustine: Sancti, ... qui sunt in ecclesia, accipiunt Christum in manu, et in fronte 8 : “ The holy men that be in the church receive Christ in their hand and in their forehead.” So likewise Tertullian: Cum te ad fratrum genua protendis, Christum contrectas? : “ When thou fallest down to touch thy brethren's knees, thou touchest Christ.”
Thus is Christ touched : thus is Christ received: thus is Christ present: thus Christ entereth under our roof. As Christ entereth into us by a godly minister, by his word, by the sacrament of baptism, by the cross, and by the poor; even so he entereth into us by the sacrament of his body and blood; even so, I say, and none otherwise. And at every such entering of Christ we ought to say: "O Lord, I am not worthy that thou shouldest enter under my roof.”
Now, if these words be sufficient to prove that the sacrament was called Lord and God, then are they likewise sufficient to prove that the water of baptism,
Hom. 2. August. in Apoc, Serm. 11.
[? Intrat et nunc Dominus sub tectum credentium duplici figura vel more. Nunc enim quando sancti et Deo acceptabiles ecclesiarum antistites sub tectum tuum intrant, tunc ibidem per eos Dominus ingreditur. Et tu sic existimes tanquam Dominum suscipiens. Et aliud: quando sanctum cibum illudque incorruptum accipis epulum ... tunc Dominus sub tectum tuum ingreditur.- Orig. Op. Lat. Basil. 1545. In Divers. Hom. v. Tom. II. p. 308.]
(? Id. Op. Par. 1733-59. In Matt. Comm. Ser. 83. Tom. III. p. 898; where quicumque.]
(* Ambros. in Corp. Jur. Canon. Lugd. 1624. Decret. Gratian. Decr. Tert. Pars, De Consecr. Dist. ii. can. 56. col. 1942. See before, page 571, note 18, and page 572, note 5.)
[*Et sicut panis communis ... vita est corporis :
ita panis iste supersubstantialis, vita est animæ et sanitas mentis.-Cypr. Op. Oxon. 1682. De Cen. Dom. (Arnold.) p. 40. See also before, page 141, note 11.]
[5 Orig. Op. Lat. Basil. 1545. In Divers. Hom. v. Tom. II. p. 308; where aspectus tuus est.]
[ Id. ibid. Hom. i. Tom. II. p. 291; where atque in nobis.]
[? Id. ibid. Hom. ii, p. 297.)
[8 August. Op. Par. 1679-1700. In B. Johan. Apoc. Expos. Hom. xi. Tom. III. Append. col. 172; where Christum accipiunt. This exposition seems to be a body of annotations collected from several authors.]
['Tertull. Op. Lut. 1641. De Pænit. 10. p. 147.)
that the word of God, that a cross drawn in the forehead, and that a godly bishop or minister, was called Lord and God.
Here also appeareth a great untruth in M. Harding's translation. For whereas Origen saith, Et tu ergo humilians teipsum, &c., “And thou therefore, humbling thyself 10, follow this centurion, and say, “Lord, I am not worthy that thou shouldest enter under my roof;"” meaning thereby that we ought to humble ourselves unto Christ, and to say unto him, “Lord, I am not worthy,” &c.; M. Harding thought it better cunning to corrupt the place, and to translate "it" instead of “him;" for thus he writeth: “ Origen exhorteth him that shall receive it to humble himself and say unto it, 'Lord, I am not worthy,' &c.” And so by open fraud, and by falsifying his author's words without fear or blushing, he teacheth God's people to worship a creature instead of God.
St Cyprian, in Sermone de Lapsis, telleth how a man, who had denied God in time of persecution, having notwithstanding (the sacrifice by the priest done) privily with others received the sacrament, not being able to eat it nor to handle it, opening his hands, found that he bare ashes. Where he addeth these words : Documento unius ostensum est, Dominum recedere cum negatur ll: “By this example of one man it is shewed that our Lord departeth away when he is denied.”
THE BISHOP OF SARISBURY.
This guess hangeth not of St Cyprian's words, but of M. Harding's exposition: for St Cyprian calleth the sacrament neither Lord nor God. The man that he speaketh of, having denied God in time of persecution, and nevertheless afterwards receiving the holy communion among other Christians, opened his hand and found the sacrament turned into ashes. “By this miracle," saith St Cyprian, "we are taught to understand that God, when he is denied, departeth from us."
I trow, M. Harding will not say, that the sacrament had ever denied God; and yet by his exposition God was departed and gone from it: nor will he say, that this man had denied the sacrament; for he came amongst others , to receive the sacrament. But he had dissembled and forsaken God, and therefore God had likewise forsaken him; and in token thereof he caused the sacrament to moulder into ashes in his hands.
So St Augustine, speaking of the sacrament of baptism and of order 12 of priesthood, saith thus: Si sancta malos fugiant, utrumque fugiat 13 : “ If these holy August, things (baptism and priesthood) fly 14 from ill men, let them both fly 14 from Parmen. Lib.
. them, as well the one as the other."
ii. cap. xiii. Prosper saith: Non locorum intervallis [vel] acceditur ad Deum, vel a Deo Prosp. Sent. disceditur:... similitudo facit proximum, dissimilitudo longinquum 15 : “We neither come to God nor go from God by distance of places. The likeness of mind maketh us near: the unlikeness removeth us far off.”
When one Deuterius, an Arian bishop, would have baptized a man after Paul. Diac. his blasphemous sort, suddenly the water was sunken away, and the font stood Hist. De dry 16.
The like story is uttered also by Socrates 17 and by others. This miracle Socrat. Lib. was likewise a token that God, when he is denied, departeth from us.
vii. cap. xvii. Yet may not M. Harding conclude hereof that the water of baptism was therefore called Lord and God.
[19 Theeself, 1565.]
( Et alius qui et ipse maculatus, sacrificio a sacerdote celebrato, partem cum ceteris ausus est latenter accipere: sanctum Domini edere, et contrectare non potuit; cinerem ferre se apertis manibus invenit. Documento &c.— Cypr. Op. De Laps. p. 133.]
[12 Of the order, 1565.]
cap. xiii. 30. Tom. IX. col. 45; where fugiunt. ]
[14 Flee, 1565.]
[15 Prosp. Lib. Sentent. in eod. Sent. cxxii. Tom. X. Append. col. 231; where vel receditur ab eo.]
(16 Paul. Diac. Hist. Misc. Lib. xv. 9. in Hist, August. Script. Hanov. 1611. p. 921.]
["? Socrat. in Hist. Eccles. Script. Amst. 16951700. Lib. VII. cap. xvii. p. 289.]
The same St Cyprian, in the exposition of the Pater noster, declaring the fourth petition of it, “ Give us this day our daily bread,” understandeth it to contain a desire of the holy communion in this blessed sacrament, and saith : Ideo panem nostrum, id est, Christum dari nobis quotidie petimus, ut qui in Christo manemus et vivimus, a sanctificatione et corpore ejus non recedamus!: “Therefore we ask our daily bread, that is to say, Christ, to be given unto us, that we
which abide and live in Christ depart not from the state of holiness and comThe two hun- munion of his body.” (242) Here St Cyprian calleth the sacrament Christ, as he forty-second is indeed there present really, so as in the place alleged before he calleth it Lord.
And, I ween, our adversaries will embrace the sacrament of the name of Christ prian hot the saera no less than of the name of Lord or God, unless they make less of Christ than ment Christ
, of Lord and God.
untruth. For St Cy
but only saith Christ is the bread or food by whom we live.
THE BISHOP OF SARISBURY.
Basi). in Psal. xliv.
Here M. Harding avoucheth three sundry untruths with one breath. For St Cyprian neither in these words calleth the sacrament Christ, nor in the words before calleth it Lord, nor any where ever said that Christ's body is really present in the sacrament. Untruths should not so rifely flow from a good divine.
It is true that St Cyprian saith, that “ Christ is our bread, even the same bread that came from heaven, and giveth life to the world; which bread whosoever eateth shall live for ever 3.” So saith St Basil : “ Christ is called our life, our way, our bread, our vine, our light, our sword 4.” Which words must be taken not grossly, nor according to that soundeth in the letter, but of a mystical and spiritual meaning. Therefore, as Christ is our spiritual sword, our spiritual light, our spiritual vine, our spiritual way, and our spiritual life, so is he also our spiritual bread. Origen saith : Ne mireris, quod verbum Dei
.caro dicitur : [nam] et panis, et lac, ... et olera dicitur ; et pro mensura credentium vel possibilitate sumentium diverse nominaturó : “Marvel not that the word of God is called flesh; for it is also called bread, and milk, and herbs; and, according to the measure of the believers or possibility of the receivers, it is diversly named."
Verily St Cyprian saith not, neither that the sacrament is Christ, nor that Christ is the sacrament. Therefore, whereas M. Harding would reason thus : Christ is the bread of life; ergo, the sacrament is our Lord and God; he seemeth to presume over boldly of his logic.
Orig. in Exod. Hom. 7.
saith not the sacra
M. HARDING. THE FOURTH DIVISION. Verily this holy martyr acknowledgeth this sacrament not for Lord and Christ The two hun- only, but (243) also for God, by these words in his sermon De Cena Domini: forty-third Sicut in persona Christi humanitas videbatur, et latebat divinitas; ita sacraSt Cyprian mento visibili ineffabiliter divina se infudit essentia 6 : “As in the person of
Christ the manhood was seen and the Godhead was hidden; so the divine essence ment is God, but only (or substance of God) hath infused itinto the visible sacrament unspeakably.”
THE BISHOP OF SARISBURY. Here is another proper kind of proof, even like the rest. O holy Cyprian, to the sacra: if thy manner of speaking were not known, the simple might easily be debaptism.
I grant, here is a great amplification and majesty of words, such as the holy fathers have much delighted to use in their sermons to the people,
sheweth that God with his power is assistant unto the sacrament, as also
[ Cypr. Op. Oxon. 1682. De Orat. Domin. p.
[* Imbar, 1565, and H. A. 1564.]
Christi corpore ... ipso præ-
[* Ως ούν ζωή έστι και οδός, και άρτος, και
άμπελος, και αληθινόν φως, και άλλα μυρία και Κύριος ημών Ιησούς Χριστός ονομάζεται, ούτε kai uá xaipa, k.č.d.-—Basil. Op. Par. 1721-30. Hom, in Psalm. xliv. 5. Tom. I.
163.] [Orig. Op. Par. 1733-59. In Exod. Hom. vii. 8. Tom. II. p. 155; where quia for quod.)
[* Cypr. Op. De Cen. Dom. (Arnold.) p. 40.] [? Itself, H. A. 1564. H. A. 1565 has it.]
but specially in treating of the sacraments. St Ambrose saith: Sacerdos precem Ambros. de facit, 8c.8: “ The priest maketh his prayer to sanctify the font, and that the i. cap. iii. presence of the whole Trinity may be in it." Tertullian saith : “ The Holy Ghost cometh down from heaven, and resteth Tertull. de
Baptism. upon the water of baptism, and sanctifieth it of himself 9.”
Even thus St Cyprian saith: “The divine substance infuseth itself unspeakably into the visible sacrament;” none otherwise than as the Holy Ghost, or the whole blessed Trinity, infuseth itself into the water of baptism. Paulinus seemeth to write much agreeably to these words of St Cyprian :
Sanctus in hunc cælo descendit Spiritus amnem ;
Cælestique sacras fonte maritat aquas.
Concipit unda Deum 10: “ The Holy Ghost into this water cometh down from heaven, and joineth the heavenly waters and these waters both in one. Then the font receiveth God.” What can be spoken with greater majesty ? “Then," saith he, “the water or the font receiveth God.”
If M. Harding out of these words of St Cyprian be able by this simple guess to prove that the sacramental bread was called Lord and God, then by the like guess and the like words of Tertullian, St Ambrose, and Paulinus, he may also prove that the water of baptism was likewise called Lord and God. For the form and manner of speech is all one.
But these and other like phrases be usual and ordinary among the ancient learned fathers. St Augustine writeth thus : Baptismi sanctitas pollui non po- August. de
Baptism. test ; et sacramento suo divina virtus assistit 11: “The holiness of baptism cannot be defiled. The heavenly power is assistant unto the sacrament.” And again: Hic. cap. 2. Deus adest sacramentis et verbis suis 12 : “God is present with his words and August
. de sacraments." Likewise St Cyprian, touching the hallowing of the oil, writeth contri thus : [In sacramentis] virtus divina potentius operatur. ... Adest veritas signo et v. cap. xix. Spiritus sacramento 13 : “In sacraments the heavenly power worketh mightily. Compete de The truth is present with the sign, and the Holy Ghost is present with the Chrism. sacrament."
All these words of the holy fathers notwithstanding, I think M. Harding will not call neither the water of baptism nor the oil hallowed Lord and God.
contr. Donatist. Lib.
The two hun.
Cor. Hom, 24.
(244) Chrysostom doubteth not to call the sacrament God in this plain say- dred and In priorem ad ing: Nolimus, obsecro, nolimus impudentes nos ipsos interimere; sed fortxa fourth
cum honore et munditia ad Deum accedamus, et quando id propo- sality not the situm videris, dic tecum, Propter hoc corpus non amplius terra et cinis ego God, but consum; non amplius captivus, sed liber14: “ Let us not, let us not, for God's sake, trariwise be 80 shameless as to kill ourselves (by unworthy receiving of the sacrament); but significat with reverence and cleanness let us come to God. And, when thou seest the sacra- answereth : ment set forth, say thus with thyself: By reason of this body I am no more Christi." earth and ashes, no more captive, but free.”
saith : “Quid
THE BISHOP OF SARISBURY.
Chrysostom, saith M. Harding, calleth the sacrament God by plain words. First, Chrysostom calleth not the sacrament God by any manner or kind of words. Therefore we may by plain words and boldly say, M. Harding here hath uttered another great untruth.
[ ... sacerdos ... precem defert; ut sanctificetur fons, et adsit præsentia Trinitatis æternæ.-Ambros. Op. Par. 1686-90. De Sacram. Lib. 1. cap. v. 18. Tom. II. col. 353.]
[ Supervenit enim statim Spiritus de cælis, et aquis superest, sanctificans eas de semetipso.Tertull. Op. Lut. 1641. De Baptism. 4. p. 257.]
[19 Paulin. Op. Antv. 1622. Ad Sever. Epist.
xii. p. 144.)
[" August. Op. Par. 1679-1700. De Bapt. contr. Donatist. Lib. III. cap. x. 15. Tom. IX. col. 113 ; where ipsa ejus sanctitas.]
[12 Id. ibid. Lib. v. cap. xx. 27. col. 154.]
[^4 Chrysost. Op. Par. 1718-38. In Epist. i, ad Cor. Hom. xxiv. Tom. X. pp. 216, 7.)