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the river, and seeing a mantle floating on the stream, he inquired what it was that appeared black; to which they answered, it was a mantle; and one of them threw stones upon it, in consequence of which it sunk. The attendants of the Pontiff then inquired from Giorgio, why he had not revealed this to the governor of the city; to which he replied, that he had seen in his time a hundred dead bodies thrown into the river at the same place, without any inquiry being made respecting them, and that he had not, therefore, considered it as a matter of any importance. The fishermen and seamen were then collected, and ordered to search the river; where, on the following evening, they found the body of the Duke, with his habit entire, and thirty ducats in his purse. He was pierced with nine wounds, one of which was in his throat,

the others in his head, body, and limbs. No sooner was the Pontiff informed of the death of his son, and that he had been thrown, like filth, into the river, than giving way to his grief, he shut himself up in a chamber and wept bitterly. The Cardinal of Segovia, and other attendants on the Pope, went to the door, and after many hours spent in persuasions and exhortations, prevailed upon him to admit them. From the evening of Wednesday, till the following, Saturday, the Pope took no food; nor did he sleep from Thursday morning till the same hour on the ensuing day. At length, however, giving way to the entreaties of his attendants, he began to restrain his sorrow, and to consider the injury which his own health might sustain, by the further indulgence of his grief."-Roscon's Lea Tenth, Vol. 1, p. 265.


The Turcoman hath left his herd. [p. 116. THE life of the Turcomans is wandering and patriarchal: they dwell in tents.

intentional, resemblance in these twelve lines to a passage in an unpublished poem of Mr. Cole ridge, called "Christabel." It was not till after these lines were written that I heard that Coumourgi-he whose closing scene. (p. 117. wild and singularly original and beautiful poem Ali Coumourgi, the favourite of three sultans, recited; and the MS. of that production I never and Grand Vizier to Achmet III., after recovering saw till very recently, by the kindness of Mr. Peloponnesus from the Venetians in one com- Coleridge himself, who, I hope, is convinced paign, was mortally wounded in the next, against that I have not been a wilful plagiarist. The the Germans, at the battle of Peterwaradin (in original idea undoubtedly pertains to Mr. Colethe plain of Carlowitz), in Hungary, endeavour-ridge, whose poem has been composed above ing to rally his guards. He died of his wounds next day. His last order was the decapitation of General Breuner, and some other German prisoners; and his last words, "Oh that I could thus serve all the Christian dogs!" a speech and act not unlike one of Caligula. He was a young man of great ambition and unbounded presumption: on being told that Prince Eugene, then opposed to him, "was a great general," he said "I shall become a greater, and at his expense."

There shrinks no ebb in that tideless sea. (p. 119. The reader need hardly be reminded that there are no perceptible tides in the Mediterranean.

And their white tusks crunch'd o'er the whiter skull. [p. 120. This spectacle I have seen, such as described, beneath the wall of the Seraglio at Constantinople, in the little cavities worn by the Bosphorus in the rock, a narrow terrace of which projects between the wall and the water. I think the fact is also mentioned in Hobhouse's Travels. The bodies were probably those of some refractory Janizaries.

And each scalp had a single long tuft of hair. [p. 120. This tuft, or long lock, is left from a superstition that Mahomet will draw them into Paradise by it.

Was it the wind, through some hollow stone..
(p. 121.
I must here acknowledge a close, though un-

fourteen years. Let me conclude by a hope that he will not longer delay the publication of a production, of which I can only add my mite of approbation to the applause of far more competent judges. ("Christabel" was published in 1816.)

There is a light cloud by the moon-
'Tis passing and will pass full soon-

If, by the time its vapoury sail. [p. 121. I have been told that the idea expressed in these lines has been admired by those whose approbation is valuable. I am glad of it: but it is not original-at least not mine; it may be found much better expressed in "Vathek a work to which I have before referred, and never recur to, or read, without a renewal of gratification.

The horsetails are pluck'd from the ground, and the sword. (p. 122. The horsetail, fixed upon a lance, a Pacha's standard.

And since the day, when in the strait. (p. 123. In the naval battle at the mouth of the Dardanelles, between the Venetians and the Turks.

The jackal's troop, in gather'd cry.

[p. 125. I believe I have taken a poetical license to transplant the jackal from Asia. In Greece I never saw nor heard these animals; but among the ruins of Ephesus I have heard them by hundreds. They haunt ruins, and follow armies.


It is the hour when from the boughs
The nightingale's high note is heard,

As twilight melts beneath the morn away.

[p. 126. These fourteen lines were printed as set to music some time since, but belonged to the poem where they now appear, the greater part of which was composed prior to "Lara," and other compositions since published.

That should have won as haught a crest. [p. 128. Haught-haughty.-"Away, haught man, thou art insulting me.' SHAKSPEARE, Richard II. Her life began and closed in woe. [p. 130. "This turned out a calamitous year for the people of Ferrara, for there occurred a very tragical event in the court of their sovereign. Our annals, both printed and in manuscript, with the exception of the unpolished and negligent work of Sardi, and one other, have given the following relation of it, from which, however, are rejected many details, and especially the narrative of Bandelli, who wrote a century afterwards, and who does not accord with the cotemporary historians.

"By the above mentioned Stella dell' Assassino, the Marquis, in the year 1405, had a son called Ugo, a beautiful and ingenious youth. Parisina Malatesta, second wife of Niccolo, like the generality of stepmothers, treated him with little kindness, to the infinite regret of the Marquis, who regarded him with fond partiality. One day she asked leave of her husband to undertake a certain journey, to which he consented, but upon condition that Ugo should bear her company; for he hoped by these means to induce her, in the end, to lay aside the obstinate aversion which she had conceived against him. And indeed this intent was accomplished but too well, since, during the journey, she not only divested herself of all her hatred, but fell into the opposite extreme. After their return, the Marquis had no longer any occasion to renew his former reproofs. It happened one day that a servant of the Marquis, named Zoese, or, as some call him, Giorgio, passing before the apartments of Parisina, saw going out from them one of her chambermaids, all terrified and in tears. Asking the reason, she told him that her mistress, for some slight offence, had been beating her; and, giving vent to her rage, she added, that she could easily be revenged, if she chose to make known the criminal familiarity which subsisted between Parisina and her step-son. The servant took note of the words, and related them to his master. He was astounded thereat, but scarcely believing his ears, he assured himself of the fact, alas! too clearly, on the 18th of May, 1425, by looking through a hole made in the ceiling of his wife's chamber. Instantly he broke into a furious rage, and arrested both of them, together with Aldobrandino Rangoni, of Modena, her gentleman, and also, as some say, two of the women of her chamber, as abettors of this sinful act. He ordered them to be brought to a hasty trial, desiring the judges to pronounce sentence, in the accustomed forms, upon the culprits. This sentence was death. Some there were that bestirred themselves in favour of the delinquents, and, amongst others, Ugoccion Contrario, who was all-powerful with Niccolo, and also his aged and much deserving minister Alberto dal Šale. Both of these, their tears flowing

down their cheeks, and upon their knees, implored him for mercy: adducing whatever reasons they could suggest for sparing the offenders, besides those motives of honour and decency which might persuade him to conceal from the public so scandalous a deed. But his rage made him inflexible, and, on the instant, he commanded that the sentence should be put in execution. "It was, then, in the prisons of the castle, and exactly in those frightful dungeons which are seen at this day beneath the chamber called the Aurora, at the foot of the Lion'g tower, at the top of the street Giovecca, that on the night of the twenty-first of May were beheaded, first, Ugo, and afterwards Parisina. Zoese, he that accused her, conducted the latter under his arm to the place of punishment. She, all along, fancied, that she was to be thrown into a pit, and asked at every step, whether she was yet come to the spot ? She was told that her punishment was the axe. She inquired what was become of Ugo, and received for answer, that he was already dead; at the which, sighing grievously, she exclaimed, "Now, then, I wish not myself to live;" and being come to the block, she stripped herself with her own hands of all her ornaments, and wrapping a cloth round her head, submitted to the fatal stroke which terminated the cruel scene. The same was done with Rangoni, who, together with the others, according to two calendars in the library of St. Francesco, was buried in the cemetery of that convent. Nothing else is known respecting the women.

"The Marquis kept watch the whole of that dreadful night, and, as he was walking backwards and forwards, inquired of the Captain of the castle if Ugo was dead yet? who answered him, Yes. He then gave himself up to the most desperate lamentations, exclaiming, "Oh! that I too were dead, since I have been hurried on to resolve thus against my own Ugo!" And then gnawing with his teeth a cane which he had in his hand, he passed the rest of the night in sighs and tears, calling frequently upon his own dear Ugo. On the following day, calling to mind that it would be necessary to make public his justification, seeing that the transaction could not be kept secret, he ordered the narrative to be drawn out upon paper, and sent it to all the courts of Italy.

"On receiving this advice, the Doge of Venice, Francesco Foscari, gave orders, but without publishing his reasons, that stop should be put to the preparations for a tournament, which under the auspices of the Marquis, and at the expense of the city of Padua, was about to take place, in the square of St. Mark, in order to celebrate his advancement to the ducal chair.

"The Marquis, in addition to what he had already done, from some unaccountable burst of vengeance, commanded that as many of the married women as were well known to him to be faithless, like his Parasina, should, like her, be beheaded. Amongst others, Barbarina, or as some call her, Laodamia Romei, wife of the court judge, underwent this sentence, at the usual place of execution, that is to say, in the quarter of St. Giacomo, opposite the present fortress, beyond St. Paul's. It cannot be told how strange appeared this proceeding in a prince, who, considering his own disposition, should, as it seemed, have been in such cases most indulgent. Some, however, there were, who did not fail to commend him." FRIZZI, History of Ferrara.


Poly garme


By Bonnivard!-May none those marks efface! [p. 131. François de Bonnivard, fils de Louis de Bonnivard, originaire de Seyssel et Seigneur de Lunes, naquit en 1496; il fit ses études à Turin. En 1510 Jean Aimé de Bonnivard, son oncle, lui résigna le Prieuré de St. Victor, qui aboutissait aux murs de Genève, et qui formait un bénéfice considérable.

Ce grand homme (Bonnivard mérite ce titre par la force de son àme, la droiture de son cœur, la noblesse de ses intentions, la sagesse de ses conseils, le courage de ses démarches, l'étendue de ses connaissances et la vivacité de son esprit), ce grand homme, qui excitera l'admiration de tous ceux qu'une vertu héroique peut encore émouvoir, inspirera encore la plus vive reconnaissance dans les cours des Genevois qui aiment Genève. Bonnivard en fut toujours un des plus fermes appuis pour assurer la liberté de notre République, il ne craignit pas de perdre souvent la sienne; il oublia son repos; il méprisa ses richesses; il ne négligea rien pour affermir le bonheur d'une patrie qu'il honora de son choix: dès ce moment il la chérit comme le plus zélé de ses citoyens; il la servit avec l'intrépidité d'un héros, et il écrivit son histoire avec la naïveté d'un philosophe et la chaleur d'un patriote.

Il dit dans le commencement de son histoire de Genève, que, dès qu'il eut commencé de lire l'histoire des nations, il se sentit entraîné par son gout pour les Républiques, dont il épousa toujours les intérêts: c'est ce goût pour la liberté qui lui fit sans doute adopter Genève pour sa patrie. Bonnivard, encore jeune, s'annonça hautement comme le défenseur de Genève contre le Duc de Savoye et l'Evêque.

le martyr de sa

Bonnivard fut savant; ses manuscrits, qui sont dans la bibliothèque publique, prouvent qu'il avait bien lu les auteurs classiques latins, et qu'il avait approfondi la théologie et l'histoire. Ce grand homme aimait les sciences, et il croyait qu'elles pouvaient faire la gloire de Genève; aussi il ne négligea rien pour les fixer dans cette ville naissante; en 1551 il donna sa bibliothèque au public; elle fut le commencement de notre bibliothèque publique; et ces livres sont en partie les rares et belles éditions du quinzième siècle qu'on voit dans notre collection. Enfin, pendant la même année, ce bon patriote institua la République son héritière, à condition qu'elle emploierait ses biens à entretenir le collége dont on projetait la fondation.

Y parait que Bonnivard mourut en 1570; mais on ne peut l'assurer, parce qu'il y a une lacune dans le Nécrologe depuis le mois de Juillet 1570 jusqu'en 157Ï.

In a single night.

[p. 131.

Ludovico Sforza, and others.-The same is asserted of Marie Antoinette's, the wife of Louis XVI., though not in quite so short a period. Grief is said to have the same effect: to such, and not to fear, this change in her's was to be attributed.

From Chillon's snow-white battlement. [p. 132. The Chateau de Chillon is situated between Clarens and Villeneuve, which last is at one extremity of the Lake of Geneva. On its left are the entrances of the Rhone, and opposite are the heights of Mellerie and the range of Alps above Boveret and St. Gingo.

Near it, on a hill behind, is a torrent; below it, washing its walls, the lake has been fathomed to the depth of 800 feet (French measure); within

En 1519, Bonnivard at entré dans Ge- it are a range of dungeons, in which the early

patrie: Te Duc de Savoye
neve avec cinq-cents hommes, Bonnivard craig-
nit le ressentiment du Duc; il voulut se retirer
à Fribourg pour en éviter les suites; mais il
fut trahi par deux hommes qui l'accompagnaient,
et conduit par ordre du Prince à Grolée, où il
resta prisonnier pendant deux ans. Bonnivard
était malheureux dans ses voyages; comme ses
malheurs n'avaient point ralenti son zélé pour
Genève, il était toujours un ennemi redoutable
pour ceux qui la menaçaient, et par conséquent
Il devait être exposé à leurs coups. Il fut ren-
contré en 1530 sur le Jura, par des voleurs, qui
le dépouillèrent, et qui le mirent encore entre
les mains du Duc de Savoye: ce Prince le fit
enfermer dans le Château de Chillon, où il
resta sans être interrogé jusqu'en 1536'; il fut
alors délivré par les Bernois, qui s'emparèrent
du Pays de Vaud.

Bonnivard, en sortant de sa captivité, eut le plaisir de trouver Genève libre et réformée : la république s'empressa de lui témoigner sa reconnaissance et de le dédommager des maux qu'il avait soufferts; elle le reçut Bourgeois de la ville au mois de Juin 1536; elle lui donna la maison habitée autrefois par le Vicaire-Général, et elle lui assigna une pension de 200 écus d'or tant qu'il séjournerait à Genève. Il fut admis dans le Conseil des Deux-Cents en 1537.

Bonnivard n'a pas fini d'être utile: après avoir travaillé à rendre Genève libre, il réussit à la rendre tolérante. Bonnivard engagea le Conseil à accorder aux Ecclésiastiques et aux paysans un temps suffisant pour examiner les propositions qu'on leur faisait; il réussit par sa douceur : on prêche toujours le Christianisme avec succès quand on le prêcho avec charité.

reformers, and subsequently prisoners of state, were confined., Across one of the vaults is a beam black with age, on which we were informed that the condemned were formerly executed. In the cells are seven pillars, or, rather, eight, one being half merged in the wall; in some of these are rings for the fetters and the fettered; in the pavement the steps of Bonnivard have left their traces-he was confined here several years.

It is by this castle that Roussean has fixed the catastrophe of his Heloise, in the rescue of one of her children by Julie from the water; the shock of which, and the illness produced by the immersion, is the cause of her death.

The chateau is large, and seen along the lake for a great distance. The walls are white.

(p. 134.

And then there was a little isle. Between the entrances of the Rhone and Villeneuve, not far from Chillon, is a very small island; the only one I could perceive, in my voyage round and over the lake, within its circumference. It contains a few trees (I think not above three), and from its singleness and diminutive size has a peculiar effect upon the view.

When the foregoing poem was composed I was not sufficiently aware of the history of Bonnivard, or I should have endeavoured to dignify the subject by an attempt to celebrate his courage and his virtues. Some account of his life will be found in the above note to the "Sonnet on Chillon," with which I have been furnished by the kindness of a citizen of that Republic which is still proud of the memory of a man worthy of the best age of ancient freedom.


Like the lost Pleiad seen no more below. [p. 144. St. 14. “Quæ septem dici sex tamen esse solent." OVID. His name Giuseppe, call'd more briefly, Beppo. [p. 145. St. 25. Beppo is the Joe of the Italian Joseph. The Spaniards call the person a "Cortejo." [p. 146. St. 37. "Cortejo" is pronounced "Corteho," with an

aspirate, according to the Arabesque guttural. It means what there is as yet no precise name for in England, though the practice is as common as in any tramontane country whatever.

Raphael, who died in thy embrace, and vice. [p. 147. St. 46. For the received accounts of the cause of Raphael's death, see his Lives.


NOTES TO CANTO I. Brave men were living before Agamemnon. [p. 153. St. 5. "Vixere fortes ante Agamemnona." HORACE. Save thine "incomparable oil," Macassar! [p. 154. St. 17. "Description des vertus incomparables de l'huile de Macassar."-See the advertisement.

They only add them all in an appendix. [p. 156. St. 44. Fact. There is, or was, such an edition, with all the obnoxious epigrams of Martial placed by themselves at the end.

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That e'er by precious metal was held in.

[p. 199. St. 71. This dress is Moorish, and the bracelets and bar are worn in the manner described. The reader will perceive hereafter, that, as the mother of Haidee was of Fez, her daughter wore the garb of the country.

A like gold bar, above her instep roll'd. (p. 199. St. 72. The bar of gold above the instep is a mark of sovereign rank in the women of the families of the Deys, and is worn as such by their female relatives.

Her person if allow'd at large to run. [p. 199. St. 73. This is no exaggeration; there were four women, whom I remember to have seen, who possessed their hair in this profusion; of these, three were English, the other was a Levantine. Their hair was of that length and quantity, that when let down, it almost entirely shaded the person, so as nearly to render dress a superfluity. Of these, only one had dark hair; the Oriental's had, perhaps, the lightest colour of the four.


Soft hour! which wakes the wish and melts the
[p. 204. St. 108.
Era già l' ora che volge 'l disio,
A naviganti, e 'ntenerisce il cuore ;
Lo di ch han detto a' dolci amici a dio;
E che lo nuovo peregrin' amore

Punge, se ode squilla di lontano,

Che paja 1 giorno pianger che si muore."
DANTE'S Purgatory, C. 8.

This last line is the first of Gray's Elegy, taken by him without acknowledgment.

Some hands unseen strew'd flowers upon his tomb. [p. 204. St. 109. See Suetonius for this fact.


A vein had burst.

(p. 209. St. 59. This is no very uncommon effect of the violence of conflicting and different passions. The Doge Francis Foscari, on his deposition, in 1457, 151.hearing the bell of St. Mark announce the elec

tion of his successor, “mourut subitement d'une hémorrhagie causée par une veine qui éclata dans sa poitrine, (see Sismondi and Daru,) at the age of eighty years, when "Who would have thought the old man had so much blood in him?" Before I was sixteen years of age, I was witness to a melancholy instance of the same effect of mixed passions upon a young person; who, however, did not die in consequence, at that time, but fell a victim some years afterwards to a seizure of the same kind, arising from causes intimately connected with agitation of mind.

But sold by the impresario at no high rate. (p. 211. St. 80. This is a fact. A few years ago a man engaged a company for some foreign theatre, embarked them at an Italian port, and, carrying them to Algiers, sold them all. One of the women, returned from her captivity, I heard sing, by a strange coincidence, in Rossini's opera of L'Italiana in Algeri," ́at Venice, in the beginning of 1817.

A marble fountain echoes. (p. 220. St. 55. A common furniture.-I recollect being received by Ali Pacha, in a room containing a marble basin and fountain.

The gate so splendid was in all its features.

[p. 223. St. 87. Features of a gate—a ministerial metaphor; the feature apon which this question hinges.”— See the "Fudge Family," or hear Castlereagh.

Though on more thorough-bred or fairer fingers. [p. 225. St. 106. There is perhaps nothing more distinctive of birth than the hand: it is almost the only sign of blood which aristocracy can generate.

Save Solyman, the glory of their line.

[p. 229. St. 147. in his essay "on Empire," hints that Solyman It may not be unworthy of remark, that Bacon, was the last of his line; on what authority, know not. These are his words: "The destrucFrom all the pope makes yearly 'twould perplex tion of Mustapha was so fatal to Solyman's line, To find three perfect pipes of the third sex. [p. 212. St. 86. as the succession of the Turks from Solyman, It is strange that it should be the Pope and until this day, is suspected to be untrue, and the Sultan who are the chief encouragers of this of strange blood; for that Solymus the Second branch of trade-women being prohibited as was thought to be supposititious." But Bacon, in singers at St. Peter's, and not deemed trust-his historical authorities, is often inaccurate. I worthy as guardians of the haram.

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Kill'd by five bullets from an old gun-barrel. [p. 218. St. 34. There was found close by him an old gunbarrel, sawn half off: it had just been discharged, and was still warm.

Prepared for supper with a glass of rum. [p. 220. St. 53. In Turkey nothing is more common than for the Mussulmans to take several glasses of strong spirits by way of appetizer. I have seen them take as many as six of raki before dinner, and swear that they dined the better for it; I tried the experiment, but was like the Scotchman, who having heard that the birds called kittiewiaks were admirable whets, ate six of them, and complained that “he was no hungrier than when he began."

could give half a dozen instances from his apophthegms only.

Being in the humour of criticism, I shall proceed, after having ventured upon the slips of Bacon, to touch on one or two as trifling in the edition of the British poets, by the justly-celebrated Campbell.-But I do this in good will, and trust it will be so taken.-If any thing could add to my opinion of the talents and true feeling of that gentleman, it would be his classical, honest, and triumphant defence of Pope, against the vulgar cant of the day, and its existing Grub-street.

The inadvertencies to which I allude are:

Firstly, in speaking of Anstey, whom he accuses of having taken "his leading characters from Smollett." Anstey's Bath Guide was published in 1766. Smollett's Humphry Clinker (the only work of Smollett's from which Tabitha could have been taken) was written during Smollett's last residence at Leghorn, in 1770.— "Argal," if there has been any borrowing, Anstey must be the creditor, and not the debtor. I refer Mr. Campbell to his own data in his lives of Smollett and Anstey.

Secondly, Mr. Campbell says in the life of Cowper that "he knows not to whom Cowper alludes in these lines:

Nor he who, for the bane of thousands born,
Built God a church, and laugh'd his word to scorn.

The Calvinist meant Voltaire, and the church of Ferney, with its inscription, "Deo erexit Voltaire.

Thirdly, in the life of Burns, Mr. C. quotes
Shakespeare thus,—

To gild refined gold, to paint the rose,
Or add fresh perfume to the violet.
This version by no means improves the origi-
nal, which is as follows:

To gild refined gold, to paint the lily,
To throw a perfume on the violet,

A great poet quoting another should be correct; he should also be accurate when he accuses a Parnassian brother of that dangerous charge "borrowing: a poet had better borrow any thing (excepting money) than the thoughts of anotherthey are always sure to be reclaimed: but it is very hard, having been the lender, to be de

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