the intervals of passion, or blended with the more powerful impulses of nature, is hardly surpassed in any of his plays. But there is a general want of passion; the affections are at a stand; our sympathies are repulsed and defeated in all directions.” Isabella is a lovely example of female parity and virtue;

with mental energies of a very superior kind, she is placed in a situation to make trial of them all, and the firmness with which her virtue resists the appeal of natural affection has something in it heroically sublime. The passages in which she encourages her brother to meet death with firmness rather than dishonour, bis burst of indignant passion on learning the price at which his life might be redeemed, and his subsequent clinging to life, and desire that she would make the sacrifice required, are among the finest dramatic passages of Shakspeare. What heightens the effect is that this scene follows the fine exhortation of the Duke in the character of the Friar about the little value of life which had almost made Claudio • resolved to die.' The comic parts of the play are lively and amusing, and the reckless Barnardine, “fearless of what's past, present, and to come,' is in fine contrast to the sentimentality of the other characters. Shakspeare “was a moralist in the same sense in which nature is one. He taught what he had learnt from her. He showed the greatest knowledge of humanity with the greatest fellow feeling for it*.”

Malone supposes this play to have been written about the close of the year 1603.


* Characters of Shakspeare's Plays, 2d ed. London, 1818,

p. 120.


VINCENTIO, Duke of Vienna.
ANGELO, Lord Deputy in the Duke's absence.
ESCALUS, an ancient Lord, joined with Angelo in the

CLAUDIO, a young Gentleman.
LUCIO, a Fantastick.
Two other like Gentlemen.
VARRIUS, a Gentleman, Servant to the Duke.

Two Friars.
A Justice.
Elbow, a simple Constable.
FROTH, a foolish Gentleman.
Clown, Servant to Mrs. Over-done.
ABHORSON, an Executioner.
BARNARDINE, a dissolute Prisoner.

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ISABELLA, Sister to Claudio.
MARIANA, betrothed to Angelo.
JULIET, beloved by Claudio.

Lords, Gentlemen, Guards, Officers, and other


SCENE, Vienna.



SCENE I. An Apartment in the Duke's Palace.

Enter DUKE, ESCALUS, Lords, and Attendants.

Escal. My lord.

Duke. Of government the properties to unfold, Would seem in me to affect speech and discourse; Since I am put to know?, that

your own science Exceeds, in that, the lists? of all advice My strength can give you: Then no more remains But that to your sufficiency), as your worth is able, And let them work. The nature of our people, Our city's institutions, and the terms For common justice, you are as pregnant* in,




' i. e. since I am so placed as to know. Mr. Stevens says it may mean, I am compelled to acknowledge. And instances from Henry VI. Pt. ii. Sc. 1.

had I first been put to speak my mind.' 2 Lists are bounds.

3 Some words seem to be lost here. The sense of whieh may have been

Then no more remains
But that to your sufficiency you join
A zeal as willing, as your worth is able,

And let them work.
Sufficiency is skill in government; ability to execute his office.

4 i. e. ready in.

As art and practice hath enriched any
That we remember: There is our commission,
From which we would not have you warp.—Call

bid come before us Angelo.—

(Exit an Attendant. What figure of us think you he will bear? For

you must know, we have with special soul
Elected him our absence to supply;
Lent him our terror, drest him with our love;
And given his deputation all the organs
Of our own power: What think you of it?

Escal. If any in Vienna be of worth
To undergo such ample grace and honour,
It is lord Angelo.


Look, where he comes.
Ang. Always obedient to your grace's will,
I come to know your pleasure.

There is a kind of character in thy life,
That, to the observer doth thy history
Fully unfold: Thyself and thy belongings
Are not thine own so proper, as to waste
Thyself upon thy virtues, them on thee.
Heaven doth with us, as we with torches do;
Not light them for themselves : for if our virtues
Did not go forth of us, 'twere all alike
As if we had them not. Spirits are not finely touch'd,
But to fine issues 6: nor nature never lends 7
The smallest scruple of her excellence,

5 So much thy own property.

6 i. e. high purposes. 7 Two negatives, not employed to make an affirmative, are common in Shakspeare's writings, so in Julius Cæsar:

· Nor to no Roman else.'

But, like a thrifty goddess, she determines
Herself the glory of a creditor,
Both thanks and use 8. But I do bend my speech
To one that can my part in him advertise';
Hold therefore.—Angelo;
In our remove, be thou at full ourself;
Mortality and Mercy in Vienna
Live in thy tongue and heart 10: Old Escalus,
Though first in question, is thy secondary :
Take thy commission.

Now, good my lord,
Let there be some more test made of my metal,
Before so noble and so great a figure
Be stamp'd upon it.

No more evasion :
We have with a leaven’d 11 and prepared choice
Proceeded to you; therefore take your honours.
Our haste from hence is of so quick condition,
That it prefers itself, and leaves unquestion'd
Matters of needful value. We shall write to you,
As time and our concernings shall importune,
How it goes with us; and do look to know
What doth befall you here. So, fare you

well: To the hopeful execution do I leave you Of

your commissions. Ang.

Yet, give leave, my lord, That we may bring you something on the way.

8 i.e. Nature requires and allots to herself the same advantages that creditors usually enjoy—thanks for the endowments she has bestowed, and extraordinary exertions in those whom she has favoured; by way of use (i. e, interest) for what she has lent.

9 i.e. to one who is already sufficiently conversant with the nature and duties of my office ;-of that office which I have now delegated to him.

10 i.e. I delegate to thy tongue the power of pronouncing sentence of death, and to thy heart the privilege of exercising mercy.

11 A choice mature, concocted, fermented; i. e. not hasty, but considerate.

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