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common to all the countries and nations of the occidental or west church, for the same purpose, and thereof it hath been called the Latin church.

Wherefore, to conclude, they that shew themselves so earnest and zealous for the translation of the scriptures into all vulgar and barbarous tongues, it behoveth them, after the opinion of wise men, to see, first, that no faults be found in their translations, (212) as hitherto many have been found. And a small fault, com- The two mitted in the handling of God's word, is to be taken for a great crime. Next, and twelfth that, forasmuch as such translations pertain to all christian people, they be referred joined with a to the judgment of the whole church of every language, and commended to the laity there were by the wisdom and authority of the clergy, haring charge of their souls. Further- MHarding more, that there be some choice, exception, and limitation of time, place, and persons, them in pearand also of parts of the scriptures, after the discreet ordinances ll of the Jews ; amongst whom it was not lawful that any should 12 read certain parts of the bible before he had fulfilled the time of the priestly ministry; which was the age of thirty Præfatione in years 13, as St Hierome witnesseth. Lastly, that the setting forth of the

scriptures in the common language be not commended to the people as a thing utterly necessary to salvation, lest thereby they condemn so many churches that hitherto have lacked the same, and so many learned and godly fathers that hare not procured it for their flock", finally, all that have gone before us, to whom in all virtue, innocency, and holiness of life, we are not to be compared. As for me, inasmuch as this matter is not yet determined by the church, whether the common people ought to have the scriptures in their own tongue to read and to hear, or no, I define nothing. As I esteem greatly all godly and wholesome knowledge, and wish the people had more of it than they have, with charity and meekness ; so I would that these hot talkers of God's word had less of that knowledge which maketh a man to swell and to be proud in his own conceit; and that they would deeply weigh with themselves, whether they be not contained within the lists of the

saying of St Paul to the Corinthians : If any man think that he knoweth

any thing, he knoweth nothing yet as he ought to know.” God grant all our knowledge be so joined with meekness, humility, and charity, as that be not justly said of us, which St Augustine in the like case. said very dreadfully to his

dear friend Alypius : Surgunt indocti, et cælum rapiunt ; et nos cum

doctrinis nostris sine corde, ecce ubi volutamur in carne, et sanguine 15! "The unlearned and simple arise up, and catch heaven away from us; and we with all our great learning, void of heart, lo, where are we wallowing in flesh and blood ?

1 Cor. tiii.

Confess. Lib. rith. cap. riii.



M. Harding seemeth secretly to grant that thing which without blushing no man can deny; that is, that the scriptures long sithence and in old times have been translated into the natural speech of this country. But he addeth withal a The bible in poor exception, that, notwithstanding the translation were in English, yet it English cand served not for English people. And yet for what people else it should serve, it belie. were not easy to conjecture. Doubtless, if they had meant as these men do, to bar the English people from God's word, they would have kept it still as it was before, in Latin, Greek, or Hebrew, and would not have suffered any such translation.

But Beda himself, that wrote the story of this island, in these very words that M. Harding hath here alleged, seemeth to witness that the scriptures were then translated into sundry tongues, and that for the better understanding of the people. For thus he writeth : Hæc [insula]...quinque gentium linguis... scrutatur unam, eandemque... scientiam veritatis 16 : “ This island searched 17 out the knowledge of one truth with the tongues of five nations.” It is not likely he would have written thus of five several tongues, if the scriptures had been written then only in one tongue. In like manner and to like purpose he writeth thus : Quicung

Bed. Hist,
Angl. Lib. i.

cap. i.

(" Ordinance, H. A. 1564.)
(12 Any man should, H. A. 1564.)

[13 Hieron. Op. Explan. in Ezech. Proph. Prolog. Tom. III..cols. 697, 8.)

[14 Flocks, H. A. 1564 ; flock, H. A. 1565.]

(15 August. Op. Par. 1679-1700. Confess. Lib. VIII. cap. viii. 19. Tom. I. col. 152.]

[16 Bæd. Hist. Eccles. Lib 1. cap. i. p. 41. See before, page 692, note 10.)

["? Searcheth, 1565, 1609.)

Angl. Lib. v.

cap. xxii,

Lib. v. cap.


gentium linguis unam eandemque veritatis scientiam scrutanturl: “Whosoever they The

be that search the knowledge of one truth” (not only in the Latin tongue, as M. Scriptures

Harding saith, but) gentium linguis, that is, “in the natural and vulgar tongues of in English.

this country.” Doubtless, it were very much to say, that the mere Englishman, or Scot, or Pict, or Briton, that understood no Latin, was able nevertheless to read and search the scriptures in the Latin tongue.

But to leave conjectures, Beda saith expressly and in most plain words, that Bed, in Hist. one Cedman, an English poet, translated the creation of the world, and the whole

story of the Genesis and the Exodus, and sundry other stories of the bible into Adelstane. English rhyme?. Likewise, as it is said before, king Adelstane, about nine hundred

years past, caused the whole bible to be translated into English. And sir John Johan. Trev. Trevisa saith, that Beda himself turned St John's gospel into English. And

again he saith, that king Aluredus caused the psalter to be turned into English 4. Lohan. Tren; And until this day there be divers such translations yet remaining to be seen, vi.cap. i.

which for many causes bear good proof of great antiquity. Therefore, that this island hath continued thirteen hundred years without having the scriptures in English, it can bear no manner appearance or shew of truth,

But being admitted and granted for true, if prescription of want may make good proof, then may we say, this island stood and continued four thousand whole years not only without the English bible, but also without any knowledge of Christ or God. Likewise we may truly say, the gospel and the truth of God stood and continued in this island for the



years without either the supremacy of Rome, or transubstantiation, or private masses, or any other like fantasies.

True it is, our fathers of late years have been led in ignorance, and have

been violently forced from the scriptures. But the examples and wants of our Concil

. Chalc. fathers are not always sufficient rules of faith. The heretic Eutyches said: Sic Act. 1.

a progenitoribus meis accipiens credidi :...in hac fide genitus sum, et consecratus Deo :...et in ea opto mori5 : “ This faith have I received from mine ancestors : in this faith was 16 born and baptized ; and in the same I desire to die.” And yet the same faith was an error, and no faith. So said the Arian heretic Auxentius :

Quemadmodum ab infantia edoctus sum, ita credidi, et credo 7: “As I have been Epist.

taught from my childhood, so I have believed, and so I believe still.” So likewise the idolatrous Jews said unto the prophet Hieremy: Sic fecimus nos, et patres nostri, reges nostri, et principes nostri ; et saturati sumus panibus, et bene nobis erat : “ Thus have we done, and our fathers before us, and our kings, and our princes. And we had store and plenty of all things, and a merry world, and did full well.” But God saith unto them: In statutis patrum vestrorum nolite ambulare, &c. Ego Dominus Deus vester : “Walk not in the statutes of

your fathers;... I am the Lord


God.Howbeit, we sit not in judgment to condemn our fathers; God only is their judge. St Paul saith : Solidum Dei fundamentum stat, habens hoc signaculum, Novit Dominus qui sint sui: “ This foundation standeth sound, having this seal, The Lord knoweth who be his own.” God was able to preserve the bush in the midst of the flame, and Daniel in the cave in the midst of the lions, and the

three children in the midst of the furnace of flaming fire, and his people of Exod. xiv.

Israel in the midst of the Red sea: even so was he able to preserve his own in the midst of that deadly time of darkness. St Cyprian saith : Ignosci potuit simpliciter erranti....Post inspirationem vero, et revelationem factam, qui in eo, quod

Hilar. in


Jer. xliv.

Ezek. XX.

2 Tim. ii.

Exod. iii.

Dan. vi.

Dan. iii.

[See page 692, note 10.]

[? Canebat autem de creatione mundi, et origine humani generis, et tota Genesis historia, de egressu Israel ex Ægypto et ingressu in terram repromissionis, de aliis plurimis sacræ scripturæ historiis, de incarnatione dominica, passione, resurrectione, et ascensione in cælum, de Spiritus sancti adventu, et apostolorum doctrina._Id. Lib. iv. cap. xxiv. p. 171.]

[Polycron. (Englished by Trevisa) Southw. 1527. Lib. v. cap. xxiv. fol. 217.]

[* At laste he auentred hym too translate the

sawter in to Englysshe/ but he translated vnnethe the fyrste parte before his deth.-Id. Lib. vi. cap. i. fol. 227. 2.)

[* Libell. Confess. Eut. in Concil. Calched. Act. 1. in Concil. Stud. Labb. et Cossart. Lut. Par. 1671-2. Tom. IV. cols. 133-6.]

[I was, 1565, 1609.)

[? ex infantia, quemadmodum doctus sum, sicut accepi de sanctis scripturis, credidi, et credo, &c.Hilar. Op. Par. 1693. Lib. contr. Auxent. 14. col. 1270]

errarerat, perseverat...sine venia ignorantiæ peccat. Præsumptione enim atque obstinatione...superatur 8: "He that erreth of simplicity (as our fathers did) may be pardoned; but, after that God hath once inspired the heart, and revealed his truth, whoso continueth still in his error offendeth without pardon of ignorance. For he is overborne by presumption and wilfulness.”

Upon these words of Beda M. Harding concludeth thus: The Latin tongue for the study of the scriptures was common to all the nations of this realm; ergo, the scriptures were not translated into English. A very child may soon see the simplicity and the weakness of this reason. For even now, notwithstanding the whole bible be translated into the English tongue, extant in every church, and common to all the people, yet the Latin tongue is nevertheless common to all the nations of this land, for the reading of old commentaries and the ancient doctors, and so for the meditation and study of the scriptures.

Now let us weigh M. Harding's considerations in this behalf. First, if there 1. had any faults escaped in the English translation, as he untruly saith there have many, he would not thus have passed them uncontrolled. He lacked neither eloquence nor good-will to speak, but only good matter to speak of.

Secondly, the scriptures translated into English have been delivered unto the 2. people by such bishops and other spiritual guides as indeed have had a care for their souls, and have given their lives and blood for their sheep. But the bishops of M. Harding's side can only espy faults in translations; but they can amend none. They have burnt a great number of bibles; but they have hitherto translated none. Christ's words are rightly verified of them : “ Neither do you? enter yourselves, nor will you suffer others, that would enter.” For the highest principle of their religion is this : “Ignorance is the mother of true religion.”

To limit and to diet the people, what they may read and what they ought 3. to leave, was sometime the superstitious discretion of the rabbins 10. Herein we infamous

Orig. Prolog may say as St Hilary saith : Archangeli nesciunt: angeli non audiverunt : propheta Cantic. non sensit: Filius ipse non ediditll: The archangels know it not: the angels have Apolog: not heard it: the prophet hath not felt it: the Son of God himself hath revealed Unit. Patr. to us no such thing.” Certainly, now the vail being drawn aside, and our faces being open, to behold the glory of God, St Paul saith: Omnis scriptura divinitus 2 Cor. iii. inspirata utilis est, &c.: not only one part of the scriptures, but “all and every 2 Tim. iii. part thereof is profitable, &c.” And again : Quæcunque scripta sunt, ad nostram Rom. xv. doctrinam scripta sunt : “ All things that are written are written for our instruction.” And therefore Irenæus saith, as it is before alleged: Ex omni scriptura Iren. Lib. x dirina 12 manducate 13 : “Eat you of every part of the holy scripture.”

Humility and good life, whereof M. Harding would seem to make some great account, is sooner learned of knowledge than of ignorance. Chrysostom saith: Magna Chrysost.de adversus peccatum munitio est scripturarum lectio : magnum præcipitium et profundum barathrum scripturarum ignoratio : nihil scire de divinis legibus magna salutis perditio. Ea res et hæreses peperit, et vitam corruptam invexit : hoc sursum deorsum miscuit omnia 14 : “ The reading of the scriptures is a great fence against sin; and the ignorance of the scriptures is a dangerous downfall and a great dungeon. To know nothing of God's laws is the loss of salvation. Ignorance hath brought in heresies and vicious life. Ignorance hath turned all things upside down.”

Therefore the apostles of Christ and all other godly fathers have evermore encouraged the people to read the scriptures, and evermore thought the church of God to be in best case when the people was best instructed. St Paul saith : “Let the word of God dwell abundantly amongst you.” Polycarpus saith to the Col. iii. people: Confido ros bene exercitatos esse in sacris literis 15 : “My trust is, that ye Philo

Nazianz. in

et Fil.


Lazar.Conc.3. Hom. 9.

Polycarp. ad

[ Cypr. Op. Oxon. 1682. Ad Jubai. Epist. lxxiii. p. 204; where ignosci enim potest, and superetur.]

[° Ye, 1565.]

[° Orig. Op. Par. 1733–59. In Cant. Canticor. Prolog. Tom. III. p. 26.

Gregor. Nazianz. Op. Par. 1778-1840. Orat. ii. 48. Tom. I. pp. 35, 6.]

[" Hilar. Op. De Patr. et Fil. Unit. Append. col. 1373. This piece is compiled from Hilary and

other authors. The passage here cited may be found
De Trin. Lib. i1. 9. col. 793.]

[12 Manducare, 1611.]

[13 Iren. Op. Par. 1710. Contr. Hær. Lib. v.cap. xx. 2. p. 317. See before, page 691, note 14.]

[14 Chrysost. Op. Par. 1718-38. De Lazar. Conc, iii. Tom. I. p. 740.]

[15 Polycarp. ad Philip.cap. xii. in Patr. Apostol. Oxon. 1838. Tom. II. p. 487.]

Psal. xxxiii.

Hieron. in
Epist. ad Col.

cap. iii.

Johan. Hom. 1.

6 Ye

Nat. Hom.
Lib. v.

Orig. in Lev. be well instructed in the holy scriptures.” Origen saith unto his people: “Give

your diligence, not only to hear God's word in the church, but also to be exer

cised in the same in your houses at home, and day and night bel studious in the August. in

law of the Lord?.” St Augustine saith : “Read ye the holy scriptures. For to that end God would have them written, that we might receive comfort by them.” St Hierome saith, as it is alleged before: Laici non tantum sufficienter, sed etiam abundanter verbum Dei habere debent, et se invicem docere4 : “ The lay-people ought

to have the word of God, not only sufficiently, but also abundantly, and to instruct Chrysost. in one another.” St Chrysostom willeth the father with his child, and the husband

with his wife, at home in his house to talk and reason of the word of God. TheoTheodor. de doretus writeth thus: Passim videas hæc nostratia dogmata &c.6: may com

monly see, that not only the teachers of the people and rulers of the churches, but also tailors, smiths, and cloth-workers, and other artificers do understand the principles of our religion; and further, that not only learned women, if there be any such, but also such women as live by their labour, and sewsters, and maidservants, but also husbandmen, and ditchers, and herdmen, and graffers, can reason of the holy Trinity, and of the creation of the world, and of the nature of

mankind, a great deal more skilfully than either Plato or Aristotle was ever able to Orig. in José do.” Therefore Origen saith unto his hearers of the lay-people: Me... dicente, quod

sentio, vos decernite. et examinate, si quid rectum est aut minus rectum? : “While I speak that I think meet, examine and judge you whether it be well or otherwise.” Thus in old times the vulgar people, and such as M. Harding calleth swine, and rude and rash people, and curious busy-bodies, were able not only to

understand the scriptures, but also to judge of their preachers. And therefore the Cyril.contr: wicked renegade emperor Julianus reproved the Christians (even as M. Harding now vi. et Lib. vii. doth us), for that they suffered their women and children to read the scriptures S.

But the enemies of God's truth, for fear and conscience of their weakness, have evermore used violently to take away the word of God, not only from women and children, but also from all the whole people. Chrysostom saith : Hæretici sacerdotes claudunt januas veritatis. Sciunt enim,... si manifestata fuerit veritas, ecclesiam suam esse relinquendam, et se de sacerdotali dignitate ad humilitatem venturos popularemo: “Heretic priests shut up the gates of the truth. For they know that, if the truth once appear, they must needs leave their church, and

from the dignity of their priesthood come down to the state of other people.” Totode Trin. For Tertullian saith: Scriptura divina hæreticorum fraudes et furta facile convincit,

et detegit 10: The holy scripture will easily bewray and confound the guiles and thefts of heretics.” Christ saith: “He that doth ill hateth the light.” And therefore they say, as it is written in the prophet Amos : Tace, et ne recorderis nominis Domini : “Hold thy peace, and never think upon the name of the Lord.” But miserable is that religion that cannot stand without hiding and suppressing of the truth of God.

Chrysost. in
Op. 'Imp.
Hom. 44.

John iji.
Amos vi.

[ To be, 1565.]

[? Optamus tamen ut vel his auditis operam detis, non solum in ecclesia audire verba Dei, sed et in domibus vestris exerceri et meditari in lege Domini die ac nocte.-Orig. Op. Par. 1733-59. In Levit. Hom. ix. 5. Tom. II. p. 240.]

[° Legite scripturas: ideo voluit Deus ut scriberentur, ut nos consolaremur.-August. Op. Par. 16791700. In Psalm. xxxiii. Enarr. ii. 17. Tom. IV. col. 224.)

[* Hieron. Op. Par. 1693-1706. Comm. in Epist. ad Coloss. cap. iii. Tom. V. col. 1074. See before, page 685, note 12.)

[S και μη μόνον ενταύθα αυτην επιδείκνυ. . σθαι, αλλά και οίκοι γενομένους, τον άνδρα προς την γυναίκα, τον πατέρα προς τον παιδα, περί TOÚTWv dial éyeobal.-Chrysost. Op. Par. 1718-38. In Joan. Hom. ii. Tom. VIII. p. 16.)

[ ... και έστιν ιδείν ταυτα ειδότας τα δόγματα, , ου μόνους γε της εκκλησίας τους διδασκάλους, , αλλά και σκυτοτόμους, και χαλκοτύπους, και ταλα.

σιουργούς, και τους άλλους αποχειροβιώτους και γυναίκας ωσαύτως, ου μόνον τας λόγων μετεσχηκυίας, αλλά και χερνήτιδας, και ακεστρίδας, και μέντοι και θεραπείνας. και ου μόνον αστοι αλλα και χωρητικοί τήνδε την γνώσιν έσχήκασι και έστιν ευρείν και σκαπανέας, και βοηλάτας, και φυτουργούς, περί της θείας διαλεγομένους Τριάδος, και περί της των όλων δημιουργίας, και την ανθρωπείαν φύσιν ειδότας 'Αριστοτέλους πολλώ μάλλον kai IIXátwvos.—Theodor. Op. Par. 1642-84. Græc. Affect. Cur. Serm. v. De Nat. Hom. Tom. IV. p. 556.]

[ Orig. Op. In Lib. Jesu Nave Hom. xxi. 2. Tom. II. p. 448; where discernite.)

[Cyril. Alex. Op. Lut. 1638. Contr. Julian. Libb. vi. vii. Tom. VI. pp. 206, 9, 29, 30, 4.]

[° Chrysost. Op. Imp. in Matt. Hom. xliv. ex cap. xxiii. Tom. VI. p. clxxxvi; where januam, and eorum ecclesia est relinquenda, et ipsi de sacerdotali dignitate ad humilitatem venient popularem.}

[ Tertull. Op. Par. 1580. Lib. de Trin. p. 505.1





Or that it was then lawful for the priest to pronounce the words of consecration closely and in silence unto himself.


H. A. 1561.)

[blocks in formation]

The matter of this article is neither one of the highest mysteries nor one of the greatest keys of our religion, howsoever M. Jewel pleaseth himself with that report, thinking thereby to impair the estimation of the catholic church. The diversity of obserration in this behalf sheweth the indifferency of the thing. For else, if one manner of pronouncing the words of consecration had been thought a necessary point of religion, it had been every where uniform and invariable. That the bread and wine be consecrated by the words of our Lord pronounced by the priest, as in the person of Christ, by virtue of the 12 which, through the grace of the Holy Ghost, the bread and wine are changed into our Lord's body and blood; (213) this thing The two hath in all times, and in all places, and with consent of all, invariably been done, thirteenth and so believed. But the manner of pronouncing the words, concerning silence or open utterance, according to diversity of places, hath been diverse.

vouched, and

hundred and

untruth, Often a

never proved.


This, saith M. Harding, is but a small key of our religion. Which thing may very well appear, both otherwise, and also by the small weight and slenderness of his proofs. Howbeit, in cases of religion, and in the service of God, nothing ought to be judged small, specially that may deceive the people, Verily, how small soever they will now have this key to seem, as it hath been heretofore cause of no small superstition, so it hath shut out God's people from the sight and understanding of our greatest mysteries.

Certain it is that the religion of Christ may well stand without this kind of mystical silence, as it may also without transubstantiation, or private mass, or any other their like fantasies. But if the matter be so small, wherefore doth M. Harding take so great pains to prove it, and that by so great untruths and so manifest fables ? Wherefore are they not ashamed to say, that Christ himself at Thom. in iii

. his last supper consecrated in silence and secrecy, and that in like order and Quæst. 18. form as they do now 13 ? Or how durst the bishops in this present council of Concii

. Trident so solemnly to abanne 14 and accurse all them that dare to find fault with Sess. 2. the same 15 ? So small a matter as this is now supposed to be should never need so great ado.

But, whether these words be uttered secretly or aloud, he imagineth that by the power thereof the substance of the bread and wine is really and wholly changed into the substance of the body and blood of Christ. The untruth hereof is mani

Concil. Trid.

(1 To, H. A. 1564.)
["? H. A. 1564, omits the.]

[13 Different opinions are recited by Aquinas.-
Thom. Aquinat. Op. Venet. 1595. Summ. Theol.
Tert. Pars, Quæst. lxxviii. Art. 1. Tom. XII. fol. 254.
Coof. In Sentent. Lib. iv. Dist. viii. Quæst. ii. Art. 1.
Tom. VIII. fol. 42.]


[14 Aban: ban, curse.)

[15 Si quis dixerit, ecclesiæ Romanæ ritum, quo summissa voce pars canonis et verba consecrationis proferuntur, damnandum esse, &c....anathema sit.Concil. Trid. Sess. xxii. De Sacrif. Miss. can. 9, in Concil. Stud. Labb. et Cossart. Lut. Par. 1671-2. Tom. XIV. col. 856.]


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