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as the proprietors of a single store and have management would be still more efficient, had the vision to see the advantage of a and the trend of development seems to be in multiple business.
this direction. As already remarked, the telephone has In the preface to the first of these articles greatly simplified the problems of administra- upon “Big Business Junior in America ” I tive supervision and stock replenishment.
said: This instrument makes it practicable for the
Many young Americans, and some older ones, manager of the district store to keep in con
frequently complain that all the big things were stant touch with the main office and ware- done during their fathers' generation; that the house.
country is now developed, that the great opporHe is thus able to supply all demands tunities are gone or are pre-empted by the cor. promply without being overstocked.
porations, and that he who is not born within Some of the larger chain-store companies
the charmed circle of wealth is doomed to mediare themselves manufacturers. Most of them
ocrity and obscurity, no matter how great his roast their own coffee. Many of them have
ability and industry. canneries and bakeries.
This is not true.
Within the past decade West there is one concern that deals in fresh,
many new forms of big business have grown up
in the United States. They are Nation wide in salt, and smoked meat slaughtered and cured
their scope, employ armies of men and women, in its own packing-house.
and perform an important public service in that The aggregate business done by the vari- they contribute to the comfort, enjoyment, or ous chain-store concerns operating more than
economy of life. ten stores each is not over $300,000,000 a They have made thousands of men rich and year. This is less than five per cent of the scores of men millionaires, and have provided total grocery trade of the country. The
distinguished careers for many who are still economy that the present high price of food
young and were unknown youths when they will shortly compel seems likely to increase
grasped the opportunities that always exist for
the observant, optimistic, and courageous. the appeal of the chain store for a public that
Doubtless the next ten years will offer many will have to pay the equivalent of $12 a bar
other novel openings for the young men who are rel for flour, $3.65 a sack for potatoes, 60 now entering upon the business of life. To encents a dozen for eggs, and 50 cents a pound courage them to look for such chances this and for butter.
the succeeding articles are written. Under such conditions, the economic use- They will deal briefly with the history and fulness of the chain store will be increased probable future of those departments of big and its business will doubtless show an accel
business junior in America, by which is meant erated growth. That it is destined to be
the business or industries which, though young,
have become sufficiently stabilized and standcome a very important part of our commer
ardized to attract general public investment cial machinery seems self-evident.
in their securities, and National enough in their Whether this destiny can be best fulfilled
scope to be recognized as outstanding and perby yielding to the centripetal influence that
manent parts of our economic fabric. tends to bring big business into a co-operative correlation and sometimes into combina
The chain grocery store is rapidly approachtion is a question that naturally suggests itself ing, if indeed it has not already reached, a to the thoughtful mind.
stage of development that justifies the attenIf ten stores can distribute goods more
tion of our ablest business men and financiers,
and for this reason I commend it to the atteneconomically than one, and two hundred can serve the public better than ten, it is logical tion of all those who seek the opportunity of to expect that a thousand under a single big achievement.
THE READER'S VIEW
THB BELGIAN YOUNG MEN'S CHRISTIAN
ASSOCIATION IN DANGER Not the least of the misfortunes which the war has caused in Belgium is the almost complete ruin of the Young Men's Christian Association work in that country. The Brussels Young Men's Christian Association, in spite of the fact that the Protestant population of the city is very small, had before the war several hundred members and was beginning to play an important part in the religious life of the city. Its effectiveness was due largely to the enterprise of the two foreign sections, German and Anglo-American, which disappeared entirely at the outbreak of the war; and, as millions of Belgians are wholly or partially objects of charity, the society is now almost absolutely without funds. I visited Mr. Van Duynen, the Brussels secretary, in February, and found him without a fire. “We have had no heat in the building all winter,” he said. " We can't afford it.” For the past two years he has received only a fraction of his always modest salary, and if help is not forthcoming it is possible that it will be necessary to abandon the work entirely. When a few hundreds may save the life of this useful work and a few thousands would keep it going generously, Americans will certainly not allow it to die. Minister Brand Whitlock has given assurance that funds addressed to him for the Young Men's Christian Association will reach the proper hands safely. A letter sent to the Department of State at Washington for him will be forwarded to him at Brussels, or subscriptions may be sent to the address below. It is hoped that well-wishers of this useful organization will not hesitate because they are not in a position to give largely. The smallest contributions, as well as the largest, will be gratefully acknowledged and faithfully forwarded.
Roy T. House,
all things invisible save as manifest in persons, life forms, acts, and processes), as Wakantanka (Life Deity). So, while Uncle Sam is Congress, as well as all persons and parts of our Government, even the most minute parts, yet a person or a group of persons such as Congress, or even the President himself, might get caught in a trap because of lack of spontaneous bravery, or as a punishment for “crookedness" (owotonna-sni). But to represent Uncle Sam himself as caught in a trap is the same thing as to represent Life Deity as caught in a trap, as Indians regard matters.
My explanation that the picture was first pub. lished in the New York “ World,” an honest paper which does not make a specialty of relig. ion, is unsatisfactory to the Indians, who think that a spontaneous reverence for Life Deity should preclude anybody from representing Uncle Sam himself as caught in a trap. Sincerely, A. McG. BEEDE, Ph.D.,
Missionary to Indians. Cannon Ball, North Dakota.
“ HAIR-SPLITTING" A devoted reader of The Outlook, I have been somewhat interested in following the controversy recorded in recent numbers between the so-called “ Catholic” and so-called “ Protestant" factions of one of our prominent religious denominations. My only comment thereon is just this: When eminent divines-leaders of religious thought in the Church-any church-can spend their time and energy in such profitless discussions as this one, in recording which The Outlook has wasted so much of its valuable space, it is easy to understand why the Christian Church does not make any stronger appeal than it does to red-blooded men who have no interest in theological hair-splitting.
Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. W. A. LANING.
AN INDIAN IDEAL OF UNCLE SAM The cartoon in The Outlook for September 20, 1916, representing Uncle Sam caught in a trap, is keenly offensive to the older Indians, many of whom come to my house continually to read pictures and to learn the news.
To say that the cartoon is painfully sacrilegious to the finer feelings of old Indians is not overstating the matter. They say that it should have represented a boy Congressman impersonating Congress in the trap, while Uncle Sam comes and says that the brotherhood will not catch his boys that way again. As the car. toon is drawn, Indians think, it belittles Uncle Sam and slyly depicts the railways as superior to him.
Indians regard Uncle Sam and all government in nature, among men, animals, plants, and
SAILORS AND LITERATURE In the October 25 issue of The Outlook I enjoyed, in particular, reading Mr. Sherwood's article, Turning a Landsman into a Sea Fighter.” However, I do not agree with the author in his two statements, i.e., “ The navy does not encourage the study of literature. Reading is not encouraged.”
Having spent four years in the regular service on my own account, I had arrived at just the opposite view. On practically every ship in the navy a well-stocked library may be found, with books on every conceivable subject. I know from experience that the bluejacket is encouraged in reading and the study of literature by both his superior officers and his fellow-men. This, I believe, has been even more so since Secretary Daniels instituted the educational system aboard ship.
Dallas, Texas. 2. M. DUCK WORTH, JR.
“ Airplane " is recommended by the National spots from clothing. .“ Place a piece of brown Advisory Committee for Aeronautics as a sub- paper, newspaper, or other absorbent paper," it stitute for the word “aeroplane,” which most says, over and under the stain and press with people, it is to be feared, pronounce "airo- a hot iron.” It recommends this inexpensive plane.” The Committee makes at present no way for the soldier to keep his trousers creased : further recommendations as to the “aero “ Moisten the crease lightly with a moist sponge group of words, which include “aeronautics,” and place the trousers inside of a blanket once - aerodrome," "aero squadron," etc. Nor does folded on top of your mattress. By sleeping on it suggest “airman” and “airwoman" instead them the heat of your body will give an excelof aviator and aviatrice. “ Aeronaut," it is said, lent crease.” is in disfavor with the flying men because Referring to the care of shoes, the “Sol“people were all too prone to pronounce it dier's Catechism," in answering the question, aeronut.'”
“What should be done with shoes when they An article with the title “Motoring in Europe become thoroughly wet?” says: “Fill them with Before the War” has a pleasant suggestiveness dry oats, bran, or sand, and dry in the shade ; of serenity, good hotels, and economical runs, never near a fire." but those were not always the experiences of “Five things that are forbidden in time of its author, D. F. Platt, as he describes them in
war," as enumerated in the “Soldier's Cate“Motor Travel.” In Hungary, at least, the
chism,” are: (1) To cause suffering for the sake cost of gasoline-$1.20 a gallon-might make a
of revenge; (2) to wound, except in a fight; motorist here think kindly of Standard Oil. The (3) to torture in order to get a confession; (4) to " Hotel Veresi Szalode" was recommended
use poison in any way; (5) to lay waste a disas a “good hotel.” The party saw a sign
trict needlessly. This list might be commended “ Szalode" and ran the car in, to find a most the consideration of certain European primitive and uninviting inn. “Later,” says Powers. Mr. Platt, "the joke was on me, when I discovered 'Szalode' to be the Hungarian word for
A wrapping machine which can be adjusted
to wrap packages of various sizes rapidly, in a any hotel!"
uniform manner, has been patented recently. A grain elevator at Girard Point, Pennsyl- Department stores and mail order houses which vania, will be the largest of its kind on the put up thousands of packages daily by hand Atlantic coast. It can load into the hold of a may find the new invention useful. vessel 60,000 bushels of grain in an hour. Three A recently published account of the life of vessels of the largest type used in the grain- Elizabeth Fry," the angel of the prisons," tells of carrying trade can be loaded at one time in the the opposition to her philanthropic work, which slips.
seems much like that encountered by prison re“We are all much amused at the hunt in Bel- formers to-day. “Impossible!” said her oppogium for the newspaper · Libre Belgique'[Free
nents. “The women in Newgate Prison could Belgium]," says an English correspondent of not be reclaimed. Bad they were, and bad they the “American Printer.” “ The latest talk is would remain. Newgate was a place for imprisonthat it is printed in a motor car. It must be a
ment and punishment, not for teaching and small sheet; and that motor cars have so
improvement. Besides, the women would steal thing to do with its audacious defiance of the
or destroy any materials that might be brought [German] authorities I do not doubt.” The Ger
in for purposes of instruction," etc., etc. man leaders are sensitive; witness the report Mrs. Fry was not dissuaded by any rebuffs, that they put a price on the life of Raemaekers, however, and the results of her efforts were the Dutch cartoonist, for picturing their mis- later described by a visitor: "I was taken to deeds in his powerful and caustic cartoons. the entrance of the womer's wards. On my Jerome K. Jerome, the well-known writer, is
approach, no loud or angry voices indicated said to be engaged in the humble but honorable
that I was about to enter a place which had pursuit of driving an ambulance for the French
long been known as 'Hell above ground.' The Red Cross.
courtyard into which I was admitted, instead of
being peopled with beings scarcely human, “Is this beef too rare for you ?" the landlady blaspheming, fighting, tearing each other's hair, asked her critical boarder, as reported in the presented a scene where stillness and propriety “ Christian Register.” “Well, since you ask reigned. ... Mrs. Fry was reading aloud to me, Mrs. Skinner," replied Mr. Simpkins, “I sixteen women prisoners, who were engaged in would like it a little oftener."
needlework. Each wore a clean-looking blue A book called “The Soldier's Catechism," apron and bib. ... The looks of tender rever. which contains many helpful hints for the civilian ence they cast on her testified to the influence as well as the soldier, tells how to remove grease she had obtained among them."
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