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elevators, and steam boilers, a marked improvement has occurred. In the accidents due to the fault of the workman 28.96 per cent were caused by lack of skill, inattention, or carelessness, this being the highest percentage in any cause save general hazard of the industry; in 1897 this group included 20.85 per cent of the total number of accidents and its increase to 28.96 per cent is responsible for the principal part of the increase in the percentage of accidents due to the fault of the workman. In distributing the accidents among the apparatus, etc., causing the injury, there are a few cases where the fault of the workman is conspicuous; thus of the accidents caused by motors, engines, etc., 69.94 per cent were due to the fault of the workman; of the accidents caused by transmission apparatus, 67.54 per cent were due to the fault of the workman; of the accidents caused by the operation of railways, 57.79 per cent were due to the fault of the workman. The report calls special attention to the fact that in discussing accidents due to the fault of the workman emphasis must be placed on the fact that in very few cases could a serious fault or gross negligence be charged against the workman; by far the greatest number of accidents due to the workman's fault were caused by awkwardness, slight carelessness, and lack of caution, which are due to a greater or less degree to the natural weakness of ordinary human beings and in many cases should rather be considered as unavoidable. Of the accidents due to the fault of the employer the highest proportion is found among those caused by steam boilers, etc., in which 32.89 per cent were credited to the fault of the employer; of the accidents due to collapse, fall, etc., of substances, 21.58 per cent were due to the fault of the employer.

The report also urges that in developing systems of preventive measures attention should be paid to the fact that no human being can be expected to continually keep in mind the fact that certain dangers are present in his occupation. Of the accidents due to the general hazard of the industry, the cause showing the highest proportion was that of animals (bite, kick, push, etc.), where 89.15 per cent originated in this manner; loading, unloading, etc., had 52.10 per cent; inflammable, hot, or corrosive substances had 50.51 per cent; shipping and water transportation had 50.06 per cent, while the lowest proportion was shown by transmission apparatus, which had 7.06 per cent due to this cause. In 9 of the 17 classes of causes of injuries there is a decrease in the proportion due to the hazard of industry, while in 7 of the others there is an increase in the proportion, and 1 was not reported in 1897; in some cases this increase is quite marked, as, for instance, steam boilers had but 16.03 per cent in 1897 and 30.20 per cent in 1907 due to the general hazard of the industry. Many of these instances have also a sharp decrease in the proportion of accidents due to the fault of the employer; thus accidents caused by steam boilers, etc., had 64.89 per cent due to the fault of the employer in 1897 and 32.89 per cent in 1907.

TABLE 12.-FAULT OF THE EMPLOYER, OF THE WORKMEN, ETC.: PER CENT OF ACCI

OF INJURY,

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I. Motors, engines, etc. (prime movers):
1907

.(517 cases)..
1897
II. Transmission apparatus:
1907..

.(972 cases).. 1897.. III. Working machinery: 1907

.(14,217 cases). . 1897. IV. Elevators, hoists, etc.: 1907.

.(4,097 cases).. 1897 V. Steam boilers, etc.: 1907.

(149 cases).. 1897. VI. Electric currents: 1907.

.(184 cases).. 1897 VII. Explosives: 1907

(516 cases).. 1897 VIII. Inflammable, hot, or corrosive substances: 1907.

-(2,868 cases). 1897. IX. Collapse, fall, etc., of objects: 1907

.(12,249 cases). 1897 X. Falls, falls from stairs, ladders, etc.: 1907

.(9,178 cases).. 1897. XI. Loading, unloading, etc.: 1907.

.(11,392 cases).. 1897. XII. Teaming, drayage, etc.: 1907.

(5,387 cases).. 1897 XIII. Operation of railways: 1907.

.(7,886 cases).. 1897. XIV. Shipping and water transportation: 1907

.(862 cases).. 1897. XV. Animals (bite, kick, push, etc.); 1907.

-(1,332 cases). . 1897 XVI. Tools, hand apparatus, etc.: 1907..

.(3,338 cases).. 1897 XVII. Miscellaneous: 1907

..(6,104 cases).. 1897

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1 Number of cases in 1897 not reported.

DENTS DUE TO FAULT OF EMPLOYER, OF WORKMAN, ETC., CLASSIFIED BY CAUSES 1907 AND 1897. I Beiheft, II Teil. Gewerbe-Unfallstatistik für das Jahr 1907, pp. 384, 385.)

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RESULT OF THE INJURIES.

Table 13 shows the result of the injury, or rather the condition of the injured person, expressed in terms of loss of earning power. To bring out the condition of the injured person in the years immediately following the granting of the pension the table shows what his loss of earning power is during the first, the second, the third, and the fourth year after the granting of the pension.

In the total for all industrial accident associations (not including institutes), 65,205 injured persons were given pensions for industrial accidents in 1904; during the year 1905, 7.63 per cent had died as the result of the accident, and in the year 1908 this proportion had increased to 8.06 per cent.

Of the 65,205 injured persons given pensions in 1904, 0.93 per cent were rated as sustaining total permanent disability in 1905, and in 1908 this proportion had been reduced to 0.81 per cent.

Of the 65,205 injured persons granted pensions in 1904, 44.27 per cent were rated as having sustained an injury causing partial permanent disability in 1905, and in 1908 this proportion had been reduced to 37.40 per cent. Of the pensioners composing this 37.40 per cent, 24.17 per cent had sustained a loss of earning power of under 25 per cent, 9.27 per cent had sustained a loss of earning power of 25 to 50 per cent, 3.01 per cent a loss of earning power of 50 to 75 per cent, and 0.95 per cent a loss of earning power of 75 to 100 per cent; in each case there is a decrease in the proportion of those sustaining the various degrees of loss of earning power during the four years 1905 to 1908.

Of the 65,205 injured persons who were granted pensions in 1904, 47.17 per cent were rated in 1905 as having sustained temporary disability, and in 1908 this proportion had been increased to 53.73 per cent; in 1905, 22.59 per cent were no longer disabled and in 1908 44.37 per cent were no longer disabled; in 1905, 19.67 per cent had sustained a loss of earning power of less than 25 per cent and in 1908, 8.15 per cent had sustained this loss of earning power; in 1905, 3.93 per cent were rated as having sustained a loss of earning power of 25 to 50 per cent, and in 1908 this proportion had been reduced to 0.98 per cent; in 1905, 0.50 per cent were rated as having sustained a loss of earning power of 50 to 75 per cent, and in 1908 this proportion had been reduced to 0.12 per cent; in 1905, 0.48 per cent were rated as having sustained a loss of earning power of 75 to 100 per cent, and in 1908 this had been reduced to 0.11 per cent. Approximately 44 per cent of the persons granted pensions in 1904 had therefore entirely recovered at the end of the year 1908.

A comparison of the improvement in the character of the disability sustained by the pensioners of 1896 with the pensioners of 1904 shows

22.35 per

a marked decrease in the proportion of deaths, of total permanent disablements, and of partial permanent disablements; the proportion of those entirely recovering their earning power in the second of these two periods is much greater than was the case in the first. Part of this improvement just mentioned is of course due to the inclusion of a larger number of temporary disablements among those granted compensation in the later of the two periods; part of it must also be regarded as due to the elaborate medical and other treatment provided by the accident associations in their effort to restore the earning power of those injured by accident in the course of their employment.

Taking up first the accidents resulting in death, the marine-navigation industry (association 63) had 418 persons granted pensions in 1904; of this number 22.49 per cent died in the course of the year 1905, and there were no additional deaths during the following three years. The fatal-accident rate of this association is similar to that of the inland navigation associations (60-62), which, in 1904, had 756 persons granted pensions; of this number 21.30 per cent died during the course of the year 1905, and this proportion had increased to

cent in the year 1908. The industry group private railways (association 56) had 135 persons granted pensions in the year 1904; of this number 18.52 per cent died in the course of the year 1905, and during the period 1905 to 1908 increased to 20 per cent. The chimney-sweeping industry (association 42) had 29 persons granted pensions in the year 1904; of this number 13.79 per cent died in the course of the year 1905, and there were no additional deaths during the period. The industry of livery, drayage, cartage, etc. (association 59), had 1,835 persons granted pensions in the year 1904; of this number 12.15 per cent died in the course of the year 1905 and 12.59 per cent in the course of the four-year period ending with 1908. The five industry groups mentioned had the highest fatal-accident rates of those included in the table.

Taking up the cases of total permanent disability the industry group with the highest rate is that of chimney sweeping (association 42). In 1904 this industry had 29 persons granted pensions on account of industrial accidents, and of this number 3.45 per cent were rated as having sustained total permanent disability in 1905; in 1908 this proportion had been increased to 6.90 per cent. The industry group with the second highest proportion of total permanent disablement is that of street and small railways (association 57); this group had 406 persons granted pensions in the year 1904, and of this number 4.68 per cent had sustained injuries causing total permanent disability, and during the period this proportion had been reduced to 4.44 per cent. The industry group with the third highest proportion

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