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institution being found deficient in classical attainments, the board, in May, 1827, resolved to es. tablish a preparatory department.
The Rev. D. Jacobs commenced this preparatory school in June, 1827, and his brother in 1829 assisted him in the mathematical department. It soon after took the name of the Gettysburg Gymnasium, under the direction of an association of stockholders. Rev. Mr. Jacobs died in Nov. 1830, and was succeeded in 1831 by Rev. H. L. Baugher, A. M. As the number of stu. dents had increased, and the prospect of usefulness, especially to the German community, was very flattering, Prof. Schmucker, after consultation with his brethren, invited the citizens of Get. tysburg to cooperate in the establishment of a respectable college, to take the place of the Gymnasium. A charter was procured from the legislature, and the institution was organized under the title of Pennsylvania College, in July, 1832, and went into operation in the following October. Prof. Schmucker and Dr. E. L. Hazelius temporarily officiated as professors, until, in Oct. 1834, Rev. C. P. Krauth, D. D., was inducted into office as president.
Present Faculty.—Rev. C. P. Krauth, D. D., President and Prof. of intellectual and moral science; Rev. H. L. Baugher, A. M., Prof. of Greek language and literature, rhetoric and ora. tory ; Rev. M. Jacobs, A. M., Prof. of mathematics, mechanical philosophy and chemistry; Rev. W. M. Reynolds, A. M., Prof. of Latin language and literature; Rev. Henry I. Smith, A. M., Prof. of German language and French; D. Gilbert, M. D., Lecturer on anatomy and physiology; Mr. M. L. Stoever, A. B., Principal of Prep. Dep., and Mr. Gottlob Bassler, A. B., Tutor in Prep. Dep.
Number of students in 1836, 101; in 1841, 189.
The College library is well selected and regularly increased. There are two library societies and one German society, which have formed libraries for themselves. A Lyceum and cabinet of natural history have been commenced.
The medical department is located in Philadelphia, under the charge of Drs. S. G. Morton, George M'Lellan, William Rush, Samuel M'Lellan, Walter R. Johnson, and James M'Clintock.
Among the more modern occurrences which have excited the good people of Gettysburg, is the following, an account of which is extracted from one of the York newspapers for 1842:
Ballooning Extraordinary.--A daring feat was accomplished on Saturday last, by a citizen of our neighboring town of Gettysburg. Mr. John Wise, the American Æronaut, par excellence, had announced his intention to make his thirty-ninth balloon ascension on that day, from an en closure in Gettysburg; and with his usual punctuality, was ready on the day and hour promised. His balloon was inflated; his ballast, grappling-iron, &c., duly stowed; and he was about to step into the basket. At that moment, Mr. John McClellan, a young gentleman of Gettysburg, in. quired of Mr. Wise whether it would not be possible for two persons to ascend with the power then in the balloon. On receiving a negative reply, Mr. McClellan seemed much disappointedsaid he was determined to have a ride; and inquired the price at which Mr. Wise would permit him io make the voyage alone. “One hundred dollars, sir,” said Mr. Wise, who did not appear to consider the inquirer to be in earnest. “I will give you fifty dollars!" "Agreed--fork over!" The joke was “carried on,” and the cream of it was soon transferred to the pocket of the æro. naut; and his substitute was seated snugly in the car, vociferating his direction to “cut loose!" Mr. Wise thought that matters had now gone far enough, and requested his customer to get out, as the time had arrived at which he had promised to be off. But he refused to do so, and insisted that he had regularly hired and paid for a passage “in this boat,” and go he would. As Barney O'Reardon said to the man in the moon, when the latter respectable personage told him to “lave his hould," "the more he bid him, the more he wouldn't!"
Mr. Wise then let the balloon up a short distance by a rope, thinking probably that as there was considerable wind, and the air-horse consequently turbulent, that his substitute would have his courage cooled, and “give in." But this was no go; and thinking that he had as good a start as he ever would have, Mr. McClellan cut the rope and was off? After he found that it was the determination of Mr. McClellan to go, Mr. Wise had but time to give him a few hasty and imperfect instructions in regard to the management of the balloon; and in a few minutes the daring amateur æronaut had ascended to a height of about two miles. Here he struck a current of air which bore him directly towards York. He says that the earth receded from him very rapidly after he had thrown a bag or two of sand upon it; that Gettysburg passed off to. wards Hagerstown, and that he saw Carlisle, Hanover, Abbotstown, Oxford, and Berlin, stroll. ing about; and that soon after, just ahead of him, he saw Old York coming full-tilt up the turn. pike towards him, apparently taking an afternoon's walk to Gettysburg. Having determined to stop at York, and fearing from the remarkable speed at which our usually staid and sober town was travelling, that she would soon pass under his balloon and give him the slip, he pulled the string attached to the safety-valve, in order to let off a portion of his gas. This valve is so con. structed that when the rope attached to it is pulled, the valve opens to the interior, and again closes by the force of the gas when the rope is let go.
Unfortunately, however, the inexperienced æronaut pulled too violently at the valve-rope, tore it completely off its hinges, and brought it down into the car! When this occurred he was more than a mile high, and he immediately and with fearful rapidity descended, or rather fell to the earth! When the valve-door came off, the gas of course escaped rapidly; but the balloon caught sufficient air to form a parachute, by which the fall was moderated ;-and we are happy to say that the voyager reached the earth, about five miles from York, entirely uninjured! He says that as soon as the valve-door came down upon him, he knew that something had broke loose;" and just then remembering that Mr. Wise had told him to be sure when he descended to throw out his grappling-iron, he was preparing to get at it among the numerous things in his basket, “when the earth bounced up against the bottom of the car.”
When first seen from York, the balloon was about thirteen miles off, nearly due west. It appeared to be approaching directly towards our town, until the valve was pulled and it had fallen considerably. As it fell, it seemed to find a current that bore it rapidly towards the north. The spot at which it landed is about northwest of our borough.
The escape of the gas was distinctly seen from York; and as the balloon neared the earth it had lost its rotundity, and appeared to the gazers here to come down heavily, like a wet sheet.York Gazette.
Adams county contains several small but pleasant and flourishing villages, among which are Petersburg, Berlin, Abbotstown, Littlestown, Millerstown, Oxford, Hunterstown, Mummasburg, and others. Petersburg, 13 miles south of Carlisle on the turnpike leading thence to Baltimore, and about 13 miles northeast of Gettysburg, contains thirty or forty dwellings, an academy, and a church. This place was laid out about the year 1800, and took its name from one_Peter Fleck, who kept a small liquor store in a log cabin there. Peter was bought out by Mr. Isaac Sadler, a hatter. Mr. Jacob Garner was also one of the early settlers.
About one and a half miles from Petersburg are the York Sulphur Springs, which were discovered about the year 1790 on the plantation of
York Sulphur Springs. Mr. Jacob Fickes. The waters were analyzed by Mr. Heterick and Dr. James Hall, who visited the spring at that time for the purpose. Their medicinal properties have been highly extolled, particularly for their efficacy in cases of debilitated constitutions.
The buildings erected by Mr. McCosh, who was for some years the proprietor, are extensive and comfortable ; and the gounds and neighbor
ing hills are highly picturesque. More fashionable resorts at the north have withdrawn some of the patronage formerly bestowed upon this place, yet it is still a favorite resort of the wealthy citizens of Baltimore. Daily stages run to York and Baltimore.
During the old French war of 1755-58, the barrier of the South Mountain shielded the early settlers of Adams county from the savage incursions that desolated the Cumberland valley. Yet occasionally a party more daring than the rest would push across the mountain, and murder or carry captive defenceless families. An affecting instance of this kind is described in the following narrative, abridged from one much more in detail by Mr. Archibald Bard, of Franklin county.
My father, Richard Bard, owned, and resided near, the mill now called Marshall's Mill, on the Carroll tract, in Adams co. On the morning of 13th April, 1758, his house was invested by a party of nineteen Delaware Indians. Hannah McBride, a little girl, on seeing them, screamed, and ran into the house, where were my father, mother, a child six months old,
a bound boy, and my cousin, Lieut. Potter, (brother of Gen. Potter.) The Indians rushed in-one of them made a blow, with a large cutlass, at Potter, who wrested it from him. My father snapped a pistol at one of the Indians; the sight of the pistol alarmed them, and they ran out of the house. The Indians outside, however, were very numerous, and my father's party having no ammunition, and fearing that the Indians would burn the house, surrendered. The Indians also made prisoners, in a field, of Samuel Hunter, Daniel McManimy, and William White, a lad coming to mill. Having secured the prisoners, they plundered the house and set fire to the mill. Not far from the house, contrary to all their promises, they killed Thomas Potter; and having proceeded on the mountain three or four miles, an Indian - sunk the spear of his tomahawk into the breast of the small child, and after repeated blows, scalped it.” The prisoners were taken over the moun. tain past McCord's fort, into the Path Valley. Alarmed, and hurried by a party of whites in pur. suit, on reaching the top of Tuscarora Mountain, they sat down to rest, “ when an Indian, without any previous warning, sunk a tomahawk into the head of Samuel Hunter, who was seated by my father, and by repeated blows killed him. Passing over Sideling Hill, and the Allegheny Mountains, by Blair's Gap, they encamped beyond Stony Creek. The half of my father's head had been painted red, denoting that a council had been held, and an equal number were for putting him to death, and for keeping him alive, and that another council would determine the question. My parents being engaged together in plucking a turkey, my father told her of his design to escape. Some of the Indians had laid down, and one of them was amusing the others by dressing himself with a gown of my mother's. My father was sent for water to the spring, and contrived to escape while my mother kept the Indians amused with the gown. After an un. successful search, they proceeded down the stream to Fort Duquesne, (now Fort Pitt,) and thence about 20 miles down the Ohio, to an Indian town, and afterwards to “Cususkey,” [Kus. kusky, in what is now Butler co.] “On arriving at this place, Daniel McManimy was detained outside, but my mother, with the two boys and girls, were taken into the town, at the same time having their hair pulled and faces scratched, and being beaten in an unmerciful manner. Here I shall extract from my father's papers the circumstance of McManimy's death. This ac. count appears to have been obtained from my mother, who obtained it from eye witnesses. The Indians formed themselves into a circle round the prisoner, and commenced beating him, some with sticks, and some with tomahawks. He was then tied to a post near a large fire, and after being tortured some time with burning coals, they scalped him, and put the scalp on a pole to bleed before his face. A gun-barrel was then heated red hot, and passed over his body, and with a red hot bayonet they pierced his body, with many repetitions. In this manner they continued torturing him, singing and shouting until he expired.” Leaving the two boys and girl, whom she never saw again until they were liberated, my mother was taken to another place. Distressed beyond measure-going she knew not where, without a comforter or companion, and ex. pecting every day the fate of McManimy, she chanced to meet another captive woman, who told her that the belt of wampum about her (my mother's) neck, was a certain sign that she was in. tended for an adopted relative.
Soon after, in a council, two squaws entered, and struck my mother on the side of the head. The warriors were displeased, such conduct in council being contrary to the usage. A chief took my mother by the hand, and delivered her to two Indian men, to be in the place of a deceased sister. She was put in charge of a squaw to be cleanly clothed. After remaining here near a month with her adopted friends, they took her a journey of two or three hundred miles, to the head waters of the Susquehanna. Much of this journey she was obliged to perform on foot over mountains and swamps, with extreme suffering. Her fatigues brought on sickness, which lasted near two months.-"In this doleful situation, with none to comfort or sympathize with her, a
blanket was only food.
years, and had
this, but received for answer, that before she had consented they had tied her to a stake in order
her only covering, and her bed the cold earth in a miserable cabin ; boiled corn was her Recovering from her sickness, she met with a woman who had been in captivity several
an Indian husband, by whom she had one child. My mother reproved her for to bum her. She added, that as soon as their captive women could speak
the Indian tongue, they were obliged to marry some one of them or be put to death.” My mother resolved
not to learn the language. She remained in captivity two years and five months. She was treated during this time by her adopted relations with much kindness, even more than she had reason to expect.
My father suffered extreme hardships in effecting his escape and return to his home, travelling over inoumtains thick with laurel and briers, and covered with snow, with swollen feet-his clothes often wet and frozen-exhausted, and often ready to lie down and perish for want of food, and living, during a journey of nine days, upon a few buds and four snakes! He at length reached Fort Littleton, in Bedford co.) After this, he did little else but wander from place to place in quest of information respecting my mother. He performed several perilous journeys to Pittsburg, in which he narrowly escaped several times losing his life by the Indians. He at length found where she was, and redeemed her, at Shamokin, (Sunbury,) on the Susquehanna.
Before my father and mother left Shamokin, he requested an Indian who had been an adopted brother of my mother, if ever he came down amongst the white people to call and see him. Accordingly, some time afterwards the Indian paid him a visit, he living then about ten miles from Chambersburg. The Indian having continued for some time with him, went to a tavern, known by the name of M'Cormack's, and there became somewhat intoxicated, when a certain Newgen, (since executed in Carlisle for stealing horses) having a large knife in his hand, struck it into the Indian's neck, edge foremost, designing thereby to thrust it in between the bone and throat, and by drawing it forward to cut his throat, but he partly missed his aim, and only cut the forepart of the wind-pipe. On this Newgen had to escape from justice; otherwise the law would have been put in force against him. And it has been remarked, that ever after he con. tinued to progress in vice until his death. A physician was brought to attend the Indian ; the wound was sewed up, and he continued at my father's until he had recovered, when he returned to his own people, who put him to death, on the pretext of his having, as they said, joined the white people.
ALLEGHENY COUNTY was taken from Westmoreland and Washington, by the Act of 24th Sept. 1788, and in 1789 a small addition was made to it from Washington. It then comprised all the territory north and west of the Ohio and Allegheny, from which was formed, in 1800, the counties of Beaver, Butler, Mercer, &c. The present limits comprise the small but very populous country around the confluence of the Allegheny and Monongahela rivers with the Ohio, and of the Youghiogheny with the Monongahela. Besides the large navigable rivers, there are, tributary to them, Chartiers creek, Peters creek, Montours creek, Turtle creek, Poketas creek, Pine creek, and a number of less important streams. The county forms an irregular figure about 26 miles in diameter, and containing an area of 754 sq. miles. The population in 1790, was 10,309; in 1800, 15,087 ; in 1810, 25,317 ; in 1820, 34,921 ; in 1830, 50,552 ; in 1840, 81,235.
The surface is undulating, and near the great streams, hilly; and many of the hills are precipitous. The uplands are fertile, and make excellent farms: along the rivers there are wide and exceedingly rich bottom lands, generally elevated above the reach of floods, and occupied by extensive farms and comfortable mansions. The forest trees, which are of every variety, are large, healthy, and of luxuriant growth, indi
cating great fertility of soil. Fruit trees are abundant, and the vine and mulberry succeed well.
Bituminous coal of the finest quality abounds throughout the county. The Pittsburg seam, from 5 1-2 to 8 feet in thickness, is probably the most important and extensively accessible in the western coal measures, and furnishes exhaustless supplies for the manufacturers of Pittsburg, and for exportation down the river. Limestone and excellent sandstone for architectural purposes, are found above and below the coal. There is a chalybeate spring about four miles southwest from Pittsburg, issuing from the fissures of a rock in the side of a hill, on the estate of J. S. Scully, Esq.
The richest gifts of nature seem to have been bestowed by Providence upon this region ; and the art of man has been most diligent in adorning the works of nature, and developing her latent sources of wealth. Magnificent bridges span the noble streams ; innumerable steamboats are constantly plying to and fro; mines are opened in every hill-side ; long shafts bring up salt water from the bowels of the earth ; durable stone turnpikes run in every direction; the Monongahela is dammed at several points, and made capable of regular steamboat navigation ; the great Pennsylvania canal passes along the right bank of the Allegheny, and crossing it at Pittsburg on a splendid aqueduct, passes, by a tunnel, directly through the hill back of the town, and connects its commerce with that of the Ohio. Magnificent public edifices, beautiful villas in the midst of fertile gardens and farms, extensive manufactories rolling out their black volumes of smoke, meet the eye of the observer in all parts of the county, but especially in the environs of Pittsburg. There are probably few regions where the respective departments of agriculture, commerce, and manufactures are so well balanced, and where each finds its own appropriate facilities to such an equal degree as in Allegheny county.
This county was originally settled principally by Scotch-Irish, many of whom emigrated from the Kittatinny valley, others directly from Ireland ; and to this day, although many Germans have also come in, the Scotch and Irish blood, not to mention the brogue, prevails about Pittsburg.
PrTTSBURG, the seat of justice of Allegheny county, but more distinguished as the great manufacturing city of the west, is situated on a triangular point at the junction of the Allegheny and Monongahela, in latitude north 40° 26' 25', and longitude west from Greenwich 79° 59'. It is 300 miles west from Philadelphia, 120 south of Lake Erie, 1,100 by land, and 2,029 by water, above New Orleans. The Allegheny comes down with a strong current from the northeast, and sweeping suddenly round to the northwest, receives the more gentle current of the Monongahela from the south-their combined waters flowing on to the Mississippi under the name of the Ohio, or Beautiful River. The aborigines and the French considered the Allegheny and Ohio to be the same stream, and the Monongahela to be a tributary-- Allegheny being a word in the Delaware language, and O-hee-o in the Seneca, both meaning fair water. Hence the French term Belle Rivière, was only a translation of the Indian name.
The alluvial bottom on which the city is built is quite limited; for im