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SHERMAN PITTED AGAINST JOHNSTON.

625

XXVIII.

SIIERMAN’S ATLANTA CAMPAIGʻN.

GEN. WILLIAM T. SHERMAN, at, liis forces around Chattanooga with the instance of Lt.-Gen. Grant, suc an army barely short of 100,000 ceeded him in command of the mili- men' of all arms, with 254 guns.

It tary division of the Mississippi, em- was far superior in every thing but bracing the four great departments of cavalry to that which it confronted; the Ohio, the Cumberland, the Ten- and which, though estimated by Shernessee, and the Arkansas. Receiv- man at 55,000 to 60,000, probably ing the order at Memphis,' he re-numbered hardly more than 50,000. paired at once to Nashville, where Johnston's army was organized in he met the Lt.-General, and accom- three corps, led by IIardee, Ilood, panied him so far as Cincinnati- and Polk. Sherman was from time to Grant being then on his way to time rëenforced, so as nearly to keep Washington to direct thenceforth our his original number good; but, as he operations generally, but more espe- advanced into Georgia, the necessity cially those in Virginia. The plans of of maintaining his communications the superior were freely imparted to seriously reduced his forceat the front. and discussed with his most trusted The country between Chattanooga subordinate, ere they parted to enter and Atlanta is different from, but even respectively on their memorable cam- more difficult than, that which sepapaigns against Richmond and Atlan- rates Washington from Richmond. ta. Those campaigns were to be com- Rugged mountains, deep, narrow ramenced simultaneously on the Rapi- vines, thick, primitive woods, with dan and the Tennessee; and either occasional villages and more frequent movement to be pressed so vigorously, clearings, or irregular patches of culpersistently, that neither of the Rebel tiration, all traversed by mainly narmain armies could spare troops to re- ro :v, ill-made roads, succeed each enforce the other. When Sherman other for some 40 miles; then interreceived his final instructions from venes a-like distance of comparatively Grant, it was settled that the cam- open, facile country, traversed by two paign should open with May; and considerable rivers; tlien another rugGen. Sherman set forth' accordingly ged, difficult region of mountains and from the Winter encampments of passes renches nearly to the Chatta* March 1:1, 1864. ? April 30. * May 6. 6 Johuston reported liis infautry at 40,900. army of the Cumberland-Gen. Thomas:

Sherman estimated his cavalry (under Wheeler) Infantry. Cavalry. Artillery.

at 10,000. Estimating his artillery at 3, 100, his

total force would be 54,000. It was occasion. Army of the Tennessee-Gen. McPherson:

ally swelled rather than strengthened hy drafts Artillery.

of such Georgians not already in the service as Army of the Ohin—Gen. Schofield:

passed for militia. The force which Sherman, Infantry. Cavalry. Artillery,

after passing the Oostenaula, could show at the 1,097

front, was probably about 70,000 to Johnston's

45,000. VOL. 11.–40.

51,56

3,25

2,377

Total.
60,773

Infantry.

22,137

(avalry.

624

Total.
24,465

1,404

Total.
13,559

11,183

679

Grand total..

93,797

pochee; across which, 8 miles dis- evacuate his stronghold and fall back nt, lies the new but important city of rapidly to Resaca; advancing in force tlanta-a focus of several railroads, against which, Kilpatrick, fighting aving some 20,000 inhabitants, and the enemy's cavalry, was disabled by en the seat of extensive manufac- a shot. Sherman had calculated on ries of Confederate supplies. It had seriously damaging Johnston when een well fortified, early in 1863. he thus retreated, but was unable to Johnston's position at Dalton was reach him-Johnston having the only vered by an impassable mountain direct, good road, while our flanking nown as Rocky-Face ridge, cloven advance was made with great diffithe passage of Mill creek called culty. Howard entered Dalton on uzzard's Roost gap.

The railroad the heels of the enemy, and pressed averses this pass, but our army him sharply down to Resaca. ould not; it being naturally very Sherman forthwith set on foot a rong and now thoroughly fortified. new flanking movement by his right ence, while Thomas menaced and to turn Johnston out of Resaca; which ebly assailed it in front, McPher- Johnston countered by an attack on n flanked the enemy's left, moving IIooker and Schofield, still in his own by Ship’s gap, Villanow, and front and on his left; but he was ranake creek gap, to seize either ther worsted in the bloody fight' thus esaca or some other point well brought on : IIooker driving the Reb

its rear, while Schofield should els from several hills, taking 4 guns ress on Johnston's right. In execu- and many prisoners. The Rebels reng these orders, Thomas was com- treated across the Oostenaula during elled to bear more heavily on the the night, and our army entered Reebel front than was intended: New- saca in triumph next morning. n's division of IIoward's (4th) corps, McPherson crossed on our right d Geary's of IIooker's (20th) corps, at Lay's ferry next day; Gen. Thomsaulting in earnest and even car as moving directly through Resaca, ring portions of the ridge; whence on the heels of Hardee, who covered tey were soon repelled with loss. the Rebel retreat ; while Schofield eantime, McPherson had reached advanced on our left, over a rough le front of Resaca, scarcely resist- region, by such apologies for roads as 1; but he could not carry it, and he could find or make. Jeff. C. Daared not remain between it and vis's division of Thomas's army kept ohnston's main body; so he fell down the north-west bank of the Oosick to a strong position in Snake tenaula to Rome, where he took 8 or eek gap, which he could hold for 10 great guns, and destroyed mills me hours against all gainsayers. and founderies of great importance to

now, leaving Howard's the enemy; leaving here a garrison. rps and some cavalry to threaten Johnston made a momentary stand alton in front, moved the rest of against our central advance in a s forces rapidly in the track of strong position covering Adairsville; hofield, and through Snake creek but, on the approach of our main P; which compelled Johnston to body, he again retreated, with only May 7. ? May 10-11.

"May 15.

herman

6

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harp skirmishing between our van , well sheltered foe. Next morning, nd his rear-guard; until, having the Rebel intrenched lines stretched assed through Kingston, he was unbrokenly from Dallas to Marietta, gain found' holding a strong and over a most difficult region, wherein ortified position about Cassville, ap- days were necessarily spent by Sherarently intent on a decisive battle. man, amid continual skirmishing and pon being pressed, however, he re- fighting, in making careful approacheated, under cover of night, across es. He had just ordered Schofield ne Etowah; burning the railroad to advance our left and flank the ennd other bridges, and taking a still emy's right, when Johnston struck cronger position covering the Alla- heavily at our right at Dallas, held. pona pass, where the country again by McPherson. But this attack ecomes mountainous, rugged, and gare our men the advantage of ifficult, and where he doubtless had breastworks, and was repulsed with etermined to fight in earnest. loss; as one made by IIoward's corps

Sherman, after halting two days to on Cleburne, farther toward the cenest and reconnoiter, decided to flank ter, was repulsed by the enemy. Our im out of this by moving well to the army was now moved" to the left ght, concentrating his army on Dal- along the Rebel front, enveloping the s; to which point Jeff. C. Davis, at Allatoona pass, and compelling the ome, had already been directed, enemy to evacuate it; as he soon afnd on which Thomas now advanced; ter did his intrenchments covering [cPherson moving still farther to New Hope church, and Ackworth e right, by Van Wert, and swing- also. Allatoona pass was promptly g in on Thomas's right; while Scho- garrisoned by Sherman, and made a ald, moving on the east, should aim secondary base of supplies: the rail

come in on Thomas's left. John- road bridge across the Etowah being on promptly divined this movement, repaired, and our trains down the nd prepared to baffle it.

road run to this point. Thomas, advancing from Burnt Gen. Frank Blair here came up, Cickory to Dallas, was confronted with two divisions of the 17th corps,

Pumpkinvine creek by Rebel cav- and Col. Long's brigade of cavalry; ry, whom he rapidly pushed across, raising Sherman's effective force ving the burning bridge ; but, as nearly to that with which he left cooker's corps, in the van, pushed Chattanooga; and he moved forward 2, his foremost division (Geary's), next day to Big Shanty. und the enemy in line of battle; Kenesaw mountain, with its almost ad a severe conflict ensued, without equally formidable neighbors, Pine cisive result. Hooker finally con- and Lost mountains, now loomed beEntrated his command four miles fore him, with Rebel lines two miles orth of Dallas, and struck hard, by long covering the points not impreg. nerman's order, at Stewart's posi- nable by nature—lines which the enon covering New IIope church; emy were actively strengthening hence, though he gained some each hour. Here Sherman halted Found, he was unable to drive the perforce, and studied and planned May 19. May 25.

13 June 8.

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11 June 1.

OUR REPULSE AT KENESAW MOUNTAIN.

629

and maneuvered; finally attempting Hooker's corps, and Hascall's of to force, by sharp fighting, a way be- Schofield's army, but utterly failed— tween Kenesaw and Pine mountains. the enemy being repulsed from our In the desultory conflict that ensued, lines with heavy loss, including some Lt.-Gen. Polk, Protestant Episcopal prisoners. Bishop of Louisiana, was instantly Sherinan now determined to askilled" by a cannon-ball. He was en- sault in turn, and did " so, after caregaged, with Johnston and Hardee, in ful preparation, at two points, south making observations, when they were of Kenesaw, and in front of Gens. observed on our side, and two shots Thomas and McPherson respectively; fired at them—it was said by Thom- but the enemy's position was found, as's order—the first of which scat- at fearful cost, absolutely impregnatered the party to places of safety; ble-each attack being signally rebut Polk soon tired of his, and, com- pulsed, with an aggregate loss of ing out to watch the firing, was 3,000, including Gens. Harker and struck in the side by a three-inch Dan. McCook, killed, and Col. Rice, shot, which tore him to pieces. He with other valuable officers, badly neither spoke nor breathed thereaf- wounded. The Rebels, thoroughly ter.

sheltered by their works, reported Pushing forward wherever the their loss at 442. rugged nature of the ground would Gen. Sherman, in his report, de. permit, with frequent assaults and fends this assault as follows: constant battering and picket-firing, “Upon studying the ground, I had no alSherman compelled the enemy to ternative but to assault or turn the enemy's abandon Pine mountain," and then position. Either course had its ditliculties

and dangers. And I perceived that the eneLost mountain,' with the long line my and our own officers had settled down of strong breastworks connecting the into a conviction that I would not assault

fortified lines. All looked to me to outlatter with Kenesaw.

Meantime, Hank

In army, to be efficient, inust not rain fell almost incessantly; the nar settle down to one single mode of offense, row mountain roads were rocky gul

but must be prepared to execute any plan

that promises success. I wished, therefore, lies; and the Rebel batteries on for the moral effect, to make a successtul Kenesaw belched iron constantly at assault on the enemy behind liis breastour lines—the balls generally passing which I assume the entire responsibility, I harmlessly over the heads of our men, yet claim that it produced good fruits; as it whom the enemy's guns could not be demonstrated to Gen. Johnston that I would

assault, and that boldly; and we also gained depressed sufficiently to reach.

and held ground so close to the enemy's It being evident that we were parapets that he could not show a head

above them.” steadily though slowly gaining ground, especially on our right, a If these be sound reasons, they at sally and attack were made by the least as fully justify Grant's order to enemy, led by IIood, with intent to assault at Cold Harbor: Kenesaw interpose between Thomas's right being a palpable Gibraltar, which and Schofield's left, near what was Cold IIarbor is not. known as the Kulp house.'

'The Sherman did not choose to rest on blow fell on Williams's division of this bloody repulse; but, waiting only 14 June 15.

16 June 22.

17 June 27.

13

16

June 14

6 June 17.

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