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æval or quasi-mediæval type of art. The tion, the Pope never leaves the Vatican. modern city is more political and educa- There are practically no seats in San tional than commercial. The commercial Giovanni; the congregation, which relacenter is the Corso, a rather narrow street tively to the church was not large, stood running from one side of the city to one clustered about the chancel; and the of its centers; the political symbols are music was very seriously disturbed by the old Parliament House, the new Palace the moving about of companies of sightof Justice—as yet incomplete—and the seers, some with Baedekers and some Departmental buildings, scattered, like with breviaries in their hands, and, so far those of Washington, about the city; the as I could see, the latter no more reverent social symbols are the palaces with their than the former, save for a brief bowing art treasures and their gardens—the palaces or kneeling to the altar when they entered. somber and a!most prison-like without The general effect was that of a promebut ornate and artistic within, generally nade sacred vocal concert. But this was a built with colonnades about an open square special day and a special service, and it or courtyard; the intellectual center and would not be fair to judge of the general symbol are the two Roman Catholic theo- effect of services in the churches of Rome logical seminaries (one educating for from this one instance. foreign, the other for home, service), the
May 10 Vatican Library with its invaluable and I have been three times to see the still insufficiently explored manuscripts, Forum, and twice to see the Palatine ; let the colleges, whose relation to the semi- me try to set down here some general naries is something analogous to that of impressions which have, been produced the Oxford Colleges to the Oxford Uni- by these visits. They will be like a comversity, and the art schools and art posite photograph; they will reproduce students, the latter to be seen in the nothing specific that I have seen, only various galleries, sketch-book or canvas general impressions; but I can recall and easel in hand. I mean to divide my specific remains and ruins better by the time unequally between these three cities. aid of Lanciani than I can by the aid of My first thought I shall give to ancient my own note-book. Rome; my second to ecclesiastical or
Several days ago B— took her Baemediæval Rome ; as to modern Rome, I deker and with a friend explored the will see in it what chance brings to me-I Forum without a guide, and by the process shall have little enough time to divide fixed in her own mind quite clearly the between the other two.
more impressive features of this confused
May 8. and heterogeneous mass of ruins. Then To-day being Ascension Day, we went I went with her, and with her aid got in the afternoon to a vesper service at what I may call the lay of the land. Then San Giovanni, which we are told has the we resolved to try an experience with Mr. best music in Rome. It was extraordi- Reynaud. There are two men who give narily beautiful. One soloist in particular peripatetic lectures in Rome, Mr. Forbes thrilled me by his singing; for a long and Mr. Reynaud. They are more than time I could not determine whether the guides, they are less than lecturers. Mr. voice was masculine or feminine ; it pos- Reynaud had been recommended to us sessed in a remarkable degree the quali- as both interesting and satisfactory, and ties of both a tenor and a soprano. I at so we found him. He meets his audience length concluded that it was a man's - from ten to twenty-at the entrance, voice, and I have since been told that its and walks over the ground selected for possessor is known in Rome as the Pope's the lecture, explaining the ruins as the angel. I am surprised to learn that St. party come to them, and interpreting their Peter's is not a cathedral at all; San significance by legend and history-not Giovanni is the cathedral church of Rome, always discriminating between the two. and mass is said here only by the Pope How much of a scholar he is I do not or by his spiritual representative; since know, but he is thoroughly familiar with the occupation of Rome by the Italian the ground; he has facility of expression, Government as the capital of Italy, only some imagination, a good deal of quiet by the latter, because, since that occupa- humor, and, if he sometimes mingles his
tory and legend in his narratives, I should dinner that he might begin again. If say that this is not because he lacks D'Artagnan's servant had been familiar knowledge, but because he judges that it with the vomitorium, he would not have is not wise to attempt the difficult task of said with a sigh, “Eat as much as you disentangling the two, especially with the please; you can eat but one dinner at a limited time at his disposal and the audi- time.” Adjoining this palace are the tors he has to address. In this I think he ruins of what is called the Stadium, which is wise ; the attempt at disentanglement may have been either a place for public would probably only perplex his hearers. games or a kind of inclosed garden, or, He follows Lanciani very closely ; speak- perhaps, a spot which served both puring broadly, it might be said that he gives poses; the ruins of a small house which an epitome of Lanciani as I give here an Mr. Reynaud wishes to believe was the epitome of his two lectures, so that this is veritable house of Romulus, founder of hardly more than an epitome of an epit- Rome, but of which nothing more can be ome, or, to speak more accurately, my said than that it probably belongs to the impression of his impression of Lanciani's period before the Roman Republic, i. e., impression. ,
B— and I, however, had I believe the seventh or eighth century gone over the Forum by ourselves before before Christ; the house of the mother we went over it with him; we have gone of Nero, which is in a remarkable state over the Palatine since we went over it of preservation; and—below and partly with him; and in the evenings I have under the hill—the ruins of a house and done a little reading in Lanciani, bor- school for the imperial slaves. On one rowed for the purpose. These general side of this Palatine hill in the valley observations—they cannot be called stud- below was the Circus Maximus, the great ies—have left on my mind a very vague chariot racecourse, where the people impression of details, but a very vivid gathered for their favorite sport; on the impression of certain general features of opposite side was the Sacred Way-which Roman life, which I here attempt to pre- was an avenue bordered by shops, temserve that it may not utterly fade away. ples, a great Court House, the Senate
The Palatine is a conically shaped hill, House, and the Forum or gathering-place though irregular in form, the top of which of the people, where they debated, barhas been somewhat, and I judge consider- gained, talked politics, heard the news and ably, extended by substructures built up the gossip, listened to public speeches, from below. On the top of the hill the and were occasionally inflamed to impetCæsars built in succession three or four uous and unrestrained passion. This valgreat palaces; three I recall—those of ley is crowded with ruined walls, pillars, Caligula (or Little Boots, to translate his arches, and parements. Along a third nickname literally), Augustus, and the Fla- side of the hill ran a road connecting the vian Emperors. Of the former little more Forum with the Circus; along the fourth than some of the substructure is left, un- side the broad highway along which vicless it is still existent but buried beneath torious generals passed in their triumphal the gardens of the Farnese laid out here processions, when they returned to be in the Middle Ages. The site of the sec- received with divine honors in the Forum ond is still occupied by a nunnery, which, by the applauding crowds. On the opaccording to Mr. Reynaud, is to be removed posite side of this last avenue was the when the remaining nuns have “gone to Coliseum, built after the death of Nero, glory.” Enough of the walls of the Flavian and constituting the most gigantic amphipalace remain to give one a tolerable con- theater for amusement that the world has ception of this enormous structure, with its ever seen. In another direction, but adthrone-room or palace of justice, its general joining the Forum Romanum, were more gathering-room or courtyard, its dining- temples, court houses, and fora, of which hall, its lecture-hall, etc. One curious little is now left, except the Column feature was the vomitorium, a little room of Trajan. adjoining the dining-hall to which a guest B— and I stood upon the Palatine, retreated when he had eaten all that he and looked down upon the Forum Rocould hold, and tickled his throat with a
The history of the past passes straw to compel himself to throw up his in a strange weird phantasmagoria before me: Romulus and Remus laying out the the Roman temples were artifices of disboundary-lines of the future city; Vir- play constructed to celebrate the maker; ginius seizing a knife from the nearest the first were the natural expression of artbutcher's shop and plunging it into the genius, the others were constructed to win heart of his daughter to save her from admiration for their builders. In Athens shame; Castor and Pollux bringing the are the Temples to Theseus, to winged news of the victory of the Romans Victory, to Jupiter, to Athena; in the which saved their city from destruction Forum, Temples of Faustina, of Julius and them from servitude ; Cicero impal- Cæsar, of Castor and Pollux. . The ruins ing Catiline with sharpened invectives, of Greece retain their beauty in their ruin; which pierce him like the spear-heads of the ruins of Rome are big rather than a Roman cohort; Cæsar stabbed by the beautiful, and are impressive rather for conspirators, and Marc Antony firing the their pathetic decrepitude than for their populace to furious wrath against the immortal charm. This suggestion of the assassins ; Paul pleading the cause of difference between Greece and Rome, religious liberty before Nero, winning his which I derive neither from Mr. Reynaud cause at the first trial only to lose it ten nor from Lanciani, but from B, has years later, so effectually that religious been more and more impressed on me at liberty was never again known in the city every new visit to the Forum and the till re-established by Garibaldi and Victor Palatine, and it has been still further Emmanuel in 1870; Titus marching along reinforced by our visits to the galleries the Sacred Way, leading in triumph the of Rome, where are gathered almost priests of Jerusalem with the silver trum- innumerable relics of a past age. Many pets, the golden candlesticks, and the table of them are exceedingly beautiful, but of shew-bread, afterward engraved upon they are for the most part Greek in their the Arch where they may still be seen; conception if not in their execution ; this Christians thrown to the wild beasts in is pre-eminently true of the collections in the Coliseum, and their bones gathered the Museum on the Capitoline Hill and up with sacred care to be buried in the in the Museum in the Baths of Diocletian. still existing catacombs outside the city I am aware that this generalization, like walls; Constantine celebrating his victory most generalizations, is too broad to be over his rival Maxentius-a victory which wholly true. The Coliseum impressed us ended in the overthrow of the pagan even more by the beauty of its great religion, the substitution of a paganized curves and the harmony of its arches, Christianity in its place, and the abandon- rising tier above tier, than by its size; ment of Rome and the substitution of the pillars which remain of Castor and Constantinople as the world's capital; Pollux rival in their beauty any we saw and then the curtain falls on the classical · in Greece ; and there are two little pillars period of Rome, on its barbaric strength in the Forum, I forget to what they belong, and moral weakness, its pagan splendor that are solid marble and exquisite in and its theatrical taste, its patrician wealth their form and their proportions. Despite and its plebeian poverty.
these and perhaps some other exceptions, These ruins seem to me to be symbols as the two elaborately carved columns, of its transient greatness. There are a one to Trajan, one to Marcus Aurelius, few solid and substantial marble pillars; with the incongruous statues of St. Peter but most of the structures were made of on the one and St. Paul on the other, concrete, brick, or cheap soft stone, ve- which some Pope with more church pride neered with marble. Their beauty was than classical taste has put upon the top borrowed from Greece and was superficial; of them, the moral decay of Rome is their structures were their own, and were pathetically symbolized in its ruins. They cheap and perishable. I am impressed leave on me an impression that the golden by this difference between the glory of age of Rome might more appropriately be Greek architecture as one sees it in the called the gold-plate age of Rome; that Acropolis and that of Rome as one sees its glory was the glory of nouveau riche; it in the Forum. The temples of Greece that its splendor was as shallow and mere were creations of beauty, constructed to tricious in its quality as it was egotistical express the Greeks' love of the beautiful; in the spirit which inspired it. L. A.
By L. H. Hammond The author of the following article is a daughter of Southern parents—both slaveholders and both the children of slaveholders. Twenty-eight of the forty-three years of her life have been passed in the South. Her husband is a son of a slaveholder, and some years of active work with the Woman's Home Mission Board of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South, have given her exceptional opportunities for getting at an understanding of the point of view of thoughtful and philanthropic people through most of the Southern States regarding the Race Question. The Outlook believes that the Race Problem is one of the two most important National problems which the people of the United States have to meet and solve. It also believes that no civilized people have made in so short a time over such difficult obstacles so great an amount of industrial, educational, and social progress as the Southern people have made in the forty years since the Civil War. Believing this, and believing that the Race Question must, in its last analysis, be solved by the South itself, it sees, in spite of some manifestation, both North and South, of conflict, irritation, and misunderstanding, every promise that a solution will finally be reached. But it can be reached only by dealing with it, on the part both of the Northerner and the Southerner, in the spirit to which the following article by a Southern woman gives expression.— The Editors.
HATEVER antagonism exists sion. The Southern whites, though still
between the Southern whites paying ninety-two per cent of all money
and the negroes is pretty well for school purposes, spent, in the twenty. known in all its phases to the country at five years following the war, $120,000,000 large; but the more hopeful aspects of on schools for the negroes. In relation their mutual relations seem little under- to the need it was a small sum, but it was stood beyond our own borders. It is great in relation to the poverty from known, for instance, that many Southern which it came. people hope for no solution of the negro The feeling against college training for problem which will allow the negro to negrocs is certainly strong, but the cause remain in the South on friendly terms for it is not hard to understand. It is with his white neighbor. Colonization, always both an easy and a dangerous voluntary or enforced, is their expedient. thing to develop the minds of ignorant There are also those who prophesy the people faster than their moral natures; extinction of the negro as a natural result and many of the negroes have been thrust of a higher civilization acting upon a into a new world to which they are imlower race. But side by side with these perfectly related mentally, and not at all impatient or despondent people is a large related morally. Such negroes despise and growing class of Southern whites the old life of manual labor, though incawhose point of view is less well known pable of making an honest living in any abroad. They agree with the other class other way, while their wants and ambiwith regard to the facts of the negro's tions have been multiplied. Whatever needs and deficiencies—these are too their color, people like that are a menace near at hand and too clamorous to be to any community; and the Southern overlooked mistaken. But, while people have suffered enough from the assenting to the general conditions, they mistaken beginnings of negro education note the increasingly numerous exceptions to be pardoned if they are oversensitive to the rule, and draw from the acknowl- at this point. But they do not deny the edged facts more hopeful conclusions than negro's right to a college education. The do their neighbors. It is for this class Southern Methodist Church—as a memthat I wish to speak.
ber of that Church I can speak more defiThere is among us so strong a disap- nitely of it than of any other—has long proval of some aspects of negro educa- been committed to the higher education of tion that we are sometimes thought of as the negro in Paine Institute at Augusta, opposed to their education altogether. Ga. This institution is the joint propOne fact should end this misapprehen- erty of the Colored Methodist Episcopal
Church—a negro organization--and of the work themselves, and are looked down Methodist Episcopal Church, South, and upon by the darkies as “ po' white trash;" has the official indorsement of the General or they adopt the attitude of their SouthConference as well as of the several An- ern neighbors, endure the pilfering and nual Conferences. Its President is a mem- the slipshod work, and do what they can ber of an old South Carolina family, and to awaken in these childish and undevelits faculty is made up of Southern white oped creatures some idea of trustworthiand negro teachers. For years this school ness and honor. It is not an attractive has been sending out men and women of task. The long procession of incompegood scholarship and fine character to tents tramp through our homes and become leaders of their race as teachers, business houses, never content long preachers, and citizens.
enough anywhere for the kindest or In regard to social equality, the better wisest of us to make much of an impresclass of negroes do not want it. Cer- sion on them. tainly they will never get it, South or It is the more difficult to make any North, for at least as far in the future as lasting impression upon them for the the mind of the white man can project reason that, as a race, they are grateful itself; but this fact does not prevent mu- only superficially, and in the immediate tual kindliness nor respect. In the best presence of expected benefits. But those stores of our Southern cities white women of us who are discouraged by this patent can be seen to wait while the clerk attends and ubiquitous fact forget that gratitude to the colored customer who preceded is not a primal instinct ; it is a late them, and not one of them apparently development in the progress of any race gives it a thought. In the banks negro from barbarism, as in the growth of the men take their place in line, and white normal civilized child. An illustration men wait their turn behind them.
such as any housekeeper can furnish is on our public square, where the street is found in a girl whom I tried hard to help being repaved, white men and negroes during the year in which she cooked for work side by side, as they did to build me, and who left me at a moment's notice the house in which I live. If antipatny
If antipathy one morning when told that, on account exists, a friendly spirit is still more evi- of unusual rain and mud, the porch needed dent. No honorable negro lacks the an extra scrubbing. I was ill and withrespect of his white neighbors. This out other help, but that troubled her not respect does not take the form of social a whit. Two weeks later the “ collector," intercourse, which such negroes desire as finding that she had left me and thinking little as we; but it is none the less ex- her unprotected, tried to take away the pressed and understood.
furniture she had nearly paid for on the It is difficult for the people of the installment plan. She came to me with North to understand either the pressure the untroubled confidence of a child, and of the whole great race problem upon us of course received help as freely as she as a people, or its endless ramifications asked it. Embarrassment was of another into the smallest details of our individual world. Such matters are refreshing from daily lives. The sharpest criticism of the their comical side, and should burden negro we ever hear comes from the North nobody with a sense of the negro's de erners who come to live among us, and pravity. They spring from an undevelwho find the dirt, shiftlessness, and dis- oped mental and moral consciousness. lionesty of the colored laborers, men and A few generations of reasonable patience women, quite beyond endurance. They and the negro will have passed this trying cannot understand why we“ put up ” with point. it all, and look askance at us, as lazy and But there is a darker side. It would be shiftless ourselves—an opinion, be it ob- difficult to exaggerate the lack of morals served, from which we radically dissentl among the mass of the negroes. Yet the After years of painful discipline--if they whole human race has come up from the do not give up the struggle first, and depths in this respect ; and, remembering return to the land of cleanliness and how recently their forefathers were savtrained workers—they come to one of ages, the situation is not without encourtwo conclusions. Either they do their agement. Whatever the height of our