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K. Henry. Canst thou dispense with heaven for such an oath?

Enter Clifford.

War. Of one or both of us the time is come.
York. Hold, Warwick, seek thee out some other

5 For I myself must hunt this deer to death.
War. Then, nobly, York; 'tis for a crown
thou fight'st.-

Sal. It is great sin, to swear unto a sin;
But greater sin, to keep a sinful oath.
Who can be bound by any solemn vow
To do a murderous deed, to rob a man,
To force a spotless virgin's chastity,
To reave the orphan of his patrimony,
To wring the widow from her custom'd right;
And have no other reason for this wrong,
But that he was bound by a solemn oath?
2. Mar. A subtle traitor needs no sophister.
K. Henry. Call Buckingham, and bid him arm
York. Call Buckingham, and all the friends thou 15
I am resolv'd for death, or dignity.


Old Clif. The first I warrant thee, if dreams

prove true.

War. You were best go to bed, and dream again,
To keep thee from the tempest of the field.

Old Clif. I am resolv'd to bear a greater storm,
Than any thou can'st conjure up to-day:
And that I'll write upon thy burgonet,
Might I but know thee by thy house's badge.



As I intend, Clifford, to thrive to-day,
It grieves my soul to leave thee unassail'd.
[Exit Warwick.
Clif. What seest thou in me, York? why dost
thou pause?

York. With thy brave bearing should I be in love,
But that thou art so fast mine enemy. [esteem,
Clf. Nor should thy prowess want praise and
But that 'tis shewn ignobly, and in treason.
York. So let it help me now against thy sword,
As I in justice and true right express it!
Clif. My soul and body on the action both!-
York.A dreadful lay-address 'thee instantly.
[Fight, and Clifford falls.
Clif. La fin couronne les œuvres. [Dies.
York. Thus war hath given thee peace, for thou

art still.

War. Now by my father's badge, old Nevil's 25 Peace with his soul, heaven, if it be thy will!


The rampant bear chain'd to the ragged staff,
This day I'll wear aloft my burgonet,
(As on a mountain top the cedar shews,
That keeps his leaves in spight of any storm)
Even to affright thee with the view thereof.

Old Clif. And from thyburgonet I'llrendthybear,
And tread it under foot with all contempt,
Despight the bear-ward that protects the bear.
Y. Clif. And so to arms, victorious noble father,
To quell these traitors and their 'complices.

R. Plan. Fie! charity, for shame! speak not in spight,

Enter young Clifford.


Y. Clif. Shame and confusion! all is on the rout; Fear frames disorder, and disorder wounds

30 Where it should guard. O war, thou son of hell, Whom angry heavens do make their minister, Throw in the frozen bosoms of our part


For you shall sup with Jesu Christ to-night.
Y. Clif. Foul stigmatic', that's more than thou 40
canst tell.

R. Plan. If not in heaven, you'll surely sup in
[Exeunt severally.

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War.Clifford of Cumberland, 'tis Warwick calls!
And if thou dost not hide thee from the bear,
Now, when the angry trumpet sounds alarm,
And dead men's cries do fill the empty air,-
Clifford, I say, come forth and fight with me!
Proud northern lord, Clifford of Cumberland,
Warwick is hoarse with calling thee to arms,
- Enter York,

How now, my noble lord? what, all a-foot?
York. The deadly-handed Clifford slewmysteed;
But match to match I have encounter'd him,
And made a prey for carrion kites and crows
Even of the bonny beast he lov'd so well.

Hot coals of vengeance!-Let no soldier fly:
He that is truly dedicate to war,

Hath no self-love; nor he, that loves himself,
Hath not essentially, but by circumstance,
The name of valour.-O, let the vile world end,
[Seeing his dead father.

And the premised' flames of the last day
Knit earth and heaven together!
Now let the general trumpet blow his blast,
Particularities and petty sounds

To cease!Wast thou ordain'd, dear father, To lose thy youth in peace, and to atchieve' 45 The silver livery of advised age;

And, in thy reverence, and thy chair-days, thus
To die in ruffian battle?-Even at this sight,
My heart is turn'd to stone: and, while 'tis mine,
It shall be stony. York not our old men spares;
50 No more will I their babes: tears virginal
Shall be to me even as the dew to fire;
And beauty, that the tyrant oft reclaims,
Shall to my flaming wrath be oil and flax.
Henceforth, I will not have to do with pity;
55 Meet I an infant of the house of York,
Into as many gobbets will I cut it,
As wild Medea young Absyrtus did:
In cruelty will I seek out my fame.
Come, thou new ruin of old Clifford's house!
[Taking up the body,


1i. e. thy helmet. 2 A stigmatic is one on whom nature has set a mark of deformity. dreadful wager.


si. e. a

Premised, for sent before their time. The sense is, let the i. e. to stop. ? i. e. to obtain.

4 i. e. prepare. flames reserved for the last day be sent now.



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As did Eneas old Anchises bear,

So bear I thee upon my manly shoulders;
But then Æneas bare a living load,

Nothing so heavy as these woes of mine. [Exit.

Enter Richard Plantagenet and Somerset, to fight.
R. Plan. So, lie thou there;-

[Somerset is killed.
For, underneath an ale-house' paltry sign,
The Castle in St. Albans, Somerset
Hath made the wizard famous in his death '.-
Sword, hold thy temper; heart, be wrathful still:
Priests pray for enemies, but princes kill. [Exit.
Fight. Excursions. Enter King Henry, and Queen
Margaret, and others.

2. Mar. Away, my lord, you are slow; for
shame, away!

K. Henry. Can we out-run the heavens? good
Margaret, stay.

2. Mar. What are you made of? you'll nor
fight, nor fly:

Now is it manhood, wisdom, and defence,
To give the enemy way; and to secure us
By what we can, which can no more but fly.
[Alarum afar off
If you be ta'en, we then should see the bottom
Of all our fortunes: but if we haply 'scape,
(As well we may, if not through your neglect)
We shall to London get; where you are lov'd;
And where this breach, now in our fortunes made,
May readily be stopp'd.

Enter young Clifford.

Clif. But that my heart's on future mischief set,
I would speak blasphemy ere bid you fly;
But fly you must; uncurable discomfit

Reigns in the hearts of all our present parts.
Away, for your relief! and we will live

To see their day, and them our fortune give:
Away, my lord, away!



Alarum. Retreat. Enter York, Richard Planta-
genet, Warwick, and Soldiers, with Drum and

York. Of Salisbury, who can report of him;
That winter lion, who, in rage, forgets
Aged contusions and all brush 2 of time;
And, like a gallant in the brow of youth3,
10 Repairs him with occasion? this happy day
Is not itself, nor have we won one foot,
If Salisbury be lost.


R. Plan. My noble father,

Three times to-day I holp him to his horse,
Three times bestrid him; thrice I led him off,
Persuaded him from any further act:

But still, where danger was, still there I met him;
So was his will in his old feeble body.
And like rich hangings in a homely house,
20But, noble as he is, look where he comes.
Enter Salisbury.

Sal. Now, by my sword, well hast thou fought

By the mass, so did we all.-I thank you, Richard: 25 God knows, how long it is I have to live;

And it hath pleas'd him, that three times to-day
You have defended me from imminent death.—
Well, lords, we have not got that which we have;
Tis not enough our foes are this time fled,
30 Being opposites to such repairing nature.

York. I know our safety is to follow them;
For, as I hear, the king is fled to London,
To call a present court of parliament.
Let us pursue him, ere the writs go forth :-
35 What says lord Warwick, shall we after them?

War. After them! nay, before them, if we can.
Now, by my hand, lords, 'twas a glorious day:
Saint Alban's battle, won by famous York,
Shall be eterniz'd in all age to come.-

40 Sound, drums and trumpets;-and to London all:
And more such days as these to us befall! [Exeunt.

'The death of Somerset here accomplishes that equivocal prediction given by Jourdain, the witch, concerning this duke; which we met with at the close of the First Act of this play.


2 i. e. all

wear or ravage. The brow of youth means the height or summit of youth, 4 i, e. three times I saw him fallen, and, striding over him, defended him till he recovered.


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GEORGE, Duke of Clarence,


RICHARD, Duke of Gloster,


EDMUND, Earl of Rutland,

Lord RIVERS, Brother to the Lady Gray.

Sir JOHN MONTGOMERY, Lieutenant of the Tower.
Mayor of York, Sir JOHN SOMERVILLE.

HUMPHREY and SINKLO, two Huntsmen.
LEWIS XI. King of France.


BONA, Sister to the French King.

Lady GRAY, afterwards Queen to Edward IV.

Soldiers and other Attendants on King Henry and King Edward, &c.

In part of the Third Act, the Scene is laid in France; during all the rest of the Play in England.

A C T I.


London. The Parliament House.

Alarum. Enter Duke of York, Edward, Richard,
Norfolk, Montague, Warwick, and others, with 5
white roses in their hats.

War. Wonder, how the king escap'd our hands.
York. While we pursu'd the horsemen of
the north,


He slily stole away, and left his men:
Whereat the great lord of Northumberland,
Whose warlike ears could never brook retreat,
Chear'd up the drooping army; and himself,
Lord Clifford, and lord Stafford, all a-breast,
Charg'd our main battle's front, and, breaking in, 15
Were by the swords of common soldiers slain.

Edw. Lord Stafford's father, duke of Buck-

Is either slain, or wounded dangerously:
I cleft his beaver with a downright blow;

That this is true, father, behold his blood.
[Sherving his bloody sword.
Mont. And, brother, here's the earl of Wilt-
shire's blood,

[To Warwick, shewing his.
Whom I encounter'd as the battles join'd.
Rich. Speak thou for me, and tell them what
I did.

[Throwing down the Duke of Somerset's head.
York. Richard hath best deserv'dofallmy sons.—
Is your grace dead, my lord of Somerset ?
Norf. Such hope have all the line of John of

Rich. Thus do I hope to shake king Henry's
War. And so do I.-Victorious prince of York,
Before I see thee seated in that throne
Which now the house of Lancaster usurps,
I vow by heaven, these eyes shall never close.
This is the palace of the fearful king,
20 And this the regal seat: possess it, York;

A 11

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Unless he seek to put us out by force. [ment; 10
York. The queen, this day, here holds her parlia-
But little thinks, we shall be of her council:
By words, or blows, here let us win our right.

Rich.Arm'd as we are, let's staywithin this house.
War. The bloody parliament shall this be call'd, 15
Unless Plantagenet, duke of York, be king;
And bashful Henry depos'd, whose cowardice
Hath made us by-words to our enemies.

York. Then leave me not, my lords; be resolute;
I mean to take possession of my right.


War. Neither the king,nor he that loves him best,
The proudest he that holds up Lancaster,
Dares stir a wing, if Warwick shake his bells'.
I'll plant Plantagenet, root him up who dares:-
Resolve thee, Richard; claim the English crown. 25
[Warwick leads York to the throne, who seatshimself.
Enter King Henry, Clifford, Northumberland,
Westmoreland, Exeter, and others, at the fur-
ther end of the stage.

K. Henry. My lords, look where the sturdy 30
rebel sits,

Even in the chair of state! belike he means
(Back'd by the power of Warwick, that false peer)
To aspire unto the crown, and reign as king.-
Earl of Northumberland, he slew thy father;-35
And thine, lord Clifford; and you both vow'd

On him, his sons, his favourites, and his friends.
North. If I be not, heavens, be reveng'd on me!
Clif. The hope thereof makes Clifford mourn 40
in steel.

West.What, shall we suffer this? let's pluck him
My heart for anger burns, I cannot brook it,

K.Hen. Be patient, gentle earl of Westmoreland.
Clif. Patience is for poltroons, and such as he:45
He durst not sit there, had your father liv'd.
My gracious lord, here in the parliament
Let us assail the family of York.

North. Well hast thou spoken, cousin; be it so.
K. Henry. Ah, know you not, the city favours 50

And they have troops of soldiers at their beck?
Exe. But, when the duke is slain, they'll
quickly fly,


K. Henry. Farbe it from the thoughts of Henry's
To make a shambles of the parliament house!
Cousin of Exeter, frowns, words, and threats,
Shall be the war that Henry means to use.—
[They advance to the duke.
Thou factious duke of York, descend my throne,
And kneel for grace and mercy at my feet;

I am thy sovereign.


York. Thou art deceived, I am thine.
Exe. For shame, come down; he made thee
duke of York.

York. 'Twas my inheritance, as the kingdom is.
Exe. Thy father was a traitor to the crown.
War. Exeter, thou art a traitor to the crown,
In following this usurping Henry. [king?
Clif. Whom should he follow, but his natural
War. True, Clifford; and that's Richard, duke
of York.
K. Henry. And shall I stand, and thou sit in my
York. It must and shall be so.-Content thyself.
War. Be duke of Lancaster, let him be king.
West. He is both king and duke of Lancaster;
And that the lord of Westmoreland shall maintain.
War. AndWarwick shall disprove it. You forget,
That we are those,which chas'd you from the field,
And slew your fathers, and with colours spread
March'd through the city to the palace-gates.

North. No, Warwick, I remember it to my grief;
And, by his soul, thou and thy house shall rue it.
West. Plantagenet, of thee, and these thy sons,
Thy kinsmen, and thy friends, I'll have more lives,
Than drops of blood were in my father's veins.

Clif. Urge it no more; lest that, instead of words,
I send thee, Warwick, such a messenger,
As shall revenge his death, before I stir.
War. Poor Clifford! how I scorn his worthless

York. Will you, we shew our title to the crown?
If not, our swords shall plead it in the field.

K. Henry. What title hast thou, traitor, to the


Thy father was, as thou art, duke of York;
Thy grandfather, Roger Mortimer, earl of March:
I am the son of Henry the fifth,
Who made the dauphin and the French to stoop,
And seiz'd upon their towns and provinces.

War. Talk not of France,sith thou hast lost it all.
K. Henry. The lord protector lost it, and not I;
When I was crown'd, I was but nine months old.
Rich. You are old enough now, and yet, me-

thinks, you lose :

Father, tear the crown from the usurper's head.
Edw. Sweet father, do so; set it on your head.
Mont.Good brother, as thou lov'st and honour'st


Let's fight it out, and not stand cavilling thus.
Rich. Sound drums and trumpets, and the king
will fly.
York. Sons, peace!

[leave to speak, K. Henry, Peace, thou! and give king Henry War. Plantagenet shall speak first:-hear him, lords;

And be you silent and attentive too,
For he, that interrupts him, shall not live.
K. Henry, Think'st thou, that I will leave my
kingly throne,

Wherein my grandsire, and my father, sat?
60 No: first shall war unpeople this my realm;
Ay, and their colours often borne in France-
And now in England, to our heart's great sorrow,—

The allusion is to falconry. The hawks had sometimes little bells hung upon them, perhaps to fright the birds from rising.


Shall be my winding-sheet.-Why faint you,lords?
My title's good, and better far than his.

War. But prove it, Henry, and thou shalt be king.
K. Henry. Henry the fourth by conquest got
the crown.

York. 'Twas by rebellion against his king.
K. Henry. I know not what to say; my title's

Tell me, may not a king adopt an heir?

York. What then?

West. Farewell, faint-hearted and degenerate king,

In whose cold blood no spark of honour bides. North. Be thou a prey unto the house of York, 5 And die in bands for this unmanly deed!


K. Henry. An if he may, then am I lawful king:
For Richard, in the view of many lords,
Resign'd the crown to Henry the fourth;
Whose heir my father was, and I am his.
York. He rose against him, being his sovereign, 15
And made him to resign the crown perforce.

War. Suppose, my lords, he did it unconstrain'd,|
Think you, 'twere prejudicial to the crown'?

Exe. No; for he could not so resign his crown, But that the next heir should succeed and reign. 20 K. Henry. Art thou against us, duke of Exeter? Ere. His is the right, and therefore pardon me. York. Why whisper you, my lords, and answer


Exe. My conscience tells me, he is lawful king. 25
K. Henry. All will revolt from ine, and turn to


North. Plantagenet, for all the claim thou lay'st,
Think not that Henry shall be so depos'd.

War. Depos'd he shall be, in despight of all. 30
North. Thou art deceiv'd: 'tis not thy southern)


Of Essex, Norfolk, Suffolk, nor of Kent,—
Which makes theethuspresumptuousandproud,-
Can set the duke up, in despight of me.


Clif. King Henry, be thy title right or wrong,
Lord Clifford vows to fight in thy defence:
May that ground gape, and swallow me alive,
Where I shall kneel to him that slew my father!
K. Henry. O Clifford, how thy words revive 40
my heart!

York. Henry of Lancaster, resign thy crown:-
What mutter you, or what conspire you, lords?
War. Doright unto this princely duke of York;
Or I will fill the house with armed men,
And, o'er the chair of state, where now he sits,
Write up his title with usurping blood.

[He stamps, and the soldiers shew themselves. K. Henry. My lord of Warwick, hear me but one word;

Let me, for this my life-time, reign as king.
York.Confirm the crown to me, andtomineheirs,
And thou shalt reign in quiet while thou liv'st.
K.Henry. I am content: Richard Plantagenet,
Enjoy the kingdom after my decease.

Clif. What wrong is this unto the prince your son?
War. What good is this to England, and himself?
West. Base, fearful, and despairing Henry!
Clif. How hast thou injur'd both thyself and us!
West. I cannot stay to hear these articles.
North. Nor I.
Clif. Come, cousin, let's go tell the queen these


Clif. In dreadful war may'st thou be overcome! Or live in peace, abandon'd, and despis'd! [Exeunt Northumberland, Clifford, Westmoreland. War. Turn this way, Henry, and regard them [yield. Exe. They seek revenge, and therefore will not K. Henry. Ah, Exeter!


War. Why should you sigh, my lord? [son,
K.Henry.Not for myself, lord Warwick, but my
Whom I unnaturally shall disinherit.
But, be it as it may :—I here entail
The crown to thee, and to thine heirs for ever;
Conditionally, that here thou take an oath
To cease this civil war, and, whilst I live,
To honour me as thy king and sovereign; and
Neither by treason, nor hostility,

To seek to put me down, and reign thyself.
York. This oath I willingly take,andwillperform.
War. Long live king Henry!-Plantagenet,
embrace him.

K. Henry. And long live thou, and these thy
forward sons!

York. Now York and Lancaster are reconcil'd.
Exe. Accurs'd be he, that seeks to make them
foes! [Here the Lords come forward.
York. Farewell, my gracious lord; I'll to my


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K.Henry. Be patient, gentle queen, andIwill stay.
Queen. Who can be patient in such extremes?
Ah, wretched man! 'would I had died a maid,
50 And never seen thee, never borne thee son,
Seeing thou hast prov'd so unnatural a father!
Hath he deserv'd to lose his birth-right thus ?
Hadst thou but lov'd him half so well as I;
Or felt that pain which I did for him once;
55 Or nourish'd him, as I did with my blood;
Rather than made that savage duke thine heir,
And disinherited thine only son.



Prince. Father, you cannot disinherit me :
If you be king, why should not I succeed?
K. Henry. Pardon me, Margaret;-pardon me,
sweet son;-

i. e. to the prerogative of the crown.


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