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HANCOCK ADVANCES TO HATCHER'S RUN. 595 with a loss of 300. On our side, Gen. Charles City and Williamsburg roads Ord was wounded, and Brig.-Gen. -on our left, the Army of the PoBurnham killed.
tomac, leaving only men enough to Fort Harrison was so important to hold its works before Petersburg, and Richmond, that Field resolved to re- taking three days' rations, marched 80. take it, but deferred the assault till suddenly by the left against the enenext morning, when he hurled three my's works covering Hatcher's run brigades against it on one side, while and the Boydton plank-road. In Gen. Hoke charged on the other. other words, Meade's army was here These assaults failed to be made. pushed forward to find and turn the simultaneously, and of course were right flank of the enemy. both repulsed with slaughter; as they Starting before dawn, the 9th corps, probably would have been at any under Parke, on the right, with the rate. But, a few days thereafter, the 5th, under Warren, on its left, struck, Rebels surprised at dawn our right, at 9 A. M., the right of the Rebel inheld by Kautz's cavalry, which had trenchments, which rested on the east been pushed up the Charles City road, bank of Hatcher's run; assaulting, to within 4 or 5 miles of Richmond, but failing to carry them. Warren and drove it; capturing 9 guns and thereupon undertook, as had been arperhaps 500 prisoners. A desperate ranged, to come in on its flank by a fight ensued, in which the Rebel Gen. turning movement; while Hancock, Gregg, of Texas, was killed. Both who had simultaneously advanced sides claimed a clear advantage, but still farther to our left, and had found neither obtained much, save in the but a small force to dispute his pascapture of Fort Harrison; while the sage of Hatcher's run where he struck losses of each had been quite heavy. it, moved north-westward by Dab
Butler pushed forward a strong ney's mill, gained the Boydton plankreconnoissance on the 13th, and as- road, and pushed up to strike the saulted some new works that the Lynchburg railroad in the enemy's enemy had constructed on a part of rear. Gregg, with his cavalry division, their front; but they were firmly was thrown out on Hancock's left. held, and the attack was not long Hancock had reached, with little persisted in.
opposition, the Boydton plank-road, · After a considerable pause, spiced and was pushing farther, when, at 1 only by cannonading and picket- P. M., he was halted by an order from firing along the intrenched front of Meade. Warren, upon the failure of both armies, and some sanguinary Parke to carry the intrenchment in encounters around Fort Sedgwick his front, had pushed Crawford's di(nicknamed by our soldiers "Fort vision, strengthened by Ayres's brigHell') covering the Jerusalem plank- ade, across the run, with orders to road, Gen. Grant again sounded a move down the north bank of that general advance. While Gen. Butler stream, so as to turn the Rebel dedemonstrated in force on our extreme fenses. Hancock, hitherto several right-the 18th corps moving on the miles distant, it was intended to conRichmond defenses by both the nect with by this movement.
BO Oct. 27.
he wasted from their divisiopelessly and yellino
Crawford, with great difficulty, ad- 1 guns; and, as the enemy, emerging vanced as ordered, through woods into the cleared space along the and swamps all but impenetrable, Boydton road, pushed across that road and in which many of his men were in pursuit of Mott's fugitives, firing lost, while regiments were hopelessly and yelling, Egan struck them in separated from their division, until flank with two brigades, sweeping he was directly on the flank of the down the road, rétaking the lost guns, Rebel intrenchments; when he, too, and making over 1,000 prisoners. was halted by Warren to give time The disconcerted Rebels retreated as for consultation with Meade-the rapidly as they had advanced; but, country having proved entirely dif- over 200 of them, fleeing in utter ferent from what was expected. Han- confusion toward the run, fell into cock was now but a mile from Craw- Crawford's lines, and were captured. ford's left; but the dense woods left Could Crawford have instantly comthem in entire ignorance of each prehended the situation and adother's position. And now, of course, vanced, their loss must have been far as Hancock was extending his right greater. (Gibbon's division, now under Egan) Warren was with Meade in the to find Crawford's left, and receiving rear of Crawford's line, when Hill's a mistaken report that the connec- blow was struck, and at once ordered tion had been made, though a space up Ayres to the support of Hancock; of 1,200 yards still intervened, Lee but night fell before Ayres could threw forward Hill to strike Han- get up. cock's right and roll it up after the Simultaneously with the charge on established fashion.
Hancock's front, Wade Hampton, Hill's leading division, under Heth, with five brigades of cavalry, charged crossed the run, making for Hancock, his left and rear, guarded by Gregg's and, following a forest path, swept cavalry; and Hancock was required
ers and across the interval between Gregg's support. Hampton persisted Crawford and Hancock, without till after dark, but gained no ground, clearly knowing where it was. Ar- and was ultimately beaten off. Hanriving opposite Hancock's position, cock's total loss by the day's operaHill, seeing but unseen, silently de- tions was 1,500; that of the enemy ployed in the woods, and, at 4 P. M., was greater. charged; striking Mott's division, Hancock was now authorized by whose first notice of an enemy's ap- Meade either to withdraw or to hold proach was a volley of musketry. on and attack next morning, if he The brigade (Pierce's) thus charged could do so safely, with the aid of gave way; a battery was lost; and, Ayres and Crawford. Being short for a moment, there was a prospect of ammunition, with no certainty of another Reams's station disaster. that any more would reach him, or Hancock of course instantly sent word that Ayres and Crawford could bring to Egan to change front and hurry to up their divisions in season for the the rescue; but Egan had already attack that would naturally be made done that at the first sound of Hill's I on him at daybreak, Hancock pru
END OF THE CAMPAIGN OF 1864-LOSSES. 597 dently decided to draw off, and, at right, being in the nature of a feint, 10 P. M.; commenced the movement; had effected nothing but a distraction which ended with our whole army of the enemy's attention, and this at back in its intrenchments before considerable cost. Petersburg, and thence westward to Here ended, practically, for the Warren's works, covering not only year 1864, Grant's determined, perthe Weldon railroad, but the Vaughan sistent, sanguinary campaign against and Squirrel Level highways. Thus, Lee’s army and Richmond: and the while our several advances on the following tabular statement of the left had been achieved at heavy cost, losses endured by the Army of the Pothe following movement, wherein we tomac, having been furnished by one had the advantage in the fighting of Gen. Grant's staff to the author and in losses, gave us no foot of of “Grant and his Campaigns,” can ground whatever.
not be plausibly suspected of exagButler's advance on our farthest I gerating them:
Tabular Statement of Casualties in the Army of the Potomac, from May 5, 1864, to November 1, 1864.
NOTE.-The first line of the above table includes several days' desperate fighting at Spottsylvania, in which our losses were fully 10,000. Our actual losses in the Wilderness were rather under than over 20,000, and at Spottsylvania just about as many. These corrections, however, make no difference in the aggregates given above.
Whether the foregoing returns of and 24,000 missing (most of the latlosses do or do not include those of ter prisoners, of whom few of the Burnside's (9th) corps before it was able-bodied were exchanged during formally incorporated with the Army that year), 30,000 recovered of their of the Potomac, is not stated; but, wounds, or were recaptured, or esas they do not include the losses in caped from the enemy, it leaves our the Army of the James, it is safe to net losses in that campaign not less conclude that the killed, wounded, than 70,000. The enemy's net loss, and missing of 1864, in our armies including 15,373 prisoners, after deoperating directly for the reduction ducting the wounded who recovered of Richmond, reached the appalling and returned to their colors, we may aggregate of 100,000 men. If we as- safely estimate at 40,000, though they sume that, of nearly 54,000 wounded would doubtless make it less. Dur
81 Heth says that, if he had remained, he 15,000 infantry and Hampton's cavalry. His would have been attacked next morning by l lack of ammunition compelled withdrawal.
ing the many desperate combats of purposeless commander would have this bloody year, the Army of the failed to achieve them at all. The Potomac lost only 25 and gained but merit which may be fairly claimed 32 guns. Its losses of guns were for Grant is that of resolutely undermainly incurred at Reams's station; taking a very difficult and formidaits gains were chiefly made at Spott- ble task, and executing it to the best sylvania.
of his ability—at all events, doing it. Grant's conduct of this campaign That, when south of the James, he was not satisfactory to the Confeder was just where the Rebels wished ate critics, who gave a decided pref- him not to be, they showed by despeerence to the strategy of McClellan. rate and hazardous efforts to draw They hold that the former aimed him thence; and the proof was duonly to overpower and crush by plicated in the final collapse of the brute force-by the employment of Rebellion. Other campaigns were overwhelming numbers -and by a more brilliant; but none contributed lavish expenditure of blood. Doubt- more positively and eminently to less, a great military genius, such as break the power of the Confederates appears once in two or three centu- than that which began on the Rapiries, might have achieved them at a dan and ended in front of Petersburg smaller cost; as a timid, hesitating, and across the Weldon road.
WEST VIRGINIA AND NORTH OF THE RAPIDAN
THE ANACONDA’ is a clumsy, slug- | northern Virginia. The first occurred gish beast; effecting his ends by an at Jonesville, in the extreme west of enormous, even lavish expenditure of old Virginia, near Cumberland gap, force; but Grant's anaconda differed held by Maj. Beers with 300 Illinoisfrom that of Scott and McClellan ans and 3 guns, who were surroundin being thoroughly alive. The si- ed, surprised, and captured by Sam. multaneous National advance in 1864 Jones, after a smart contest, in which from all points, against the armies our loss was 60. The excuse forholdand remaining strongholds of the Re- ing an outpost thus exposed was the bellion, was not merely ordered; it necessity of collecting forage for our was actually attempted-with many larger force at Cumberland gap. reverses at the outset, and no deci- A nearly simultaneous raid by Fitzdedly encouraging results for some Hugh Lee's cavalry, on the line of months, but with ultimately over the Baltimore and Ohio railroad west whelming success.
of Cumberland, came to nothing; Before Gen. Grant had been placed but a later expedition, sent under in chief command, there had been Rosser over into West Virginia from several collisions in western and the Valley by Early, surprised a train 1 Jan. 3, 1864.
2 Jan. 30.
BRECKINRIDGE DEFEATS SIGEL AT NEWMARKET.: 599
moving from New creek to Peters- ; Gen. Crook, aiming at the Rebel reburg, Hardy county; and, after a sources in the vicinity of Staunton brief struggle, captured 270 prison- and Lynchburg. Sigel, with some ers, 93 six-mule wagons, heavily la- 10,000 men, moved up the Valley den, and brought away 1,200 cattle accordingly, and was met, near NEWand 500 sheep, in addition. Of many MARKET, by a Rebel army of at least raids from · Dixie' into West Virginia, equal force under Breckinridge; to hardly another was so cheaply suc- strengthen whom, the region west of cessful as this.
him had very properly been stripped Rosser next surprised the Balti- and left nearly defenseless. After more and Ohio railroad station at Pat- some maneuvering and skirmishing, terson creek bridge, 8 miles west of Breckinridge, at 3 P. M., ordered a Cumberland, capturing a company determined charge, by which Sigel's which held it; but was struck, on his badly handled army was routed, and return, at Springfield, near Romney; driven back to Cedar creek, near by Gen. Averill, with a far superior Strasburg, with a loss of 700 men, 6 Union force, and chased out of the guns, 1,000 small arms, his hospitals, new State; losing his Patterson creek and part of his train. Breckinridge prisoners and a considerable portion seems not to have followed up his of his own men and horses.
victory, because his forces were needCol. Gallup, commanding on the ed to repel the advance of Crook border of eastern Kentucky, sur-, from the west. prised* Col. Ferguson, a Rebel guer- Crook had moved from Charlesrilla, at the Rock House, Wayne co., town simultaneously with Sigel's adWest Virginia, killing 15 and taking vance from Winchester; and--as if 50 prisoners, including Ferguson. to preclude the last chance of ulti
Gen. Scammon, commanding at mate success-had divided his comCharlestown, had been surprised and mand; sending Averill, with 2,000 captured, with the steamboat Levi, cavalry, to destroy the lead-mines on the Kanawha, by Lt. Verdigan, near Wytheville, while he advanced one of Ferguson's subordinates, a few farther to the left. But when Avedays before. Verdigan, with but 10 rill reached' Wytheville, he found men, captured a General, 4 other of- there John Morgan, with a formidaficers, and 25 privates, beside the ble cavalry force dispatched by Gen. steamboat and her crew; throwing | W. E. Jones from Saltville; and a overboard the captured arms so fast stubborn fight came off, wherein Aveas he could seize them, so as to pre- rill was clearly worsted. He tries in clude the danger of a rescue. Scam- his “General Order' to make the remon and his two aids were sent prison- sult a drawn fight against “overers to Richmond; the residue paroled. whelming numbers ;" but, as he does
not claim to have destroyed the leadGen. Grant's comprehensive plan works, nor taken the town, nor of campaign embraced a cooperative achieved anything in particular, save movement up the Shenandoah under that “the purposes of the enemy were Gen. Sigel, and up the Kanawha by foiled by the engagement,” there is
: Feb. 2. 4 Feb. 12. 6 May 1, May 15. * May 10.