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eral population of Ireland—to what may be more peculiarly called the nationality of the country—that its interests and fuelings were what the whole scheme primarily had regard to. If the portion of it relating to the Roman Catholic theological seminary had been defeated, the other portion of it also would probably have been withdrawn. The Maynooth bill encountered a vehement opposition, but it was ultimately passed in both Houses by great majorities. The measure for establishing three secular colleges in Ireland, wholly independent of religious tests or creeds, for the education of the middle classes, was brought forward in the commons by Sir James Graham on the 9th of May. In proposing the second reading of the bill on the 30th, Sir James announced certain alterations which ministers were disposed to make in it, with the view of affording facilities for the theological instruction of the students by clergymen, or lecturers, appointed for that purpose by the several denominations to which they might belong. On the 2d of June, an amendment moved by Lord John Manners for the postponement of the second reading of the bill was negatived, by a majority of 311 to 46. On the 30th, when it was in committee, a proposition from Lord John Russell for making the apparatus of theological instruction in the colleges a part of the establishment to be founded and upheld by the State, was rejected by a majority of 117 to 42. Finally, on the 10th of July the third reading of the bill was carried, against an amendment of Sir Robert Inglis, by a majority of 177 to 126. In the Lords it passed through all its stages without a division.
By this act, entitled "An Act to enable her Majesty to endow new colleges, for the advancement of learning in Ireland,” the sum of 100,0001. was assigned out of the consolidated sund for purchasing the sites, and erecting and furnishing the buildings, of the three colleges. Her Majesty and her successors were made visitors, with power lo appoint, by sign manual, persons to execute the office. The appointment of the presidents, vice-presidents, and professors, was intrusted to the Crown, until parliament should otherwise determine. The commissioners of the treasury were empowered to issue annually a sum not exceeding 7,0001., for the payment of salaries, and other expenses in each college; it being moreover provided that reasonable fees might be exacted from the students. Lecture rooms were directed to be assigned for religious instruction; and it was enacted that no student should be allowed to attend any of the colleges unless he should reside with his parent or guardian, or some near relation, or with a tutor or master of a boarding-house licensed by the president, or in a hall founded and endowed for the reception of students.
A president and vice-president for each college were soon after som nated, and the erection of the buildings was begun. The other appointments were made in August 1849, and the three colleges were opened in the end of October following. An additional sum of 12,0001. had shortly before been granted by parliament for providing them with libraries, philosophical instruments and some other requisites.
Originally, it was intended that the number of professors in each college, exclusive of the president and vice-president, should not exceed twelve, and letters patent constituting them upon that basis were passed for each under the great seal of Ireland in December, 1845. Afterwards it was determined that the number should be augmented for the present to nineteen, but that it should not at any time exceed thirty. The vicepresident, however, is also a professor. New letters patent embodying that extended scheme were granted in favor of each of the three colleges in November, 1850.
Under the existing constitution, then, the body politic and corporate of each college consists of a president, with a salary of 8001. and a house; a vice-president, with a salary of 5001, and a house; and professors of Greek, Latin, mathematics, history and English literature, logic and metaphysics, chemistry, natural philosophy, (each with a salary of 2501. ;) modern languages, natural history, mineralogy and geology, (each with a salary of 2001. ;) English law, jurisprudence and political economy, civil engineering, and agriculture, (each with a salary of 1501. ;) the Celtic languages, the practice of surgery, the practice of medicine, materia medica, and midwifery, (each with a salary of 1001.)
There are also attached to each college a registrar, (with a salary of 2001. ;) and a bursar and librarian, (each with a salary of 1501.) A sum of 3001. annually is allowed for the payment of porters and servants. The total annual expenditure for salaries is, thus, (deducting 250l. for the professorship held by the vice-president,) 5,500l.
The remaining 1,5001. of the annual charge on the consolidated fund is allocated to the payment of scholarships and prizes. The scholarships to be awarded at the commencement of the session of 1850-51 at Belfast, are 48 of 241. each to students of the faculty of arts; 4 of 201. each to students of the faculty of medicine; 2 of 201. each to students of the faculty of law; 2 of 201. each to students of civil engineering; and 4 of 151. each to students of agriculture; the number being equally divided in all cases between students of the first and students of the second year. The scholarships are all held for one year only.
The session in all colleges extends from the third Tuesday in October to the second Saturday in June, and is divided into three terms by recesses of a fortnight at Christmas and at Easter. The sees for each class vary from 11. to 21. 108.; and there is besides a payment from each matriculated student to the burear on behalf of the college of 31. at the commencement of the first year, and 21. at the commencement of every subsequent year.
It had been all along contemplated that matriculation and attendance at these colleges, as at similar institutions established by public authority in our own and other countries, should conduct to graduation both in arts and in every other faculty, except only that of divinity; and all the regulations and arrangements of the academic curiculum in each have been moulded upon that understanding. It was a question for a considerable time whether, with a view to the conferring of degrees and
other purposes, each college should be erected into a distinct university or the three constituted into one university. The latter plan has been adopted, undoubtedly to the placing of the new establishments in a greatly superior position to what they would have held if they had been left each to its provincial insulation; for it could never have happened that a mere Belfast, Cork, or Galway Degree would have carried the same weight with one from the Queen's University in Ireland. The letters patent creating such an university have now received the royal signature. Her Majesty has therein been pleased to declare that “graduates of our said university shall be fully possessed of all such rights, priviliges, and immunities as belong to persons holding similar degrees granted them by other universities, and shall be entitled to whatever rank and precedent is derived from similar degrees granted by other universities.” The following individuals constituted the government in 1851 : Chancellor-His Excellency GEORGE WILLIAM FREDERICK, EARL OF CLARENDON, K.G.
K.C.B. Lord-Lieutenant of Ireland.
The President of the Queen's College, Bel.
The President of the Queen's College, Cork, The Right Honorable Thomas Baron Mont- for the time being. eagle, of Brandon.
The President of ihe Queen's College, Gal. The Right Houorable Francis Blackburne, way, for the time being.
Lord Chief Justice of the Queen's Bench. Richard (iriffith, LL. D.
Captain Thomas Askew Larcom, R.E.
STATUTES, BY-LAWS, AND REGULATIONS. The Queen's University, founded by Royal Charter, 15th August, 1850, has its seat, and holds its meetings, in the Castle of Dublin, until further order, by warrant of the Lord-Lieu. tenant.
The Chancellor and Senate are a corporation under the title of the Queen's University in Ireland; may sue, and may be sued, as a commo. seal, and acquire property not to exceed ten thousand pounds a year.
The government of the University vests in the Chancellor and the Senate. The Chancellor presides over its meetings, and authenticates its acts.
The Senate is formed of the three Presidenis of the Queen's Colleges for the time being, and certain other persons appointed by warrant under the sign manual; in all not to exceed iweniy. The vice presidents of colleges may exercise the functions of senators in the absence of their respective presidents. Five members of the Senate constitute a qnorum, the chair. man having a casting vole.
A vice-chancellor is to be elected annually by the Senate, aud when his election is approved of by the Lord Lieutenant, he is empowered to exercise all the functions of Chancellor in the absence of the latter.
The Senate, in the absence of both Chancellor and Vice-Chancellor, may elect a chairman to conduct ordinary business.
The Senate appoint a secretary and such subordinate officers as may be necessary for dispatch of business.
The Senate have full power to make and alter by-laws and regulations; these being approved by the Lord-Lieutenant, and sealed with the common seal, become binding upon the University.
In all cases not provided for by charter, the Chancellor and Senate shall act in such manner as may appear best calculated to promote the purposes intended by the University.
Meetings of the Senate shall be convened by the secretary or acting-secretary, on the authority of the Chancellor ; or, in his absence of the Vice-Chancellor, or of the chairman of a meeting of the Senate, elected as provided in the charter.
There shall be stated meetings on the 7th of January and 20th of Jane, in each year, or on the followiug day, when either of these days shall fall on a Sunday.
The Queen's Colleges of Belfast, Cork, and Galway, are constituted Colleges of the Queen's University, and their professors are considered professors of the University
The power of the University Senate over the Colleges extends only to the regulation of qualification for the several degrees.
The Queen reserves to herself and successors the office of Visitor, with power to appoint others lo execute the duties.
The Chancellor or Vice-Chancellor is required to report annually to the Lord-Lieutenant on the condition and progress of the University.
The Chancellor and Senate have power to found and endow scholarships, prizes, or exhibitions, for which funds may be supplied by grant or donation, under such regulations as they may think fit to make, not interfering with the courses prescribed for scholars of Queen's Colleges, or for matriculation therein.
The Queen's University is empowered to grant degrees in axts, medicine, or laws, to students in the Queen's Colleges who shall have completed the courses of education prescribed by the ordinances. Persons who obtain these degrees shall be possessed of all rights and privileges pertaining to similar degrees granted by other universities or colleges. The Chancellor and
Senate have power to admit, by special grace, graduates of other uni. versities to similar and equal degrees in the Queen's University.
All degrees shall be granted and conferred publicly in the hall of the University,
At all meetings of the Senate to confer degrees, the members shall appear in ihe full robes they may be entitled to wear in respect of any degrees they may have obtained, or offices they may hold. Any member not possessed of a degree or office, io wear the gown of a master of arts.
Candidates for degrees shall wear the costume of their collegiate standing, and the hoods of the degrees sougbt.
Candidates being presented to the Senate by the presidents of their colleges, and the secretary having certified that their fees have been paid, and that they have duly passed the exam. iners, they shall sign the roll of the University, when the Chancellor (or Vice-Chancellor) shall admit them to degrees in the following manner :
In virtue of my authority as Chancellor (or Vice-Chancellor) I admit you ()
to the degree of (The Chancellor (or Vice Chancellor) shall then proceed to present publicly any exhibition or medal which may have been awarded.
Examiners are expected to attend the public meeting of the Senate.
The present courses of study required by the University are prescribed in the ordinances which were prepared by the presidents of the colleges, approved of by the Lord-Lieutenant, and adopted by the Senate at its first meetings. These ordinances remain in force until altered by the Senate: such alterations to be subject to the approval of the Lord Lieutenant.
The qualifications of candidates for degrees shall be examined into at a special meeting of the Senate.
Each candidate is required to fill up, with bis own hand, a certificate of his name, birth. place, age, and qualifications. All certificates of candidates to be sent to the secretary fourteen days before examination.
The Senate will receive certificates of medical education for two-thirds of the required courses, from the professors of universities and chartered bodies, and from schools and hospitals, which have sought for and obtained the recognition of the Senate; but it is essential that one-third, at least, of the medical lectures prescribed in the course for the degree of M.D., be attended in some one of the Queen's Colleges.
Examinations for degrees, and for scholarships and prizes, shall be appointed and directed by the Senate, who shall elect examiners anpually.
In no case sliall any member of the Senate, or any Vice-President of a college (liable to be
Each examiner shall be present during the whole time that the candidates are engaged in writing answers to the papers set by him; but if a paper be set by more than one examiner, the presence of one examiner shall be deemed sufficient; if, from unavoidable necessity, any examiner be unable to attend, the secretary shall be present.
Every member of the Senate shall have ihe right of being present during examinations, but only the examiner specially appointed to conduct examinations shall have the right to put questions. No candidates shall be present except those under examination.
The examiners shall report to the Senate the result of their examination, and shall deliver in at the same time, in sealed packets, the answers to the examination papers of the classes which they have severally examined.
The amount of fees to be paid on the granting of degrees shall be directed from time to time by the Chancellor and Senate, with the approbation of the Lord's Commissioners of Her Majesty's Treasury:
For the present, ihe fee on the degree of M.D. has been fixed at 51., and the fee on the diploma of agriculture, at 2. Fees on other degrees are not yet settled. The fees are to be carried to the general fund.
Accounts of income and expenditure of the University shall once in each year be submitted to the treasury, subject to such audit as may be directed.
The Bank of Ireland has been appointed ireasurer. Payments shall be made by dratts signed by the Chancellor or Vice-Chancellor, countersigned by the secretary.
Although much clamor has been raised against the Queen's Colleges, because, in the distracted state of Ireland in religious matters, the British Parliament has at last attempted to establish a plan of liberal education, the special purpose and profession of which is to communicate instruction in certain branches of human knowledge to classes which may be composed of young people belonging to various religious denom
inations, we believe there is no ground for alarm, or distrust, for the safety of the religious principles of the students who may resort to them. On the other hand, securities are provided, more protective and and conservative than exist in any other academic institution in the empire, which are open to other than students of one religious denomination.
At the ancient national universities of Oxford and Cambridge, and Trinity College, Dublin, there are no arrangements which even recognize the existence of any form of religious belief but that of the Established Church; not only is the student who may hold any other creed (in so far as such dissenting students are admitted at all) left without any spiritual superintendence whatever, but the entire system of teaching and discipline is in the hands of members of the church established by law, and is regulated and administered in all respects in conformity with the doctrines and ritual of that church. Yet, Roman Catholics generally have long been in the habit of sending their sons without hesitation or scruple to the university of Dublin; freedom of admission to Oxford and Cambridge has always been one of the demands which Protestant dissenters have urged most clamorously; and no pon-conformist community has ever put forth an authoritative denunciation of either the demand or the practice.
In the Scottish universities the professors are all by law members of the Presbyterian Established Church; any seasoning of theology, therefore, that may insinuate itself into the lectures delivered by them, or their mode of teaching, must be Presbyterian; it may be Presbyterian of the strongest and, to all but the disciples of Calvin and John Knox, of the most offensive flavor. On the other hand, at least at Edinburg and Glasgow, there is no religious superintendence of the students whatever. So here is the extreme ot' rigor and exclusiveness, combined with the extreme of laxity and neglect. Yet these universities are attended by members of all communions; and certainly it is not the liberality of the system in giving free admission to all sects which any body of dissenters has ever made matter of complaint.
In University College, London, there is the same freedom of admission for students of all descriptions as at the Scotch colleges, with the same entire absence of religious superintendence as at Edinburg and Glasgow; and no religious test is applied to the professors any more than to the students. Many religious fathers of all denominations, nevertheless, have been accustomed ever since it was established to send their sons to be educated in all the great branches of human learning at University College.
In the first place, every professor in these Irish colleges, upon entering into office, signs a declaration promising and engaging that, in his lectures and examinations, and in the performance of all other duties connected with his chair, he will carefully abstain from teaching or advancing any doctrine, or making any statement, either derogatory to the truths of revealed religion, or injurious or disrespectful to the relig