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dynamos, and 0.77 per cent by animal motors. Of the accidents which were due to motors 7.16 per cent resulted fatally, while of all fatal injuries 0.57 per cent were caused by motors.

The term “transmission apparatus” (Class II) includes shafting, pulleys, tooth and friction gears, belts, ropes, chains, etc. Of the accidents caused by transmission apparatus 15.74 per cent resulted in death; of all the fatal accidents 2.37 per cent were due to this

A few of the groups of industries show a conspicuously high proportion of their accidents as originating from transmission apparatus; thus flour milling (association 35) had 10.03 per cent of its accidents due to this cause, while paper making (association 28) had 6.31 per cent of its accidents so caused.

The accidents caused by "working machinery” (Class III) form 17.50 per cent of all the accidents compensated and comprise the largest group of accidents due to any one of the causes enumerated in the table. Of all the injuries due to this cause 1.36 per cent resulted fatally. In some of the industry groups this cause is responsible for over half of all the accidents compensated; thus of the group paper products (association 29) 67.80 per cent of the accidents were due to this cause; in the metal working group 57.47 per cent of the accidents are due to this cause. On account of the varied nature of the machinery included under the term "working machinery” the accidents in one industry group can not very well be contrasted with those in another group.

The cause numbered IV, elevators, cranes, hoists, lifts, etc., was responsible for 5.03 per cent of the total number of injuries in 1907. The industry groups in which this cause was especially conspicuous are the water transportation industries; in 1907 the marine navigation group (association 63) had 13.29 per cent and the inland navigation group (association 60-62) had 13.27 per cent of their accidents originating in this cause. Of the accidents in the sugar industry group (association 37) and also in the express and storage group (association 58), 9.45 per cent were caused by elevators, hoists, etc. All the other industry groups had less than 9 per cent of their injuries due to this cause.

Of all the accidents caused by elevators, hoists, etc., in 1907, 11.79 per cent were fatal, while of all the fatal accidents compensated 7.47 per cent were due to this cause.

The cause numbered V, steam boilers, etc., in 1907, is conspicuous for two things, first, the number of accidents is small, and second, those accidents which did arise from this cause frequently resulted in death, 26.85 per cent of these accidents causing the death of the injured person. Of the total number of fatal accidents in 1907, however, those due to steam boilers, etc., formed only 0.62 per cent.

The cause numbered VI, electric currents, was also responsible for a small number of accidents, but as in the preceding class, the accidents to a large degree resulted in death; 34.24 per cent of injuries caused by electric currents were fatalities, though only 0.97 per cent of all the fatal accidents were due to this cause.

The cause numbered VII, explosives of various kinds, possesses the same characteristics as the two preceding classes, the number of accidents being small and the proportion of this small number which resulted in death being large.

The cause numbered VIII, inflammable, hot, or corrosive substances, likewise was responsible in 1907 for a small number of accidents, of which 20.36 per cent resulted in death. The industry group chemicals (association 18) in 1907 had the highest proportion of accidents due to this cause, having 14.47 per cent of all its accidents originating in this class.

The cause numbered IX, collapse, fall, etc., of objects, materials, etc., was responsible for 15.08 per cent of all the accidents compensated in 1907. Of the total number of injuries in 1907 due to this cause, 10.75 per cent resulted in death, but these deaths formed 20.38 per cent of all the fatalities. This cause was responsible for 44.12 per cent of the accidents in the chimney sweeping industry (association 42), for 32.78 per cent of the accidents in the mining industry (association 1), and for 27.01 per cent of the accidents in the building trades industries (associations 43-54). All of the other industry groups had less than 20 per cent of their accidents arising from this cause.

The cause numbered X, falls on even surface, falls from stairs, ladders, fall into depressions, etc., was responsible for 11.30 per cent of the accidents compensated in 1907. Of all the accidents due to this cause, 8.48 per cent were fatal. The industry chimney sweeping (association 42) had 38.24 per cent of its accidents due to this cause, while the building trades (associations 43-54) had 23.82 per cent; the proportion of accidents due to this cause in the other groups was less than 20 per cent.

The cause numbered XI, loading, unloading, etc., formed 14.02 per cent of all the accidents compensated in 1907, and of these accidents 3.05 per cent were fatal. As would be expected, the industry with the highest proportion of its accidents due to this cause is the group express and storage (association 58) with 28.69 per cent. Other groups where heavy parcels or heavy material is moved show also a high proportion; brewing and malting (association 39) and engineering, excavating, etc. (association 64), had 24.88 per cent and 21.33 per cent, respectively, of all their accidents arising from this cause.

The cause numbered XII, teaming, drayage, etc., was responsible for 6.63 per cent of all the injuries compensated in 1907, and 10.15 per cent of these injuries were fatal. As in Class XI of causes, a transportation industry-in this case the livery, drayage, cartage, etc., group (association 59), with 49.76 per cent-had the highest proportion of its accidents arising in this cause.

The cause designated as operation of railways (Class XIII) caused 9.71 per cent of the total number of injuries compensated in 1907, and of these injuries 13.59 per cent resulted fatally. Of all the fatal accidents compensated 16.59 per cent were caused by this class.

As would be expected, the industry groups with the highest proportion of accidents due to this cause are the various forms of railway transportation and those groups in which special branch roads, spurs, etc., are used for the movement of material, etc.; thus private railways (association 56) had 56.54 per cent of its accidents in 1907 due to this cause, street and small railroads (association 57) had 45.36 per cent, engineering, excavating, etc. (association 64), had 23.61 per cent, and the State railways had 46.44 per cent.

The cause indicated as shipping and water transportation (Class XIV) was responsible for 1.06 per cent of all the accidents compensated, but this cause is conspicuous by having 42.34 per cent of these accidents resulting in death, this being the highest proportion shown by any of the causes given in the table; these fatal accidents, however, formed but 5.65 per cent of all fatal accidents. The industry groups with the highest proportion of accidents due to this cause are naturally those including water transportation; thus the group inland navigation (association 60-62) had 46.22 per cent and marine navigation (association 63) had 43.57 per cent.

The accidents caused by bite, kick, push, etc., of animals (Class XV) are not numerous, being 1.64 per cent of the total number compensated in 1907, and of course occurred in those industries in which animals are used in large numbers. Thus the group livery, drayage, cartage, etc. (association 59), had 14.28 per cent of its accidents originating in this cause; blacksmithing, farriers, etc. (association 66), had 13.99 per cent, and meat products (association 65) had 10.27 per cent.

The accidents caused by tools, hand apparatus of various kinds, etc. (Class XVI), formed 4.10 per cent of all the accidents compensated, and with one or two exceptions are not conspicuous in any of the industry groups. The group meat products, etc. (association 65), had 34.54 per cent of its accidents so caused, while blacksmithing (association 66) had 15.51 per cent.

TABLE 11.-CAUSES OF ACCIDENTS: PER CENT OF PERSONS KILLED OR INJURED

AND BY

(Source: Amtliche Nachrichten des Reichs-Versicherungsamts, 1910. I Beiheft,

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A. TOTALS.
Grand total:
1907.

.(81,248 cases)..
1897.

.(45,971 cases)..
Fatal injuries:
Per cent of all fatal accidents-
1907

..(6,463 cases)..
18971
Per cent of fatal accidents of total acci-
dents due to each cause-
1907.

(6,463 cases).
18971
Industrial accident associations (not including
institutes):
1907

.(75,370 cases).
1897.

(41,746 cases)..
Subsidiary institutes of the building trades, en-
gineering, and navigation associations:
1907.

.(1,345 cases)..
1897..

(1,155 cases)..
Public authorities:
1907.

.(4,533 cases)..
1897..

(3,070 cases)..

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B. GROUPS OF ASSOCIATIONS.

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.43

.85

1 Mining: 1907

..(11,381 cases).. .47 .62 3.09 1897.

.(5,670 cases).. .81 42 2. 44 2 Quarrying: 1907

(2,677 cases).. 37 1.57 6. 01 1897.

(1,554 cases)..

.39 1.22 3. 92 3 Fine mechanical products: 1907.

.(1,481 cases).. 1.55 1. 42 37.00 1897.

..(567 cases)..

2. 47 3.35 39. 15 411 Iron and steel: 1907.

(14,083 cases).. 87 1.24 23. 49 1897..

.(6,873 cases)..

22. 34 2 1.85 2 26.00 12,13 | Metal working: 1907.

..(1.533 cases).. 72 2. 15 57.47
1897.

.(534 cases)..
1.50 2.81

56. 55
14 Musical instruments:
1907.

.(225 cases)..

2. 22 57. 78 1897.

(89 cases)..

1.12 2. 25 53.93 15 Glass: 1907.

.(347 cases). .58 1.73 13.82 1897.

.(235 cases)..

2.55 14.04 16 Pottery: 1907.

(310 cases)..

3. 23 22. 26 1897..

.(166 cases).. .60 4.82 25.91 17 Brick and tile making: 1907

(1,931 cases).. 78 2. 43 13. 62 1897

.(1,085 cases).. 1.38 1.38 14. 75 18 Chemicals: 1907

(2,038 cases).. 93 1.02 17.22 1897.

..(1,007 cases)..

1. 19 2.98 15.10 19 Gas and water works: 1907

.(435 cases). 1.60

22 3.00 1897.

.(179 cases).

1.68 . 56 1.12
20 Linen:
1907.

(250 cases). 1.07 3.57 55.71
1897..
(202 cases).. 1. 49 2. 48

55. 94
27 Silk:
1907

(93 cases)..

5.38 41.93 1897.

..(68 cases).. 5. 89

4.41 54.41 20-27 Textiles (including linen and silk): 1907.

.(2,739 cases).. 1.02 3.72 50.64 1897.

.(2,394 cases).

1.63 3. 26 55.97 I Number of cases not reported.

.65

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BY ACCIDENTS COMPENSATED FOR THE FIRST TIME, 1907 AND 1897, BY CAUSES
INDUSTRIES.
II Teil. Gewerbe-Unfallstatistik für das Jahr 1907, pp. 352-362, 366-383.)

Per cent of persons killed or injured by

(VII.) (VIII.) (IX.) (X.) (XI.) (XII.) (XIII.) (XIV.) (XV.) (XVI.) (XVII.) Asso-
Inflam-
Falls,

Ship-
Ani-

cia-
Team-
mable, Collapse, falls

ping

tion

Tools,
Opera-

mals
Loading,

and Explo- hot, or fall, etc.,

ing,
from
tion of

hand Mis- numunload

water dray

(bite, sives. corrosive of ob- stairs,

cellarail

appa

ber.

kick,
sub-

age,
trans-

neous.

ratus, jects. ladders, ing, etc.

ways.
etc.

push,
stances.
etc.

porta

etc. tion.

etc.).

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