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POLISH WOMAN SEWING IN HER HOME

At the right of the picture one can see the shrines of patron saints. the whole mining camp as interested served, and never in all the Carpathian spectators. The priest who marries them mountains was there such feasting as has no easy task, as he has to move both there is in the Alleghanies. “Polak" bride and groom bodily from one place steak, cabbage with raisins, beets, slices before the altar to the other and fairly of bacon, links of sausages, sweet potasqueeze the responses out of them. The toes, and, “last but not least," the great ceremony over, the wedding dinner is American dish, conqueror of all foreign tastes—apple pie. It is a glorious sight for the cause of a cyclone or for the erupto see them eat, their faces buried in tion of Mont Pelée, but the results are these unheard-of luxuries. Beer Hows as nearly the same: furniture, heads, and freely as did milk and honey in the prom- glasses all in the same condition—broken; ised land, and again the little band plays, everybody on the ground like twisted this time a new tune, and the bridegroom forest trees, while one hears between long sings a new song,

black curses the peaceful snores of the “Beer oh! beer oh! beautiful beer,

unconscious drunk. The next day and And who then will drink of it

the next the programme is repeated, and When I am down in the pit?

this is the Slovak's only diversion, unless Beer oh! beer oh! who'll drink it then?"

it be a saint's day, when history repeats While he is singing about the future itself and he once more practices his two and the crowd dances to this melancholy vices, drinking and fighting. Sexually he tune, the present takes care of itself, as is virtuous, and no scandal taints these barrel after barrel is emptied, until the mining camps, where one woman cooks for pyramids of Egypt have small rivals in fifteen or twenty. men, who respect her as those built entirely of empty beer-barrels the wife of one man, while she respects in the Pennsylvania mining town. Many her own virtue and would fight if necesof the drinkers fall asleep as soundly as sary to remain loyal to her husband. There Rameses ever did after he was embalmed, is much coarse, indelicate talk and much while others are making ready for the end crudeness, but among no other foreigners of the feast—the fight, for “no fight, no is there such virtue. feast" is the proverb. Somebody calls a The Pole who emigrates to this country Slovak a Polak, or vice versa; some young comes from nearly the same region as the man casts glances at some young maiden Slovak, and lives very much the same life, otherwise engaged—and the fight is on. I although in many things he is his supehave never discovered just the reason for rior. He has greater self-assertion, is the fight, and one might as well search not so submissive to the Church, chafes

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much under restraint, has more of a liter- say, 'Sam, have you got a license?' and ature in America, and calls himself an I said, “None of your business, and he infidel as soon as he begins to think. In wanted to shut me up, so I went to the Chicago over 100,000 Poles live near alderman, and he shut him up, and he the stockyards, engaged in menial tasks, come round no more." yet not a few of them have gained posi- In this dance-hall there is a fight every tions of trust and influence. Politically Saturday night, and a Polish fight is less they, too, are herded, and vote as Poles harmless than that of the Slovak. This and not as Americans. I became ac- is the low water mark of the Poles in quainted with a saloon-keeper on Ashland Chicago, but these Poles are not alto Avenue in Chicago, who conducts a dance- gether fair examples, for there are fine hall, shoe store, lumber-yard, and real representatives of that race in this counestate office in connection with his saloon, try, men and women of culture, but they and who is said to control five thousand are rare and far removed from this class, Polish votes. I tell his story in nearly which needs them and which could be his own words. “I worked in the stock- influenced by them. In Detroit an Ameriyards until I said to myself, You big foc!, can Protestant layman has thrown himself go in the saloon business, and make into the work of uplifting this mass of money big; so I went to the beer-brewer 40,000 Poles socially and spiritually, and and told him, and he gave me a corner, the small measure of success which he has and put a mortgage on it. One barrel of met so far is due only to the fact that whisky and one barrel of beer I had, and small means are at his command. AmerI sold all kinds of drinks out of them. I ica has a Slav problem, but not a Slav told the boys to come in and dance on peril, unless no leaven is introduced into Saturday night, and they came ; one day this mass, which is in greater need of it a big policeman came into my saloon and and more prepared for it than we think.

The Day's Work

By Charles P. Cleaves
The sun's gold path has crossed the sky;

Beneath the orchard's glowing haze
A lone bee takes his last flight home;

The day has passed as other days.
The ship swings to the waiting dock,

A boy climbs to the tapering mast;
From factories grim beneath the hill

Gaunt streams of workers straggle past.
The orchard's fruit has riper grown,

The bee has stored the clover's sweet ;
The boy's heart beats with manlier tone,

The weaver's web is more complete.
What I have done none can undo,

Though slowly wrought with trace of pain-
By hand or heart, by speech or thought,

By irksome toil that seemed in vain.
As I have learned, so now I am-

The hand more skilled, the soul more free;
The truer thought, the kindlier heart-

So God and man have fashioned me.
The fresh breeze draws through chanting trees,

The twilight's music steals about ;
The peace of God falls as the dew.

I sit and watch the stars come out.

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AMERICAN NAVY

By JOHN D. LONG

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SECRETARY OF THE NAVY FROM 1897 TO 1902

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WIGWAG DRILL BY THE SIGNAL CORPS

PREPARING FOR THE

FOR THE WAR WITH SPAIN

C'

YUBA projected a sinister shadow in their struggle. This feeling was inten

across the foreign relations of the sified by the inhumane and barbarous

United States at the time when methods of warfare employed by Spain to William McKinley was inaugurated Presi- crush the revolt, and by the injury to dent, March 4, 1897. Rebellion had raged American citizens and their industrial and in the island for years. The sound of the commercial interests attendant upon the crack of its rifles and the swish of its destructive operations of both insurgents machetes reached across the sea and grew and Spaniards. Responding to the loudly more and more audible in the ears of the expressed demand of the people for some great Republic which for more than a action on our part, President Cleveland, century has been the ideal of freedom to on April 4, 1896, tendered to Spain his all oppressed people.

good offices for the pacification of the Throughout the United States were island. The national pride of the Castilmanifested deep sympathy for the insur- ians in the integrity of their possessions gents and a general wish for their success rejected the offer. The note of the United Copyright, 1902, by the Outlook Company. All rights States, however, had hardly reached the

Spanish Government before our House This is the fifth of a series of twelve papers to appear in the Magazine Numbers of The Outlook. Other pa

of Representatives, answering the National pers will be: The Battle of Manila Bay, The Blockade of Cuba, Bottling up Cervera's Fleet, The Battle of

insistence, concurred, by an almost unaniSantiago, Valiant Deeds in the War with Spain ; mous vote, in a Senate resolution recogSamoa, the Philippines, and China ; Recent Naval nizing the belligerency of the Republic of

.

reserved.

565

was

Cuba. As they lacked the attributes of insurrection, led President Cleveland to belligerents, President Cleveland declined establish an extensive marine patrol of to grant the insurgents recognition of our Atlantic and Gulf coasts. The same belligerency. When President McKinley reasons actuated President McKinley in entered the White House, he found the continuing it. Filibustering expeditions Nation enthusiastic in the cause of Free reached Cuba, it is true, but, annoyed as Cuba, and the Congress feverishly seeking Spain was, she found herself unable to a means to further it.

substantiate the claim that the United With that infinite tact and diplomacy States failed to observe that “due dilicharacteristic of President McKinley, he gence” which international law requires immediately addressed himself to the task of a neutral. of holding the people and their repre- The revolution, known as the Ten sentatives in check, and at the same time Years' War, which began in Cuba in accomplishing by negotiation the restora- 1868, was brought to a close in 1878 only tion of peace in disturbed Cuba, under by the exhaustion of Spain and her rebelconditions that would satisfy the just lious subjects. When President McKinley aspirations of the fighting patriots. He and his Cabinet began the study of the initiated his foreign policy with a declara- Cuban question, the conclusion tion of amity toward all nations, which quickly reached that a policy of exhausperhaps contributed to cause Spain to tion had been adopted alike by each party listen more considerately to the proposals to the later conflict, the one to vindicate submitted by John Sherman, as Secretary its sovereignty, the other to achieve indeof State. The inaugural address of the pendence. Spain had sought to crush President contained this significant state- the rebellion in its incipiency by quarterment:

ing two hundred and fifty thousand men “ War should never be entered upon on the island. The effort was futile. until every agency of peace has failed; Acquainted with the soil, acclimated and peace is preferable to war in almost every hardy, the Cuban volunteer demonstrated contingency.”

that he was a match for the soldier of Judicious as were these words, they yet the Peninsula. The sword proving infailed to restrain the Senate, and that effectual to suppress the insurrection, body, in the extra session called to enact Spain resorted to the blunter weapon of the Tariff Bill, passed a joint resolution starvation. The rural folk were comin behalf of Cuban independence. The pelled to abandon their homes. Males Republican House, less headstrong than too weak or too old to have joined the the Senate, stood by the President, and, insurgents were herded with women in in spite of public clamor, refused to take camps of concentration where lack of action which at once would have precipi- food and unsanitary surroundings begot tated war and which certainly would have frightful mortality. A conservative estigravely embarrassed the diplomatic cor- mate of the result of this method of respondence then pending.

conducting war has been put at half a Looking back over the negotiations million deaths. The country, rid of its conducted with Spain, one cannot but residents, was laid waste by the torch. remark the high plane upon which they Determination to make the war expensive were placed ; how the nobility and pre- to Spain caused the insurgents to vie science of McKinley made humanity and with her soldiers in the work of devastacivilization the cardinal principles of his tion. The island, upon which nature policy-protection of American interests lavishes her richest bounty, was transsecondary thereto. In dealing with the formed into a smoldering desert in Cuban question he letno selfish desire which want and misery stalked. Years for territorial aggrandizement taint the of work and of American capital and treatment he gave it. Spain was sover- industry had been necessary to lift Cuba eign in Cuba; her rights as sovereign from the enfeebled condition caused by must be respected. The obligation which the drain of the Ten Years' War; the we, as a friendly nation, owed to her, no revolution of 1895 was forcing it back to less than the necessity of preventing the unhappy state of 1878. the reproach that we were assisting the The unfortunate situation of the Cuban

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