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public is inclined to wish them well, for in were being reported daily in Mexico City Mexico the majority of the people are always alone, and some other cities, including Zacaagainst whatever Government is in power. tecas and Aguas Calientes, were reported to But on the particular occasion just referred be more seriously afflicted. The half-starved to the chief bomber of the bandits carelessly and the starving elements in the population blew up a day coach and killed several are easy preys to the disease, and the efforts women, instead of destroying the car carrying at sanitation taken by the Government have the military guard which attends every train not been very effective. in Mexico to-day. The result was that peo- The most pathetic starvation is not visible. ple condemned the Zapatistas fervently and The miserable, ragged, diseased beggars who the Morelos chieftain lost many civilian ad- arouse the pity of tourists are nothing new herents by that misplay.
in Mexico. Members of the lowest class in No doubt the Zapatistas have little hope of Mexican society, moreover, do not suffer so gaining control of any considerable part of much as might be supposed, because for them the Republic, although the Villistas probably there is always begging or enlistment in the and the Felicistas (followers of Felix Diaz) army as a last resort. The most genuine certainly are more ambitious.
But the ma- and the most pathetic suffering in Mexico jority of such acts of lawlessness have behind to-day is among the lower middle class. them principally—when robbery is not in- Young women in business who were getting tended—the motive to discredit the Govern- salaries of ninety pesos a month when two ment.
pesos meant a dollar are at the end of their Certainly in this purpose Zapata is fairly rope with two hundred pesos a month when a successful. Certainly it is discreditable to dollar means fifty pesos. Clerks, railway men, Carranza that to-day, when his recognized salaried people generally, are hard hit. The rule has extended more than a year, it is un- men of this class do not often care to join safe for residents of Mexico City to visit most the army and the women cannot Many of suburbs twenty miles from the capital, and them are too proud to beg. They are the to visit some at the very gates of the city. people who are the greatest sufferers in While I was in the capital there were skir- Mexico. misbes between Government soldiers and A trying aspect of this starvation is that bandits within ten miles of the national pal- the people are starving in the midst of ace, and one night the “ Zaps ” were with plenty. This year the crops have been difficulty prevented from seizing and holding unusually bountiful, but the prices of food the bull ring, which they considered an ad- are enormous. A keg holding one hundred mirable base for further raids, and which is kilos of beans costs 420 pesos. Milk is within the city limits and less than two miles two or three pesos a quart.
A dish of ham from the home of the First Chief, in the very and eggs in a third-rate restaurant costs center of the town. And for four days there five or six pesos. These prices are nothing was a pitched battle between Government for those who are paid in real money, but, of soldiers and followers of the ubiquitous and course, ninety-five per cent of the salaries in perennial pest, Zapata, at Xochimilco, the site the country are paid in Carranza paper. There of the city's water works. Every few weeks, are two kinds of this paper in issue at presin fact, the citizens of Mexico City arise in ent. The latest issue, which is called infalthe morning to find the water pipes empty sificables (uncounterfeitable), is circulated at and bathing impossible. Then they remark, the rate of fifty pesos for one American dolwearily, “ Well, the Zaps are at it again.” lar, but the rate is increasing daily, and within
As to starvation and disease, the truth lies a week a dollar may be worth seventy-five about half-way between the optimistic bulle- pesos. The other money, known as the tins of Carranza's highly developed system Vera Cruz issue, is only one-tenth as valuof press agencies and the gloomy reports of able—that is to say, with an American dollar enemies of the Government. The epidemic you can buy five hundred pesos in this paper. of typhus, or “ tifo,” as they call it in Mex- It is something of a shock to the newcomer ico, is very serious. Always worst in the to give a beggar five pesos and then realize winter, it promises soon to be even more a mat- that he has given him only a cent. Thanks ter of public concern than it was last winter, to this grotesque monetary situation, living when thousands of persons died of it. When in Mexico was absurdly cheap for a while for I left Mexico City, about a hundred new cases any one whose salary was paid in foreign cur
CARRANZA: WILL HIS GOVERNMENT LAST?
rency. For instance, not long ago one could in itself. Since Huerta, none of the five rulers live for four days at the best hotel in Mexico of Mexico has stayed in the saddle as long as for one dollar gold, and the thirty-six-hour Carranza. For thirteen months his immediate trip from Mexico City to Laredo cost less downfall has been predicted and is being prethan three dollars, including Pullman. Many dicted as this issue of The Outlook goes to amusing stories are told as the result of this press; but the slow, quiet, somewhat overanomalous state of affairs. An American dignified Carranza is still called First Chief. famous for his chronic impecuniosity, by In the second place, Carranza has pretty reason of this condition remained behind in well pacified a good deal of the country, and Mexico City, while his friends went to Vera the pacification of Mexico would be no easy Cruz on some gala occasion. But when the task for any one.
Men who left their cornpenniless American turned up in Vera Cruz hoeing to adopt the more lucrative, more pica day or two later and his astonished friends turesque, and more exciting calling of bandit asked him the explanation he remarked, “Oh, are not willingly going back to hoeing corn. it's very simple; I just bought seventy-five Moreover, there are particular reasons in cents' worth of hundred-dollar bills and came Mexico why the path of the bandit is easy. on down." To-day, however, the prices at The first reason is the already-mentioned all stores are on a gold basis, which makes disposition of the Mexican people to look living still more difficult for the natives. - favorably on all enemies of the Government;
Another reason why there is starvation in the second reason is that it is never difficult a year of abundant crops is that the facilities for a Mexican bandit to get ammunition from for transferring the grain from one part of the the United States. The charge of Mexicans country to another are very inadequate. In that the United States laws against filibusterthis respect Mexico is like Russia a year ago, ing are not rigidly enforced has more truth in when people were suffering in Petrograd and it than official Americans care to admit. In Moscow from a scarcity of sugar and flour this connection Mr. Candido Aguilar, Secrecaused by a lack of trains to bring up the tary of Foreign Relations, said to me : abundant stores of these commodities from The bandits in the field against Carranza southern Russia. In fact, in many ways a seem to have plenty of ammunition, and as traveler who was in Russia a year ago is they could get it from nowhere but the United reminded of that country if he visits Mexico States the inference is plain thai unscruputo-day. Russia is ruled by a Government lous American interests are helping to admittedly autocratic; Mexico, by a Govern- strengthen the arm of the lawless in Mexico. ment boastfully.revolutionary. Yet in point It is inconsistent that they should do this priof the evils from which both nations suffer, vately and then publicly attack Carranza for there are some surprising resemblances. In not more speedily restoring order." both countries the majority of the people are In the way of rebuilding Mexico Carranza illiterate. In both countries the only form of has done more than is generally known. government that has been successful is a dic- One of the most important reforms already tatorship or an oligarchy. In both countries effected is the abolition of the old jefes polithe rich are intemperately rich and the poor ticos, who were virtually czars appointed by are miserably poor. In both countries are the the President to rule provincial districts, and the same unnecessary and petty, but in the the substitution of a form of self-government mass serious, annoyances, such as the neces- for towns. Municipal elections have recently sity of standing in line for hours to buy a rail- been held, and to-day wherever Carranza's way ticket unless one has the necessary influ- power is recognized in Mexico towns are govence to get in by the back door,
Finally, erned by their own elected mayors and muboth countries, Russia in a lesser and Mexico nicipal councils. Of course these recent elecin a greater degree, suffer from governmental tions were farcical, as elections have always inefficiency and the taint of corruption which been in Mexico ; still, on the whole, the new runs from the smallest officials to the highest. form of local government has fewer evils than
So much for the dark side of Carranza's the old. The judicial system of the counGovernment. The bright side is brighter than try has been reorganized and Federal judges the general public knows. In the first place, appointed for every State, and a national the very fact that Carranza has been able to commission has been created for the study call himself the recognized head of Mexico for of agricultural problems, with sub-committees more than a year is no small accomplishment in each State. The abuses emanating from
what was formerly a deeply intrenched and mainly corrupt ecclesiastical hierarchy have been largely eliminated. On the other hand, the Constitutionalists themselves have sometimes abused their own power in curbing the Church. But this is in considerable degree the swing of the pendulum to the opposite extreme, something which happens in every revolution. On the whole, Carranza's policy towards the Church has been just and well intended. There have been some cases, no doubt, although I cannot personally vouch for them, of atrocities against the persons of priests and nuns committed by Constitutionalists. No civilized man would defend such acts. On the other hand, under the Constitution of the nation convents, monasteries, nunneries, and all religious orders have been illegal in Mexico since 1859, and have existed in disregard of the law.
The best thing Carranza has done has been the foundation of schools. Diaz did a good deal for Mexico, but, while he developed the country's material resources, he neglected the development of its human resources. But Carranza has given his particular attention to the educational programme, and to help him he has had the advice of two of the ablest men in Mexico, Señor Felix Palavicini, recently Secretary of Public Instruction, and Señor Andres Osuna, Director of Public Instruction, who will probably succeed to the position left empty by Palavicini. In the State of Yucatan alone more than one thousand schools have been founded.
Speaking of the work of reconstruction, General Pablo Gonzales said to me :
“We may agree that this work has been somewhat disconnected and even violent, but nothing else could be expected of the beginnings of a new government which has to solve different problems as they present themselves, and which at the same time has to rule over those who are living in peace and to keep up the military campaigns against those who are fighting it.
"What are the principal problems of reconstruction still to be solved ?" I asked General Gonzales.
“ As the Constitutionalist Government has squarely faced all the needs of the nation,” he said, “ all the problems have been studied and solved, and we lack only certain details in order to have them completely solved. There is a certain lack of harmony in the different opinions in regard to the land question, but undoubtedly some kind of agree
ment will be reached, and we shall then have the definite pattern legally adopted to solve all the details of the land question. We still have the financial problem. But, fortunately, the great natural resources of Mexico and the great improvement that will surely come as the country gets reorganized will be strong factors for the proper solution of this problem."
Yes, indeed, Mexico still has the financial problem. It is that problem principally which is likely to swamp the Carranza Government.
With money efficiently used, bandits can be subdued or bought over, disease can be checked, starvation can be stopped, railways and factories can be rebuilt. Give Carranza two hundred million dollars in gold, and he can probably put the country in order and gradually establish the Government on a civil and constitutional basis. The only Government that Mexico can establish for itself is a dictatorship, and Carranza appears to me about as well qualified to be dictator as any one in view in Mexico to day.
Carranza is not brilliant, he is not spectacular, but he is far from stupid. He has the slow, "plugging" type of mind. Any one who to-day looks at the Plan of Guadalupe must admit that Carranza has advanced a long way toward the fulfillment of the tasks which he set for himself at the beginning of the revolution.
Carranza's best assets are his dogged determination and confidence in himself and his ability to handle men according to his own peculiar way. The subordinates who have opposed him have been gradually but surely eliminated. For instance, some months ago one of Carranza's generals confiscated a mansion in Mexico City. The First Chief sent him a written order to vacate it. The officer's reply was a string of profane and obscene insults written on the back of the order, which was returned to Carranza. The First Chief apparently did nothing to punish this insubordination. He even allowed the order, with the insulting reply uppermost, to remain on his desk where his visitors could see it and gain something of an idea of the trials with which the First Chief was faced. But to-day that general has gone, and no one can tell you his whereabouts.
The men around Carranza are an interesting lot. They fall into two totally dissimilar groups. As members of his Cabinet and as hıs immediate advisers he has gathered about him men of surprising polish, suavity, intelli
CARRANZA: WILL HIS GOVERNMENT LAST?
gence, and ability. They are mostly young slapped his thighs. But as my blank expresmen, some of them college graduates, some sion indicated that I still doubted if I had of them self-taught, but all of them thinkers. heard aright, he repeated his statement with They are the intellectual leaders of the revo- slow emphasis, and then added : lution. But from these men in their offices “Of course there are still businesses in in the administration buildings it is only a Mexico which were started by foreign capital, block or two to the gaudy, noisy cafés, where and the dividends of the stockholders of the fighting, fire-eating Indian generals, the these enterprises will not be interfered with.” bulldogs of the army, spend their leisure Do you contemplate Government ownerhours. How Carranza has held together ship of public utilities, General Carranza ?” two such different and, in fact, antagonistic "No; Mexico is not strong enough for elements only he knows, but the accomplish that yet. We must rely on private capital ; ment is a testimonial to his qualities as a but foreign capital must take the same treatleader.
ment as native." But as a leader Carranza is weakest in the In conclusion, to sum up my impressions management of financial affairs.
The state- answer to the question, “ Will the Governments which he made to me in regard to his ment of Carranza last ?" this may be said : economic policies did not improve my opinion Carranza is more efficient and more honest of him in this respect.
than any man who has held the supreme After declaring emphatically that under no power in Mexico since Madero, and on the circumstances could Mexico brook the co- whole his followers are a better lot than the operation of a foreign commission of finan- followers of any Mexican leader since Madero. cial experts in the administration of a foreign Carranza can hold out if he can get money. loan to be directed for the work of recon- Without foreign financial support he has a struction, he said:
small chance of keeping his head above water “We would not even put up any of the and of eventually getting his feet on firm resources of the country, such as customs land, but only a small chance. It is worth duties, for instance, as collateral for such a noting that no administration in Mexican hisloan. The lenders would have to be satis- tory has ever stood long without foreign fied with the word and credit of the national support, and, in particular, without the supGovernment of Mexico.”
port of the United States. Another remark made by the First Chief Carranza can get a foreign loan if he will indicated that his understanding of financial give the foreign bankers guarantees of security problems was rather limited. When asked to their satisfaction. Mexico is so bankrupt what he intended to do towards settling the and has repudiated so many obligations that claims of foreigners for injuries to their in- a banker would be insane to lend money vestments in Mexico, he said: “Of course to Mexico without getting unusually strong many such claims are false. But in regard guarantees-guarantees which might include to the other ones, my answer is this : There an agreement that the administration of the are no foreign investments in Mexico." loan should be audited by a foreign commisWhat is that?"
sion to see that the money should actually be “I say there are no foreign investments in spent for reconstruction and not for Italian Mexico, because for every million dollars that limousines or other Mexican follies. foreigners have put into Mexico they have In short, Carranza can be saved if he can taken out two or three millions. So really get money. He can get money if he will there are no foreign investments in Mexico.' swallow his pride. Will he swallow his pride ? He laughed genially at his own humor and Probably even Carranza does not know.
CONSCIENCE? A LETTER FROM THE ARCHBISHOP OF YUCATAN \HE article “ The Church of Mexico," 1915 the Cathedral was attacked by a mob
in your issue of September 5, deals of Constitutionalists headed by American
with the religious issue in reference Anarchists, who destroyed the ornaments of to the New London Conference, and also a the church, stole what they could, and did pamphlet issued by the President of the not even hesitate to profane the holy EuchaMexican Commission, Señor Luis Cabrera. rist. Not only were these criminal acts ignored
Outside of the quotations made from by the authorities, but it is a matter of Señor Luis Cabrera by The Outlook and a record that some of the despoilers were in passing reference to them in the Havana the employment of the Constitutionalist Govpapers, very little has been said about the ernment. Since these outrages occurred the Mexican religious question in the public Cathedral of Yucatan, erected in the sixpress. As this question involves the equal teenth century, and recognized by modern rights of all men and fundamental principles architects as of the most artistic of government, I trust the other side of the edifices in America, has been taken over question coming from an exiled Mexican by the de facto Government. What would bishop will be of interest to your readers and an American tourist think of the veracity to all fair-minded American citizens.
of Señor Cabrera's first statement, that There are two statements of Señor Cabrera " the Constitutionalists have not persecuted to which I would call particular attention, the Church,” if he stepped into this namely :
Cathedral to-day, to find that its pews and First, that the Constitutionalists have not
confessionals, which were constructed of rare persecuted the Church, and if any outrages were
woods, had been carted away by Carranzista committed against the Catholic Church they soldiers to serve as firewood; that the Stawere in the words of Señor Cabrera) “the deeds tions of the Cross and various other pictures not of the Constitutionalists, but of bandits, who had been defiled ; that its marble altars had have sprung up from the disorganized condition;" been demolished; and that the bare walls of
Second, that the Constitutionalists guarantee this temple erected to the honor and glory of the most complete liberty of conscience and
God look down upon a scene of wanton public worship under the Constitutional princi
devastation that would make sad even the ples called Laws of the Reform.
heart of an educated pagan. If the Cathedral As Archbishop of Yucatan, Mexico, it is to be was treated in this manner, let my readers presumed that I am acquainted with the recent judge how the other churches of my diocese happenings in that diocese, although at present have suffered at the hands of these chaman exile in the hospitable city of Havana. pions of liberty and justice! Two of the
Yucatan is one of the most peaceful and churches of my diocese have been converted prosperous States of the Mexican Republic. by Carranzista followers into peddlers' stalls It was not cursed with Villistas nor Zapa- for the sale of merchandise. Another has tistas, or any of their ilk, and now for a been given to young men to serve as their year and a half it has been under the gymnasium, while the fourth has been handed actual government of a Carranza appointee. over to Freemasons to serve as a lodge hall. It is almost impossible to believe what I will not stop to comment upon these outthe Church has had to suffer in Yucatan.
rages. I am stating facts to which I chalIn October of 1914, under the pretext lenge contradiction. that they were foreigners, over fifty priests On the 1st of May of this year all the were exiled. At the same time a decree churches of Merida, which hitherto had rewas issued, under governmental authority, mained unsacked, were one by one attacked abbreviating in an arbitrary way all religious by a mob of Carranzistas, who, amid the acts and ceremonies. A short time after mocking ringing of the church bells, marched wards I was turned out of my episcopal from church to church, burning and destroyresidence, which for more than three hundred ing as they went. When it is known that years has been the peaceful abode of the this vandalism began at ten o'clock in the bishops of the diocese. In September of morning and did not end until ten o'clock in