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Sir R. Wilson thought it right to state, in justice to the British ambassadors, that the calls on their hospitality were more extensive than those which were made on the ambassadors of any other country. The Report was then agreed to.

May 19.

Sir J. Mackintosh brought in Bills for repealing so much of the 39th of Elizabeth, the 21st of James I. the 4th and 9th of George I. the 5th, 6th, 7th, and 8th of George II.; also the 1st of William and Mary, and an Act of the 12th George II. so far as they regarded capital inflictions.

A petition from John Loudon Mc Adam, praying a compensation for his services during the last 25 years, in pointing out the most efficient means for improving the roads throughout the United Kingdom, was, with the consent of the Crown, referred to the Committee on the highways.

Lord John Russel moved the second reading of the Grampound Disfranchisemeut Bill. The reported evidence laid before the House last year of the corrupt state of the borough, referred to the cases of New Shoreham, Cricklade and Aylesbury as precedents, to a certain extent, for the measure now proposed, and adduced various arguments for deviating from those precedents, so far as respected the throwing the boroughs into the adjacent hundreds, and for trausferring the elective franchise to the town of Leeds, as was proposed in the Bill, or as others had suggested, to the East and West Ridings of Yorkshire.

Lord Castlereagh approved of the measure, so far as it went to provide a remedy against the corruption proved to have existed at Grampound. But he did not think a sufficient reason had been assigned for deviating from the precedents of New Shoreham, &c. by following which there would have been a greater chance of success, as the other House had already approved of that particular mode of remedying the evil complained of. He could not agree to the transfer to Leeds on the principle stated in the Bill, as to its trade, population, wealth, &c. as that went to admit all that had been urged on the subject of parliamentary reform, and many other places would justly put in similar claims. He should have less objection to transfer the franchise to the two Ridings of Yorkshire, but he thought the passing of the Bill would be risked by travelling out of the cases already recognized.

Mr. Tierney argued in favour of transferring the elective franchise to Leeds.

Mr. C. W. Wynn and Mr. H. Sumner proposed transferring it to the county of York.

Mr. Beaumont explained the plan which he had suggested. It was, that Yorkshire

should be divided into two counties, of which the North and East Ridings should form one, and the West Riding the other. By this alteration, there was no reason to apprehend that the interests of the manufacturers would be promoted at the expence of the agriculturists of the county; as the West Riding would return Members attached to the manufacturing, and the North and East Ridings Members attached to the agricultural interests.

Mr. Canning concurred in what had fallen from Lord Castlereagh.

After some observations from Mr. Grenfell, Sir J. Newport, Mr. H. Smith, Mr. Hobhouse, and others, the Bill was read a second time.

The Attorney General presented a Petition from the Warden of the Fleet prison, praying indemnity for having given up R. C. Burton, Esq. who was a Member for Beverly in the last Parliament. Mr. B. was a prisoner in the Fleet at the time of his election, and he was discharged by an order of the House. An action was now brought against the petitioner, for an escape, by the creditors of Mr. Burton. The petition was referred to the Committee of Privileges.


A number of petitions from agriculturists were presented.

Lord Lauderdale observed, much had been said about economical reform, with which he did not agree; but if a motion for suppressing this board were to be brought forward, that was a question of economical reform which he should be very much inclined to support.

The Marquis of Lansdown said, when the subject came under discussion, be should feel it his duty to take a different view of it from the petitioners. The Legislature had not the power of preventing the agricultural interest from sharing in the general distress which affected the country.

The Earl of Liverpool moved the second reading of the Civil List Bill, and explained and defended its several provisions.

Lords King and Darnley objected to several parts of the arrangement. The second reading was then agreed to without a division.

In the Commons, the same day, a conversation took place on the presentation of Petitions from Scotland for an extension of the bounties on linen exported, in the course of which the President of the Board of Trade said it was intended to place the Scotch linens on the same footing, as to bounty, with the Irish.

Lord A. Hamilton called the attention of the House to an abuse of long standing, as to county elections in Scotland, by which the right of voting had been de


tached from the possession of the soil; so that it was possible for the whole representation of Scotland to be in the hands of those who did not possess an inch of land in the country, whilst the whole landed property of the country might be in the hands of those who had not a single vote. The remedy which he would propose, on a future day, would not interfere with any existing rights. He would continue their votes to those who now had them, but would, at the same time, grant the right of voting to those who now had it not, though possessed of considerable property. He then moved that there be laid upon the table of the House a copy of the roll of freeholders in every county in Scotland, as last made out, and as certified by the sheriff clerk.

After some observations from Lord Castlereagh, Sir G. Clerk, and others, the motion was agreed to.


Lord Kenyon presented a Petition from certain news.venders against the publication of Sunday newspapers. His Lordship said, the sale of such papers amounted to about 43,000, and that the matter they contained was in general most pernicious. He hoped Parliament would adopt some measure to prevent this evil.

Lord Holland said, he would oppose any such measure in all its stages.

Lord Grosvenor had still the same opinion as to the injurious tendency of Sunday publications which he entertained many years ago, when, in concert with Mr. Wilberforce and others, he in vain exerted himself to nip the evil in the bud. The Marquis of Lansdown introduced his motion for a Select Committee to inquire into the practicability of extending our Foreign Trade, with a very luminous and comprehensive speech. He stated, that in confining himself to the foreign commercial relations of the country, he had no view to the particular interests of any one class of the community. He knew that the interests of the agricultural and commercial classes were mutual and inseparable. They flourished or decayed together. The noble Marquis justly and forcibly added, that even legislation itself could not succeed in sacrificing one of these classes to the other-for the wants and interests of both bound them together by a necessity stronger than any law. He next took a detailed view of the dif ferent countries, our commercial relations with which could, he thought, be advantageous, relaxed, and enlarged, always deferring to pres 'nt interests and even prejudices, and proceeding upon the principle, not of sacrificing our own manufactures to foreign, but of establishing such a modified reciprocity, as would ex

tend the demand for them. He thought that an advantageous relaxation might be made with regard to France. He would admit French silks-compensating our own workmen by a parliamentary grant; and he would have French wines reduced to the same scale of import duty as those of Portugal and Spain. The noble Marquis then developed some of the principles upon which the demand for produce increases, and illustrated by some familiar, but striking instances, the apparently trivial occurrence by which an impulse is sometimes given to manufacturing produce and demand. He next dwelt at some length on the timber trade, in which be saw restrictions that should be removed; and upon the subject of a free trade generally, his maxim would be, that freedom should be the rule, and restriction the exception. The noble Marquis concluded with impressing upon the House the wisdom of cultivating the market for British manufactures in Ireland, and establishing intimate relations of amity and trade with the independent States of South America, which could no longer return to the dominion of the mother country, whether governed according to the odious system that had happily ceased in that country, or by any better system substituted in its place.

The Earl of Liverpool gave an able and candid statement of his views of the state of the country, and the course that should now be followed. He fully agreed that all classes of the industrious people were identified in interests, and scouted the speculations of the visionary theorists who supposed that the country could subsist if it were made exclusively agricultural or manufacturing. In order to prevent the people from being deluded or agitated by the strange theories which were afloat, he would have Parliament express its decision without delay. It would let the public know not only what Parliament would, but also-and he thought it no less important-what Parliament would not do. The noble Earl then, in order to show, that neither taxes, nor poor rates, nor tithes (though they had their effect) were the main causes of the public embarrassments-stated, from the parliamentary returns, the accounts of the domestic consumption of a variety of articles, domestic and foreign, upon an average of a given number of years since the peace, and an equal number during the war, from which he inferred, that since the peace the consumption had increased. He next took the official returns of exports to show that our external European trade had fallen short only 600,000l. and this in the article of refined sugars, which was the natural consequence of the peace. The falling off of our trade with America

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was about 3,000,0002, and this arose, he said, from the distress of that country, which was now reimbursing her artificial profits during the war." The falling off in our exports to Asia he imputed to overtrading, and stated, in proof, the fact, that English muslin was selling in India at half the price of India muslin. The noble earl argued, in conclusion, that the distresses of this country were not peculiar, but common to the other countries of Europe, and even to America, and expressed his sanguine hopes, that when the evil of artificial capital and over-trading had corrected itself, the prosperity of the country would fully and shortly be restored. His lordship next passed in review the various topics connected with the commercial interests of the nation, in which alterations were suggested. He would not change the corn laws, if for no other reason than that tampering with them was sure to do mischief. He would have Parliament say to the landlord and tenant, and manufacturer, that the law by which they were to regulate their contracts, was before them permanent and unchangeable. Neither would he consent to any change in the currency-the measure for restoring which to its natural state had not affected agricultural prices, for recently the prices were as high as when gold was 41. 4s. per ounce. He now adverted to the doctrine of free trade generally. Some, he said, thought that this country had prospered by the restrictive system, others in spite of it, and the latter was perhaps his own opinion. But the question was not which was better in the abstract, but whether the interests and habits created by the restrictive system could now admit of our abandoning it. The noble Earl concluded with observing upon the China and India trade; the former of which was secured, he said, by the charter, and the latter of which might be inquired into, and new modelled. The transit and warehousing system he would also subject to investigation. The duties relatively on France and Portugal wines he was disinclined to change. Upon the whole, the noble lord appeared willing to concede investigation; but the object of inquiry seemed, in his mind, to prove the impracticability of departing from our actual commercial system, and to relieve the public from all certainty on the subject.

After a few observations from Lords Lauderdale, Ellenborough, and Calthorpe, the motion was agreed to without a division; and among the Members of the Committee appointed were-the Earl of Liverpool, the Duke of Wellington, Earl Donoughmore, the Earl of Lauderdale, Lord Holland, Lord Grenville, Lord Bath

urst, Lord Calthorpe, Earl Grosvenor, and Lord Darnley,

In the Commons, the same day, Mr. W. Courtenay presented a Petition from certain news-venders against the publication of Sunday newspapers.

Mr. Lambton expressed the greatest disgust at the hypocritical cant of the Petition.

Mr. W. Wynn, brought up the report of the Committee to whom had been referred the consideration of the conduct of certain individuals who had commenced actions against Mr. Iles, Warden of the Fleet prison, on account of the escape of Richard Christie Burton from his custody, the said R. C. Burton having been liberated in compliance with an order of this House. He then moved, "That the persons represented as guilty of this breach of privilege be ordered to appear at the bar on Monday se'nnight."

Mr. Holme Sumner moved the second reading of the Newington Churches Bill Mr. Denison, Sir Robert Wilson, and Sir W. de Crespigny, opposed the bill. Mr. H. Sumner and Mr. Peel supported it, and on a division the motion was carried by 206 to 28. The Bill was accordingly read a second time.

A discussion then took place on a motion by Lord Milton for the repeal of the duty on the importation of Foreign Wool. The noble Lord maintained that the imposition of the duty had failed in its two main objects, as a source of revenue, and as a protection to the home grower, and in proof he quoted evidence on the subject given before the privy council last year, which went to show that the duty bad the effect of bringing the French and Flemish woollens in competition with the English to the American market.

The Chancellor of the Exchequer and several other Members on the same side opposed the motion, and contended that the state of the American market, with respect to English woollens, arose, not from the duty, but from the diminished demand caused by distress in the United States. They also argued, that as the home manufacturer had a monopoly of the home growth, the grower was enti tled to some protection. It was further contended, that this duty had the effect of removing the Spanish export duty; so that, in point of fact, by this removal no burden was additionally placed on the British manufacturer. To this last point it was replied, that the Spanish export duty was removed in respect to the whole world. But in answer it was stated, that nearly the whole of the wool exported from Spain came to this country. After considerable discussion, the noble lord's

Emotion for a bill to repeal the duty was negatived by a majority of 202 to 128, Mr. Stuart Wortley supported the noble lord.

In a Committee of Supply, it was resolved, on the motion of Mr. Vansillart, that a sum not exceeding 7,000 0002. should be granted to his Majesty to dis

charge the like amount granted out of the supply of the year 1819; and, on the motion of Mr. Bankes, that a sum not exceeding 10,1091. 16s. 10d. be granted to his Majesty to be applied towards defraying the expences of the British Museum for the year 1819, the said sum to be paid without fee or deduction,



From a work lately published by the Academy of Sciences in Paris, it appears, that Paris contains 714,000 inhabitants, of which 25,000 are not domiciled. The consumption of bread annually is 113,880,000 killogrammes; of oxen, 70 009; of heifers, 9000; of calves, 78,000; of sheep, 34,000; of swine, 72,000; of eggs, 74,000,000; of pigeons, 900.000; of fowls, 1,200,000; of wine, 870,000 hectolitres.

On the trial of Louvel for the murder of the Duc de Berry, he fully confessed the crime with which he was charged, but strongly denied having any accomplice.— The next day his counsel pleaded, in his defence, that he was afflicted with mental alienation: they invoked the King's clemency. On being asked what he had to say in his own behalf, Louvel read an outrageous tirade against the Royal Family. He was then taken to prison, and shortly after decreed sentence of death, which was signified to him. Louvel was executed in the midst of an immense crowd on the 7th instant in the evening. For some time after his execution, the most perfect calmness prevailed, especially in the neighbourhood of the Chamber of Deputies, where the tumultuous had hitherto assembled. The troops were drawn off, and all promised tranquillity; but this was deceitful. About half past eight, an assemblage of several hundreds of persons appeared suddenly on the Boulevards of the Capuchins, all armed with bludgeons. They marched en masse on the causeway, crying, "Vive la Charte!" and crying also, "Vive l'Empereur !"-Acclamations more culpable yet were heard; they were of so atrocious a nature, that the Editor says he dares not repeat them. This seditious assemblage traversed the Boulevards to the gate of St. Denis, without meeting a sufficient force to disperse it; still augmenting, it found no obstacle until arrived at the entrance of the Boulevards Bonne Nouvelle, where a mounted picquet of the National Guard in vain endeavoured to oppose its progress; but a detachment of dragoons of the Royal Guard, and of gendarmerie on horseback, having overtaken them near the Chateau GENT. MAG. June, 1820.

d'Eau, dispersed them. Several were arrested; the others fled in all directions. At ten o'clock all was tranquil, and con tinued so during the next day.

Among the persons arrested, there are several of considerable note. The Journal de Paris mentions Generals Solignac and Freyssinet, and Colonels Duvergier and Barbier Dufay. The officer last mentioned is the same individual who acquired such notoriety by his unfortunate affair with the late Count St. Morys. The Po.. lice had been in quest of him for several days, and discovered him accidentally in the midst of the crowd collected to witness the execution of Louvel,

The Paris papers of the 13th inst. informs us of the temporary cessation of the attempts of the seditious; but that the increased measures of precaution were vigorously continued. The mob began to form again on the Saturday evening; but, finding themselves soon surrounded on all sides by the military, they precipitately retreated and dispersed. On Sunday the tranquillity of the capital was not disturbed; but the precautions of the civil and military powers were nevertheless deemed necessary to be continued. Marshal Oudinot was severely wounded in one of the late affrays.

The Election Law has been carried by a majority of 57 votes.

Private Letters assert, that serious disturbances have taken place at Lyons; wherein the Swiss troops, who acted against the people, lost near 300 killed and wounded.


The King of Spain has ordered the troops composing the army of Andalusia to be organized into one corps d'armée, under the command of O'Douoju. Quiroga is to be his second in command, and Arco Arguero to be at the head of the Staff. A decree is published in the Madrid Gazette, confirming that of the Cortes, dated the 26th of May 1816, ordering all Municipal bodies to suppress and destroy all the signs of vassalage which are any where to be found.

The King has caused two Decrees of the Cortes, respecting the Public Debt, to


be put in force: by these decrees the nation binds itself to the payment of all public debts contracted by the Kings of Spain, the Juntas, and the Councils of Regency; as also the engagements contracted by the Generals and Intendants, for the wants of the army employed in the defence of the territory. These decrees also declare, that the debts contracted by the Government since the 18th of March 1818, and those to be henceforth contracted for the just cause of the nation, either with foreign powers, friends, or neutrals, or with individuals, of whatever power they may be subjects, shall be religiously acquitted by the nation, even in the case of a declaration of war.


Intelligence from the Ionian Islands announces, that on the 21st of February last, a terrible shock of an earthquake devastated the island of Santa Maura. The church, several public buildings, and almost all the houses were demolished, and the roads destroyed. The damage done

was immense. Accounts from Corfu, dated April 18, state, that a small island has immersed from the sea, off Santa Maura, which is attributed to the effect of the late subterranean commotion.


Francfort, May 20" Sandt, the assassin of Kotzebue *, was executed this morning at five o'clock. So early as half past three o'clock, the infantry and cavalry, and almost the whole population of Manheim, were in motion. Sandt was brought from the prison in an open carriage. His countenance, which was very pale, had in it great expression. A smile was in his lips, and he went to meet death as we should go to a fête. He bowed with much grace to some ladies at a window, and who returned his salute with very evident marks of interest. When he reached the place of execution, which was in a very large plain, he mounted the scaffold immediately. His sentence was read to him; after which he made a speech. Not understanding German, I cannot communicate to you what he said. I observed, however, that he spoke with energy, and at the end raised one of his hands to Heaven, exclaiming that he "died for his country." He did not accept the assistance of a minister of Religion. The executioner took hold of him, and made him sit down on a chair fastened to a small post; he tied his hands, cut off some of his hair, and put a bandage over his eyes. In two minutes after he was no more. All the preparations for the execution were made very slowly; twenty minutes were employed, and ten

See vol. LXXXIX. ii. 375.

would have been sufficient, as the reading of the sentence and his speech did not take five minutes. Though I at first intended only to see him pass, I was carried forward involuntarily, constantly looking at him. He was dressed in white, bat wearing a black great coat, his shirt-collar turned down, and his hair fell in curls on his shoulders. For 15 mouths past bis life had been preserved by the most strengthening regimen. Every effort was made to prevent his sinking under the effects of the wounds which he had inflicted on himself; he was, in fact, very weak; so that he could not mount the scaffold without supporting himself on the shoulders of two persons, which makes the courage that he showed at his death the more extraordinary. He was beheaded with a sabre; and the executioner being obliged to make a second stroke, a general cry arose."

A great number of students from Heidelberg, who travelled with all speed, to be present at his execution, only arrived at the moment when the executioner was

exhibiting the severed head. Several steeped their handkerchiefs in his blood. Sandt wore the Germanic costume.


The commercial distress in the United States has produced a great deficiency in the revenue; and the difference between the receipts and expenditure for the year 1820 was estimated at nearly four millions of dollars. A Bill has in consequence been introduced, authorizing a loan of 2,000,000 dollars; the remainder to be taken from the Sinking Fund.

The Demarara Gazette of the 27th of March announces the pleasing fact, that so flourishing is the state of the colony, that the Government has reduced the duty on sugar, three fourths; on rum, twothirds; on molasses, almost four-fifths; on cotton, three-fourths; and on coffee, upwards of one half.

Accounts received from Chili state, that Lord Cochrane had captured the Spanish ships Aguilo, of 1,000 tons, and the Vigonia, of 700 tons, laden with ship-timber, cocoa, &c. in the Guayaquil river.-A letter from the agent to Lloyd's at Santiago de Chili, dated Feb. 18, and received by the Hydra whaler, arrived at Pigmouth, communicates the capture of the strong fortress of Valdivia. "It was attacked by Lord Cochrane on the night of the 11th of Feb. with 240 soldiers of a Chili regiment, and sailors and marines of the frigate O'Higgins, brig Intrepid, and schooner Montezuma. By daylight, eight batteries were carried; and in the course of the ensuing morning, the town, castles, and fortresses, with 116 pieces of brass cannon, all the Spanish Royal depot, and

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