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is merely assumed, and in the next place by way of proof he gives as a single example! May not an hundred examples be produced to the contrary of the single example of the Legislator of Muscovy? If so, why then the contrary would seem to be the truth. *

* This Theory of Adam Smith is directly opposite to one of the maxims of the Philosopher of Malmsbury, who evidently regarded the end more than the means employed in attaining it, when he contended that bad means might be employed for attaining a good end; and he was wont to illustrate his maxim by asking, “ If I were cast into a deep pit, and the Devil was tu put down his clo. ven fuot, would I not readily lay hold of it to get out?”

(To be continued.)

FOR THE AMERICAN MONTHLY MAGAZINE.

THE STAR.

On hearing a lady repeat for a child the following little stanza.

* Twinkle, twinkle little star,
“ How I wonder what you are!
“ Up above the earth so high,
“ Like a diamond in the sky."

Not to light this earthly sphere,*
Hath the Almighty fixed thee there,
For, thy ray, when we are dark,
Seems but as the glow-worm's spark.

The fixed stars being at such immense distances from the sun, cannot pos. sibly receive from him so strong a light as they seem to possess ; nor indeed any brightness sufficient to make them visible to us. For the sun's rays must be so scattered and dissipated, before they reach such remote objects, that they can never be transmitted back to our eyes, so as to render these objects vissible by reflection. The stars therefore shine with their own native and unborrowed lustre, as the sun does; and since each particular star, as well as the sun, is confined to a particular portion of space, it is plain that the stars are of the same nature with the sun.

“ It is no way probable that the Almighty, who always acts with infinite wisdom, and does nothing in vain, should create so many glorious suns, fit for so many important purposes, and place them at such distances from one ano. ther, without proper objects near enough to be benefitted by their influences. Whoerer imagines, that they were created only to give a faint glimmering light to the inhabitants of this globe, must have a very superficial knowledge of astronomy, and a mean opinion of Divine wisdom. There are many stars which are not visi. ble without the assistance of a powerful telescope; and therefore instead of giving light to this world, they can only be seen by a few astronomers; and it is clear, that by an infinitely less exertion, of creating power, the Deity could have given our earth much more light, by a single additional moon.".

FERGUSON

True, the Tyrian bark in thee,
Found a faithful guide at sea ;
And Sidonian* seamen bold,
Blessed his cynosure of old.

Ev'n more learned moderns now,
When the briny deep they plough,
With quadrant. needle. chart and scale,
By thy guidance often sail.

And though by thy sparkling light,
Thou enrich the vault of night,
With thy myriad sister-train,
Countless as the drops of rain ;

Whether plac'd in Taurus' knces,
Or, in the weeping Hyades,
Or, in Bootest whip the Bear,
Round about the north pole drear ;

Or, twinkling in the twins you bring,
The promises of gentle spring :

The Sidonians, to whom, or to whose nation Phænicia, we are indebted for the invention of writing, and for the first attempts at commercial navigation, always steered their course by Cynosura, (the pole star) in the tail of the smaller Bear-the Grecians by the greater Bear, “Cynosura petatur Sidoniis, Helicen Graia carina notet."- OVID.

“ And thou'shalt be my star of Arcady,
Or Tyrian Cynosure."-

Milton's Comus. The Phænicians (the Canaanites of scripture) were a commercial people in the days of Abraham. The Sidonians carried on an extensive commerce at the time of the Trojan war.

† Atlas, King of Mauritania, was a very famous astronomer, and according to some, was the first who taught the doctrine of the sphere; on this account, his daughters were turned into stars; The first seven by his Queen Pelivene, were called the Pleiades, and are placed in the shoulder of the Bull. The next, also seven in number, are placed in the head of the same constellation, and are called the Hyades, a word which from it- Greet derivation signifies to rain. But a more poetical, and more beautiful derivation of their name is this. The Hyades had a beloved brother, named Hyas, who was unfortunately devoured by a lios, and his affectionate sisters were so immoderately grieved, and afflicted for his death, that Jupiter in compassion changed them into stars,-and they are justly called Hyades, because show ers of tears flow from their eyes to this day.

# Bootes is represented on the celestial globe as a man in a walking posture, grasping in his left hand a club, and having his right hand extended upwards, holding the cord of the two dogs, Asterion and Chara, which seem to be barking at the Great Bear; hence Bootes is sometimes called the bear driver, and the office assigned him is to drive the bears round about the pole.

Or, Centaur's foot; or heart of Lion;
Or, studded belt of rough Orion.*
Or, tail of smaller bear on high,
Polar star of northern sky ;
Or, sparkling in the Virgin'st eye ;
Or in her fair hands, gifts divine,
Bring to mankind, bread and wine ;
Or in the Galaxy'st bright feld;
Or in Sobieski's shield;
Or in Cassiopeiasg chair,
Or Berenice's sacred hair;
Or dire portents, wo presaging,

And war 'gainst human life still waging, * “ Rough Orion "-I have often thought that this constellation was treated harshly by the ancients—it is termed cloudy, blustry, stormy, and what not. Now I have frequently asked why? Other consteilations or stars, by their appear ance were said to indicate fair or foul weather; but this beautiful constella. tion is loaded with, forbiding epithets by the ancient mariners, and what is worse, by the poets, not indeed, because its appearance indicated storms, for, that I be. lieve was always considered the harbinger of fair weather ; but because its nonappearance indicated the storm --as if this non-appearance implied that Orion went away to prepare the storm. Can any thing be more unjust? Virgil terms. him “ Nimbosus Orion."

† The Virgin's right hand is marked by the star, Spica Virginis, of the first magnitude, or the Virgin's ear of corn; and on her left arm is the star Vindesmi. atrix, of the second magnitude, or the feminine of wine presser, or wine maker, indicating the time of barvest and vintage. The sun enters this constellation the 22d of August.

# The Galaxy or Milky-way, is a whitish luminous tract wlrich seems to encompass the Heavens like a girdle, of a considerable though unequal breadth, varying from about four to twenty degrees. It is composed of an infinite number of small stars, which by their joint light, occasion that confused whiteness which we perceive in a clear night, when the moon does not shine very bright. All stars smaller than those of the sixth magnitude, are termed Nebulous or cloudy; so that the Milky-way is a continued assemblage of Nebula.

$ Cassiopeia is represented as a beautiful woman, seated in a graceful attitude in an arm-chair, occupied in arranging her dress. She was the queen of Ce. pheus, king of Ethiopia, and the mother of Andromeda whose history is so interesting. We seldom meet, either in our reading or in real life, an instance of a beautiful woman who is ignorant of her charms-accordingly we find that Cassiopeia was unfortunately too well acquainted with hers, and proudly boasted herself more beautiful than Juno and the Nereides. She was,

--that starr'd Ethiope queen, who strove
To set her beauty's praise above

The sea-nymphs, and their powers offended.- MILTON. | Bernice was the daughter of Philadelphus, and the wife of Evergetes. Her husband going on a dangerous expedition, she vowed to dedicate her hair to Venus if he returned in safety: Evergetes returned victorious, and the locks were accordingly deposited in the temple of the goddess. Some time after, however, they disappeared, and Conon the astronomer, swore that Jupiter carried them up to Heaven, and made them a constellation, Coma Berenices is situated between the Lion's tail and Bootes.

VOL. l.No. VI. 68

Thou art dreaded* Sirius raging,
Where from Sol he just emerges,
On the horizon's eastern verges ;
Or in Medusa's head you stand,
Grasp'd by Perseus't potent hand:
He that hated Gorgon slew,
Who petrified those she could view,
And her with’ring glance evaded ;
By black Pluto's helmet shaded:
Or with royalt Cepheus' daughter,
Who chain'd near Joppa doom'd to slaughter,
When a hideous monster sought her:
Perseus heard her piteous cries,
And instant to her succour flies,
And the horrid monster dies;
Or in that Crown which Bacchus gare,
To her who Thesus' life did save,

The heliacal rising of Sirius, and the commencement of the dog-days, are too well known to require any illustration.

† Perseus was a great hero, and every way worthy of being placed among the constellations. He was greatly favoured by the Gods. From Pluto he re. ceived a helmet, which had the power of rendering the wearer of it, invisible; without this he could not have succeeded against the Gorgons, as Medusa had the power of turning any person she looked at, into stone. From Mercury he received a scythe of adamant, and also wings for his feet. From Minerva, he received a shield of brass, so bright that it reflected the images of things like a looking-glass. Thus equipped, it is not to be wondered at, that he performed such great exploits.

+ Andromeda is represented by the figure of a young woman chained by her wrists. She was the daughter of Cepheus, king of Ethiopia, who to preserre his kingdom was obliged to give up his daughter to be devoured by a seamonster. She was accordingly chained to a rock on the shore near Joppa, in Syria, and at the very moment when the monster was about to destroy ber, she was rescued by Perseus.

Ś When Theseus was shut up in the Labyrinth in Crete he had two powerful enemies to contend against,--the one, was the Centaur, from whom he delivered himself with his good sword ; the other, and perhaps the more formidable, vas the intricacy of the place, which was such as almost to forbid the possibility of escape. In this perilous situation, he found assistance and relief in a quarter where perhaps they were but little expected. Ariadne the daughter of Minos, King of the island, loved Theseus, and resolved to deliver him from his danger. For this purpose she drew a clue of thread along those walks of the Lab. yrinth, which led to their final issue into the open country, and by this means Theseus effected his escape, Ariadne followed the fortunes of Theseus in his return, as far as the island of Naxus, where he perfidiously and ungratefully deserted her. In this deplorable situation, Bacchus took pity on her, married her, and gave her a beautiful crown, illuminated with seven stars, called Gnossia Corona, which after her death was carried among the stars, and made a constellation. In modern times it is known by the name of Corona Borealis or the Northern Crown,

Or in that Lyre, * which Orpheus, strung,
When to the infernal powers he sung.
Whatever be thy place or name,
Our inference is still the same,
That all thy uses to our earth,
Seem unequal to thy birth.
Say, then, glitt'ring beauteous light,
On which I gaze with aching sight,
What other world's bright radiance, say,
Own thy vivifying sway?
Thou answerest not; then let me learn
Creation's objects to discern,
By the universal plan
Of Nature's laws sublime, and seek those laws to scan.

W.

* It is said that this is the Lyre which Apollo and Mercury gave to Orpheus, and with which he descended into the infernal regions in search of his wife Euridice. Orpheus after his death received divine honours, the Muses gave his remains an honourable burial, and his Lyre became one of the constellations.

The reader will find in the following lively article, a vein of satirical humour of more than usual pungency. It is the production of a clerical friend of the editor ; and was written for the same literary society for which the “ Portrait of Matrimony," published in the second number of this Magazine, was written. Like that article, it was sent, by the society, to a provincial Journal of very limited circulation, from the pages of which, on account of our knowledge of the author, and of the origin of the article, but chiefly from a conviction that it will afford some useful amusement to our readers, we have been induced to transfer it to our work.

Ep.

AN ADDRESS TO THE PUBLIC In the name and behalf of the Society of Motivemongers. ADDRESSES are become fashionable, and experience shows they are useful. They have made the world acquainted with

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