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"Avoid drinking whilst warm, or drink only a small quantity at once, and let it remain a short time in the mouth before swallowing it; or wash the hands and face, and rince the mouth with cold water before drinking." p. 54.
The accounts of Mr. Cook's Life
Buoy, and Capt. Marryat's Life Boat, both very ingenious and efficient, are interesting. Of the latter, our Readers were euabled to judge by the extracts already given in p. 444.
We still, however think, that the Society will never do justice to its grand purpose, until the scale is enlarged, as before suggested, by a school of experiment, &c. tried upon vermin. Franklin's flies, imbedded toads, &c. lead to strong inferences, concerning suspended animation.
119. The Sin of Schism demonstrated, and the Protestant Episcopal Church proved to be the only safe means of Salvation. A Sermon, preached in the Parish Church of Frome, Somerset, Aug. 8, 1819. By the Rev. Stephen Hyde Cassan, M. A. Chaplain to the Earl of Caledon. Second Edition, with an Appendix of Notes, in which the Principles advanced in the Sermon are more fully maintained; together with some correspondence to which they have led. 8vo. pp. 162.
WE are of opinion with Mr. Cassan, that Schism cannot be ascribed to laudable or even justifiable inotives, and we think highly of Archdeacon Daubeny's excellent work upon the subject. We also think that the various fanatical forms of religion, now prevalent, propagate an infinity of nonsense, which has the bad effect of throwing into disregard the masterly theology of our immortal Divines, Hooker, Butler, Barrow, Pearson and others; but we cannot think with Mr. Cassau (p. 39.) that "the present disaffected state of the country is mainly attributable to the spread of Methodism;" for we know that the advocates of it are friendly to Government. Though it be only a vulgar mode (from its neglect of Theology) of exhibiting Religion, what a puppet-show is, compared to regular drama, yet there are thousands who would sooner attend to Punch than Garrick, and many such persons does Methodism impregnate with some kind of religious sentiment. But, when the National Education has become universal, we trust that far superior taste will prevail; aud that the higher ranks will in the
mean time reflect, that all Fanaticism produces intellectual degradation, and a dangerous neglect of the arts and sciences essential to national well-being; besides introducing misery into civil life, by bigotry, conpleasures, and very serious bad human tracted ideas, enmity to innocent passions. We really do not think Me
thodism to bave that intrinsic meritorious character, which can alone though it may have the effect of teazmake it the "universal Religion," ing Clergymen, who, from high education, and real knowledge of Divinity, will not, from conscience, bucrisy, cant, and dereliction of principle. mour vulgar conception, by hypo
In the Appendix will be found a very curious Correspondence between the Curate of Frome, the Vicar, and the Bishop.
120. The Life of Wesley; and the Rise and Progress of Methodism. By Robert Southey, Esq. Poet Laureat, &c. 8vo. Longman and Co.
JF ever Craniology become a science, it will be a matter of regret for its professors, that the sculls of the Wesleys, Whitefield, Zinzendorf, Oliver, Fletcher, the Countess of Huntingdon, and the celebrated Mrs. Guyon, could not be compared with those of Rolland, Gibbon, Hume, Paine, and Mrs. Woolstoncraft. In the former, the seat of insanity, bordering on madness, ought to be seen prominently in opposition to the protuberances of the bold and undaunted philosophy of the latter; or, if no sensible marks of such opposite capacities could be visibly traced either outside or inside of the sculls, it would, at once, give a mortal blow to the followers of Spurzheim, and to the whole system of Gall, his friend and master. That a man like Whitefield, who was born in a low situation, and had actually been a pot-boy, should at once embrace a system of spiritualization, which presented to the wicked as well as to the good, to the poor as well as to the rich, the immortal crown of Salvation, without any other preparation than a moment of enthusiastic fit, no one can be at a loss to explain: for the inward feeling that, by that single step, you raise yourself, not only above the low class to whom you belong, but also above the highest of the higher, is an enticement which is not easily
resisted. But how to account for the same enthusiastic spirit in a gentleman like Wesley, brought up by respectable parents, sent from the Charter-house to Oxford, where he distinguished himself in such a creditable way, that he was elected fellow of Lincoln, Greek Lecturer and Moderator of the Classes; that such a man, perfectly versed in the Holy Scriptures, with an unusual share of logic, should pervert the reading of the Sacred Books, and force their meaning, to correspond with, nay even to surpass, the absurd and fanatical language of the Moravians, and thereby enlist himself as a disciple of a mad German Baron,-is a case which must necessarily perplex the mind of an honest, sober, and reasonable inquirer. Such philosophical disquisition would make a curious accessory to the Life of Wesley; but, as it is not consistent with the plan of our Magazine, we must content ourselves by presenting our Readers with a slight sketch of the book before us.
Mr. Southey, the Author of the Life of Wesley, assures us in his Preface, that he had not any private sources of information; but has taken bis materials in various publications, the list of which he gives. When we took up the book, we were almost afraid to lose ourselves in the perusal of two large octavos, of about 1100 pages; but, as we turned over the leaves, we found such a mass of interesting matter, that, instead of being angry at the prolixity of the Author, we found ourselves much indebted to him for the handsome and liberal manner with which he has treated his subject.
Speaking of the two Wesleys, of Whitefield, and the other eminent coadjutors who assisted in erecting the fabric of Methodism, Mr. Southey does it, not in the contemptuous manner of a high Church Divine, jaundiced by the result of their extraor dinary success; neither does he contemplate his subject, as a Deistical Writer, who would most willingly embrace the opportunity of sneering and laughing at the gross ignorance and mad eccentricities, which contributed to the fame of its Preachers; nor even like the Northern Reviewer, who brought against the Methodists of our time pretended
charges, such as
"their being of
an active disposition; having a powerful party in the House of Commons; possessing considerable sums of money for the purchase of livings; hating pleasure and amusements, such as theatre and cards, and getting power over the poor;" charges in which they glory, and which, if true, can by no means impeach the respectability of the sect. But, whenever there is occasion for it, Mr. Southey like a Christian Philosopher (if these two words can be matched together), gently reproves and censures the extravagancies and absurdities of some of their dogmas, and always shows to advantage the best parts of those truly good, sincere, honest, and pious men. If he acquaints us with the infirmities of the mind of Wesley when young, he shews us how, when in a maturer age, he retracted what he had formerly supported: he follows him from his birth, to his instruction by his mother, at College and University; at Savannah, in love with Sophia Causton, persecuted by Williamson; in London where he forms the Methodists into bands; at Marienborn, where he goes to visit Zinzendorf; at Herrnbut, the seat of the Moravians; at Bristol, at Blackheath; at the Foundery in London; at his Conference with Boëler; again with Zinzendorf, from which he sepa rates; explains his differing from Whitefield, from whom he also separates; treating them both with equal respect and tenderness.
As a proof, and not being able to fol. low our Author in his copious and welldigested information about Whitefield, we beg the attention of our Readers to the following extract. Whitefield was preaching at Bristol with an uncommon success; yet he ardently wished for martyrdom, upon which we find the following remark:
"Such fears, or rather such hopes, were suited to the days of Queen Mary, Bishop Gardiner, and Bishop Bonner ;they are ridiculous or disgusting in the time of George the Second, Archbishop Potter, and Bishop Gibson. It might be suspected that Whitefield had grown deranged by the perpetual reading of Fox's Martyrs, like Don Quixote over his books of chivalry, and Loyola over the Lives of the Saints. But it was neither by much reading, nor much learning, that Whitefield was affected. His heart was full of benevolence and piety.—his feelings were
strong and ardent, his knowledge little, and his judgment weak,-and by gazing intensely and continuously upon bright and blazing truth, he had blinded himself to all things else."
The second volume opens with the death of Wesley's mother, and the subsequent troubles caused by the marriage of his two sisters; an event which, as not unfrequently happens in other families, brought much distress amongst them all. It must be imagined that the founder of such large establishmentswas obliged to take assistants; and from thence the necessity of being introduced to the most eminent among them. Such were the Countess of Huntingdon, who, like Madame Guyon above mentioned, a widow, young, rich, and independent, found it easy to gain followers, and put herself at the head of the sect; the Olivers, Pauson, Mather, Haime, Staniford, Story, and (perhaps the best of them all,) Fletcher, an anecdotical life of each of them enhances the value of the book.
Wesley's doctrine consisted in three principal points; viz. instantaneous regeneration, assurance, and sinless perfection. His casting lots for passages in Scriptures, and attributing every minute circumstance in his favour to Providence, could not but be considered 66 as discreditable to his judgment among the sensible and good people; but by the illiterate mob of his enemies, he was accused of hypocrisy and imposture."
"The strangest suspicions and calumnies were circulated; and men will believe any calumnies, however preposterously absurd, against those of whom they are disposed to think ill. He bad hanged himself, and been cut down just in time; -he had been fined for selling gin;-he was not the real John Wesley, for every body knew that Mr. Wesley was dead. Some said he was a Quaker, others an anabaptist; a more sapient censor pronounced him a Presbyterian-Papist. It was commonly reported that he was a Papist, if not a Jesuit; that he kept Popish priests in his house; nay, it was beyond dispute that he received large remittances from Spain, in order to make a party among the poor, and when the Spaniards landed, he was to join them with 20,000 men. Sometimes it was reported that he was in prison upon a charge of high treason; and there were people who confidently affirmed that they had seen him with the Pretender in France."
Although Wesley knew that these accusations came from the lowest of the lower class, yet he preferred to mix among them, to any intercourse with the higher orders of society.
"To speak rough truth, I do not desire any intercourse with any persons of quality in England. I mean, for my own sake. They do me no good, and, I fear, I can do none to them.' To another correspondent he says, I have found some of the uneducated poor who have exquisite taste and sentiment; and many, very many of the rich, who have scarcely any there is so strange a mixture, that I have at all.'-In most genteel religious people
love the poor; in many of them I find pure genuine grace, unmixed with paint, folly, and affectation.' And again, How unspeakable is the advantage in point of common sense, which middling people have over the rich! There is so much paint and affectation, so many unmeaning words and senseless customs among people of rank, as fully justify the remark made 1700 years ago, Sensus communis in illâ fortunâ rarus.'"
seldom much confidence in them. But I
To those who are curious of knowing what Wesley meant by the word Faith, we recommend page 176, and the two following, of vol. II.; which we would have most willingly inserted if our limits could have permitted. But we cannot resist showing how perfectly satisfied he was that he had worked miracles.
"We desire no favour,' said he, 'but the justice, that diligent inquiry may be made concerning them: we are ready to name the person on whom the power was shown, which belongeth to none but God (not one, or two, or ten or twelve only),—to point out their places of abode; and we engage they shall answer every pertinent question fairly and directly; and, if required, shall give all their answers upon oath, before any who are empowered to receive them. It is our particular request, that the circumstances which went before, which accompanied, and which followed after the facts under consideration, may be thoroughly examined, and punctually noted down. Let but this be done, (and is it not highly needful it should, at least by those who would form an exact judgment?) and we have no fear that any reasonable man should scruple to say, this hath God wrought.""
His system of Full Assurance be retracts, page 182; and modifies and softens down the doctrine of Perfection, which he had preached with inconsiderable ardour. He marries,
and has no reason to be satisfied with his choice. At the death of his friend Whitefield, he forgets all disputes about Calvinist opinions, and preaches his funeral sermon. He himself dies in the 88th year of his age, on the 2d of March 1791; leaving no other property behind him, but the copyright and current editions of his works. We could lengthen our extracts by the circumstances of the death of this truly good man, but we fear we have already trespassed on our limits. We cannot, however, terminate this article better, than by transcribing the opinion of ourAuthor, on his Hero, and on Methodism in general: it is a compendium of the whole work, and reflects immense credit on Mr. Southey, whose present book will amuse, entertain, and instruct, both the friends and enemies of Methodism.
"Such was the life, and such the labours of John Wesley; a man of great views, great energy, and great virtues. That he awakened a zealous spirit, not only in his own community, but in a Church which needed something to quicken it, is acknowledged by the members of that Church itself; that he encouraged enthusiasm and extravagance, lent a ready ear to false and impossible relations, and spread superstition as well as piety, would
hardly be denied by the candid and judicious among his own people. In its immediate effects the powerful principle of religion, which he and his preachers diffused, has reclaimed many from a course of sin, has supported many in poverty, sickness, and affliction, and has imparted to many a triumphant joy in death. What Wesley says of the miracles wrought at the tomb of the Abbé Paris,
may fitly be applied here; in many of these instances we see great superstition, as well as strong faith: but God makes allowance for invincible ignorance, and blesses the faith, notwithstanding the superstition.' Concerning the general and remoter consequences of Methodism, opinions will differ. They who consider the wide-spreading schism to which it has led, and who know that the welfare of the Country is vitally connected with its Church Establishment, may think that the evil overbalances the good. But the good may endure, and the evil be only for a time. In every other sect there is an inherent spirit of hostility to the Church of England, too often and too naturally connected with diseased political opinions. So it was in the beginning, and so it will continue to be, as long as these sects endure. But Methodism is free from this.
The extravagancies which accompanied its growth are no longer encouraged, and will altogether be discountenanced, as their real nature is understood. This cannot be doubted. It is in the natural course of things that it should purify itself gradually from whatever is objectionable in its institutions. Nor is it beyond the bounds of reasonable hope, that conforming itself to the original intention of its founders, it may again draw towards the Establishment from which it has seceded, and deserve to be recognized as an auxiliary institution, its Ministers being analogous to the regulars, and its members to the tertiaries and various confraternities of the Romish Church. The obstacles to this are surely not insuperable, perhaps not so difficult as they may appear. And were this affected, John Westhe most remarkable and influential men ley would then be ranked, not only among of his age, but among the great benefactors of his Country and his kind."
121. The Glory of Regality; an Historical Treatise on the Anointing and Crowning of the Kings and Queens of England. By Arthur Taylor, F. S. A. 8vo. pp. 420.
AS the Coronation, the Glory of Regality,' and the most splendid ceremonial of a Monarchial Government approaches, the public interest becomes more intensely excited. gratify in some degree the curiosity felt on this subject, Mr. Thomson gave to the publick a circumstantial account of the last Coronation, and of which we made favourable mention in our last number, p. 434. Since that work was published, Mr. Taylor's "Glory of Regality" has appeared, in which he does not confine gives an historical account of the himself to one Coronation only, but ceremonies practised at the Coronation of all our Monarchs, as well as the origin of the ceremonies themselves. To say that, in this work, Mr. Taylor has displayed considerable erudition and unwearied research, would scarcely do him justice, since he has exhibited a very comprehensive view of the most curious and studies. untrodden department of antiquarian
The French have an Historical Treatise of their Coronations by M. Menin; but in England we had no work of the kind, nor any thing on the subject, but what was to be found scattered in the voluminous productions of our early Historians, many
of which are extremely scarce. When Mr. Taylor exhibits the bost of authorities he has consulted, we do not wonder that his labours have been
continued eight years; though we cannot but admire his patience in this study, which he tells us was, like Sir John Fern's "Glory of Generositie," rather' an intermissive delectation' than an object of regular pursuit.
Mr. Taylor divides his work into five books: the first treats of the kingly title and office; Gothic manner of elevating Kings; origin of the ceremonies of auction and coronation. The second gives a full account of the regalia. The third, of the assistants at the Coronation, and the Court of Claims. The fourth treats of the ceremonial of an English Coronation; and the fifth book is a Chronicle of English Coronations, from the consecration of King Egferth, who was, as the Saxon Chronicle informs us, hallowed to King' by his father, Offa, King of Mercia, in the year 785, down to the Coronation of his late Majesty, George III.
We shall not, on the present occasion, attempt a methodical analysis of a work, each part of which is written with so much couciseness as scarcely to admit of abridgment, but shall seize on one of the most interesting points. The subject which has lately most occupied the public attention, is the arrival of the Queen, and there is a variety of conjectures as to whether she is or is not entitled to participate in the honours of the Sovereign, at the approaching Coronation. Mr. Taylor, without entering into any political discussion, or even allusion to the present case, is very explicit. He not only corrects an error of that excellent antiquary, Sir John Spelman, but has also clearly established, that the Coronation of the English Queen is not, as has been so often asserted, 'a recognition of her constitutional character us essential as
that of the monarch himself; but, on this point, we will quote the Author's sixth section of his first book; which treats,
"Of the Coronation of Queens.-Before this introductory book is concluded, we will inquire what share the Consorts of our Kings have antiently enjoyed in the honours of their inauguration. But first, as to the title Queen; it may be observed that the word signifies merely a wife, or
woman, yet it hath come by eminency to denote the wife only of a King. Thus in old authorities we find this expression— 'the King's Queen;' though the title hath
long been used absolutely in its present
sense, and as synonymous with the Latin
regina, the customary designation of our Queens in that language.
"The teutonic tribes, from whom we descend, entertained a laudable respect for the character of their women, and the wife of the chieftain shared the rank and honours of her husband. But the primitive form of the creation of Kings was too much devoid of gentle usuage and soft delicacy' to be participated by their consorts; and it was not till after the cere
monies of unction and coronation were adopted that these could be publicly ini. tiated in the honours of royalty. coronation of Queens, however, though performed with the same solemnity as that of Kings, is not to be regarded in the same political view, or to be considered as of the same importance. Its object is to confer a sanctity of character on her who is the wife and the mother of Kings, and to admit her to the honours of her exalted station. An attempt hath been made in a late anonymous pamphlet, which abounds more in gratuitous reasoning than historical deduction, to represent the coronation of the English Queen as an acknowledgment of a right of succession in her issue, and as a recogni tion of her constitutional character as essential as that of the monarch himself.' of these doctrines, however, a sufficient refutation may be derived from the following obvious considerations:-1st, That the observance or omission of this Como
nation never was or could be held to in
fluence the right of inheritance of the legitimate issue of a royal marriage. 2dly, The Coronation of the King is essential, inasmuch as it is a political act; in that of the Queen, however, no such character can be discovered: no consent is asked from the people as to the person to be crowned, no conditions are required from her; no oath is administered; no homage or allegiance is offered. The Queen's Coronation, though performed at the same place, and usually on the same day with that of the Sovereign, is a subsequent and disand is granted to his Consort for the tinct solemnity; it procedes from the King, honour of the kingly office.
Among the Romans, the wife of their Emperor had the title of Augusta, which was always conferred with some ceremo nies, and latterly by that of Coronation.In Germany, the Empress is both crowned
"Some Inquiry into the Constitutional Character of the Queen Consort, 8vo. See also the Edinburgh Review for Sept. 1814." and