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A very guarded remark of the Author, pp. 25 to 28, respecting the adoption of pinnacles by the Norman architects is confirmed by Ducarel, in his "Anglo-Norman Antiquities," edit. 1767, p 51, where he is speak ing of the West tower of St. Stephen's, at Caen; a rich Benedictine Abbey, which appears in many re spects a prototype of Tewkesbury. It was endowed by William the Conqueror, who lay buried there till dug up by the Calvinists in 1562.
The description of the antient tombs (several of which, after being plundered of their rich ornaments, have been removed from their ori
ginal situations), is in the highest commendable.
Some of the deductions are founded ou conjecture; but they are in general so ingenious, and built on such strong probabilities, that they almost amount to demonstration. Seldom indeed have we seen such consummate skill united with extreme diffidence in his own abilities. His oracles are chiefly Bentham, Gough, Lysons, Milner, and Dallaway, who are all appropri ately eulogized, where a fit opportunity occurs.
The death of the worthy Author *, and the loss of nearly the whole impression of his book by a calamitous fire at Mr. Bensley's †, have induced us to dwell longer on this volume than we should otherwise have done; and to copy the affecting paragraph by which the work is concluded:
"A vindication of the subject of this little disquisition,"-apart from all consideration of the merits, or demerits, of the performance," may appear neces sary to those who condemn the study of antiquities as useless and uncertain:" but, in the words of an elegant writer whose sentiments and language we are proud to borrow," those pursuits which add to the innocent happiness of life, are too respectable to require defence:" we venture to add, they are not only a legitimate source of innocent pleasure;" but, should they be denied, in the strictest sense, to be essential marks of virtue and religion, they certainly may lend their aid to the furtherance of both: we pity the constitution of that man's mind, who can return from the perambulation of these courts of the Lord's house" with
See vol. LXXXIX. ii. p. 377.
+ See Ibid. i. p. 575.
frigid apathy and indifference: we could suppose it almost impossible for him not to contrast the rhapsodical offices once performed in them, in a language unin telligible to the worshippers, with "the words of truth and soberness," now indiscriminately addressed to the learned
and to the unlearned, to the high and to the low, to the rich and to the poor: the 'superstitious varieties" of Catholic wor ship must flit before his eyes, as the ebullition of pride, or the engine of fraud: now happily merged in the ordinances of a church, which,-appealing to the common understanding of inau, and avoiding the extremes of prodigality and meanness,
only requires, on apostolical authority, that " every thing be done DECENTLY AND him the promiscuous assemblage of all
IN ORDER :" and when he beholds around
ages, and all ranks, alike "obedient unto death," even if the awakening spectacle does not direct his views beyond the grave
is it possible for him not to be reminded of his own mortality? is it possible for him not to perceive, and meditate on, the fast approach of that day, when he must add to the number of those spectacles,for the entertainment perhaps, or the instruction of others,-on which his own curiosity has beeu just employed?"
"Like leaves on trees the race of man is found, [ground; Now green in youth, now withering on the Another race the following spring supplies; They fall successive, and successive rise: So generations in their course decay; So flourish these, when those are past away." POPE'S ILIAD, LIB. VI.
115. Memoirs of the Court of Westphalia, under Jerome Buonaparte; with Anecdotes of his Favourites, Ministers, &c. 8vo. pp. 271.
BY the Treaty of Tilsit, several provinces of the Germanic empire were dismembered, and created into the kingdom of Westphalia; over which Jerome, youngest brother of Napoleon, was proclaimed King. The present Work contains the events which characterised the public and private life of Jerome and his Minis ters, from his first entry into Cassel, in December 1807, till his final expul sion in November 1813. The whole History displays such a succession of intrigue, dissipation, and folly, as can scarcely be paralleled in antient or modern times; and the perusal of this work will be so far useful, as it reminds us of the true character of the late French Government, under all its various ramifications.
The following character of the Intruder
truder shows how unfit a person he was to be elevated to supreme power: "Jerome loves the truth, said his subjects, but he does not seek it. Lively and volatile, like a boy escaped from school, he had the mania of aping his brother in public; but while at mirth in the palace, gave himself up without restraint, to all the idle gaiety of childhood. Having laid aside all his gravity, Jerome put on an undress, for the purpose of being able to perform his part in a game of leap-frog; while in the midst of this amusement, his Majesty observed several persons in an opposite window, who seemed to be looking towards the scene in which he was so attentively engaged. It will be readily conceived that the King was not a little annoyed at this intrusion; accordingly the house was purchased next day, and the inhabitants ordered to procure another residence."
Such were the amusements of the new King of Westphalia, while his sanguinary brother was laying waste the Austrian dominions with fire and sword!
The character of the late Duke of Brunswick Oels is well delineated, and his masterly retreat through an enemy's country, surrounded with difficulties and opposed by such superior numbers, deserves to be recorded, and may be compared with the famous retreat of the ten thousand Greeks under the command of Xenophon.
"The result was that the Duke of Oels, left to himself with his troops, had the alternative of making war on his own account, or of forcing a passage through Germany and going to England, in the pay of which he was. This Prince is the
same who was killed at the battle of Waterloo. It is a remarkable coincidence that his troops were placed precisely opposite to those commanded by Jerome, on that sanguinary day. He was a man about forty, of a commanding stature and martial countenance; partial to the French, speaking their language from predilection, and fighting them like a lion because they had deprived him of the Duchy of Brunswick. Amidst his companions in arms, he appeared a private soldier; a brown great coat and a cap of the same colour, composed his outward costume. From sleeping on the ground with his troops, sharing their labours, privations, and dangers, he commanded a body of heroes; small in number, but formidable in courage and loyalty."
The tenth chapter details the events which preceded the march into Russia, and the share which the West
phalian army took in the Russian campaign, which ended in the total destruction of the French army. Je rome afterwards returned to Cassel, and the courtiers of Westphalia, faithful to their principles of frivolity, occupied themselves with balls and plays. After the battle of Dresden, the plans of the French were every where frustrated, and nothing but disaster and defeat accompanied their projects in all parts of Germany.
The Russian General Czernichew entered Cassel by surprize; Jerome had scarcely time to dress himself and mount his horse. The courtiers, women, and all that were useless, crouded to the public roads and fled precipitately, while others quietly awaited the result, before they decided on the steps they should take. Jerome finally assembled the wreck of his army, and retired, with his Generals and Ministers, to Coblentz.
General Czernichew immediately addressed an animated proclamation to the inhabitants, in which he informed them, that the kingdom of Westphalia was dissolved, and that they were delivered entirely from the dominion of the French.
This Work is evidently the production of a Frenchman, and must be read with caution; but the events which it describes are highly interesting, and deserving of the serious consideration of every well-wisher to the future tranquillity of Europe.
116. The Life of the Most Reverend Father in God, Thomas Wilson, D. D. Lord Bishop of Sodor and Man. By the Rev. Hugh Stowell, Rector of Ballaugh, Isle of Man. With a Portrait. 8vo. pp. 419. Rivingtons.
BISHOP WILSON was a pattern character for Prelates, as to the exalted principles upon which be acted, the holy purity of his motives, the heroic inflexibility of his mind, and the sublime benevolence of his character. This Life is a book which
cannot be read by thinking persons without improvement; and the friends of piety and philanthropy will derive from it the useful knowledge of be ing "Lights to the world." It abounds, in the language of Mr. Stowell, in "Lessons of Wisdom, and Maxims of Piety." (Pref. p. vii.) To minds of the Evangelical turn, the professed form of the work is studiously adapted,
and, satisfied as we are that this work has a direct tendency to good, we shall not object, if we do not see the mode of writing that which blends Reason, Providence, and Christianity into one sublime philosophical system; a plan which we admire in Alison.
117. Bishop Lavington's Methodists and Papists considered. By the Rev. R. Polwhele.
(Concluded from p. 431.)
IN our last, p. 430. we enumerated the various topicks discussed by Mr. Polwhele in an ample Introduction to this curious Work; and we now proceed to fulfil our promise of extracting some Biographical Anecdotes of Bp. Lavington, which were derived from a familiar correspondence with his relations and friends:
"The Author of the Enthusiasm, GEORGE LAVINGTON, Doctor of Laws, succeeded Bp. Clagget in the see of Exeter. Descended from a family long settled in Wiltshire, he was born at the parsonagehouse of Mildenhal in that county, and baptized 18th Jan. 1683; his grandfather Constable, being then rector of that parish. Joseph, father to Bishop Lavington, is supposed to have exchanged his original benefice of Broad- Hinton in Wilts, for Newton Longville, in Bucks, a living and a manor belonging to New-College in Oxford. Transplanted thither, and in. troduced to the acquaintance of several members of that society, he was encouraged to educate the eldest of his numerous children, George, at Wykeham's foundation, Winchester; whence he succeeded to a fellowship of New-College, early in the reign of Queen Anne. George, while yet a school-boy, had produced a Greek translation of Virgil's Eclogues, in the style and dialect of Theocritus: and this translation is still preserved at Winchester, in MS. At the University, he was distinguished by his wit and learning; and equally so by a marked attachment to the Protestant succession, at a period when a zeal of that complexion could promise him weither preferment nor popularity. But, if some of his contemporaries thought his ardour in a good cause excessive, still their affection and esteem for him remained undiminished by any difference of political sentiment. In that respectable body, without a single enemy, he contracted many valuable friend hips, which terminated only with the death of the parties and in 1717 he was presented by his college, to the rectory of HayfordWarren, in the diocese of Oxford. Before GENT. MAG. June, 1820,
this, his talents and principles had recommended him to the notice of many eminent persons in Church and State. Among others, Talbot, then Bishop of Oxford, intended for him the benefice of Hookter, collated him. Earl Coningsby not only Norton; to which the succeeding Bp. Potappointed him his own domestic chaplain, but introduced him in the same capacity to the Court of George I. in whose reign he was preferred to a stall in the Cathedral Church of Worcester. This he always esteemed one of the happiest events of his life, since it laid the foundation of that close intimacy which ever after subsisted between him and the learned Dr. Francis Hare the Dean. No sooner was the Dean removed to St. Paul's, than he exerted all his influence to draw his friend to the capital after him: and his endeavours were soon crowned with success. Dr. Lavington in 1732, was appointed to be Canon Residentiary in that Church. In consequence of this station, he obtained successively the rectories of St. Mary (Aldermary), and St. Michael Bassishaw, and in both parishes merited the esteem of the citizens, as a minister attentive to his duty, and as an instructive and awakening preacher. He would probably never have thought of any other advancement, if the death of Dr. Stillingfleet, Dean of Worcester, in 1746, had not recalled to his memory the pleasing ideas of many years spent in that city in the prime of life. His friends, however, had higher views for him; and, on the death of Bishop Clagget, Lord Chancellor Hardwicke and the Duke of Newcastle recommended him to the King, to fill the vacancy in the see of Exeter, without his solicitation or knowledge. From this time, he resided at Exeter among his clergy; faithful to his charge; and jealous of all encroachments on the prerogatives of the Church, and much more of all "inven tions," that might perplex the simplicity of the Gospel.
"It is not therefore to be wondered at, that the reveries of a Whitfield or a Wesley, were treated by Lavington with far other feelings than those of cold indifference, of silent contempt, or of affected pity. On the 13th of Sept. 1762, he died universally lamented. His life had been devoted to God's honour and service: and with that life, his death was in perfect accordance: for the last words pronounced by his faultering tongue, were σε Δόξα TO!" The publications which appear
ed under the Bishop's name, were mostly single sermons, all of them valuable, and some of them scarce and much enquired for; particularly two discourses "On the Nature and Use of a Type," against Collins's attack on the Prophecies, printed in 1724. "The Enthusiasm" was published anonymously in 1747, and the two or three following years; and "The Moravians Compared and Detected," in 1753.
"In Exeter Cathedral, behind the throne, is a plain white marble tablet, on the top of which is a mitre. The epitaph is as follows:
"To the Memory of George Lavington, LL. D. who, having early distinguished himself by a conscientious and disinterested attachment to the cause of Liberty, and the Reformation, was successively advanced to Dignities in the Cathedrals of Worcester and St. Paul, and lastly, to the Episcopal Chair of this Church. Eudowed by nature with superior abilities, rich in a great variety of acquired knowledge, in the study of the Holy Scriptures consummate, he never ceased to improve his talents, nor to employ them to the noblest purposes; an instructive, animated, and convincing Preacher, a determined enemy to Idolatry and Persecution, a successful exposer of Pretence and Enthusiasm: happy in his services to the Church of Christ! Happier who could unite such extensive cares with a strict attention to his immediate charge! His absences from his Diocese were short and rare; and his presence was endeared to his Clergy, by an easy access, and a graceful hospitality, a winning conversation, and condescending deportment. Unaffected sanctity dignified his instructions, and indulgent candour sweetened his government. At length having eminently discharged his duties, of a man, a.Christian, and a Prelate, prepared by habitual meditation, to resign life without regret, to meet death without terror, he expired with the praises of God upon his lips, in his 79th year, Sept. 13th, 1762."
"The arms: Argent, a saltier gules; on a chief of the second three boars'
The Section treating of the "general topic of abuse" of the Methodists, "that we do not preach the Gospel," is thus concluded:
"Educated under the care of a parent, whose exemplary religiousness, whose faith and unaffected piety commanded respect and conciliated esteem, administered comfort to the Believer, and overawed the Infidel, I should consider myself as indeed only remained to lament her parents,the wife of the late Rev. N. Nutcombe, of Nutcombe, in Devon, and Chancellor of the Cathedral at Exeter."
an apostate, were I such as the adver sary described me.
"Often (and whenever it recurs, it is the most satisfactory moment of my life), often, in imagination, do I sit by that venerable Parent, and hear him discourse" of things above this world!" In his presence the libertine blushed; and the sceptic no longer doubted! And I am half disposed to think I was once assured, that a person, who in former years was much attached to my Father's conversation, but who has since acquired a popularity which no good man can envyI am willing to believe that licentious Wit was, in consequence of my Father's arguments, and more impressive manner, almost persuaded to be a Christian !'
The popular Wit alluded to was "Dr. Walcot, who, after he had left Cornwall, assumed the name of Peter Pindar. He resided many years in this county-at Truro, in particular, about two miles distant from Polwhele, where he attended my father as a physician, and often conversed with him as a friend. Though even at that time inclined to seepticism, he was always on his guard when talking with my father on religious subjects; and I have heard him' vow to God, that a good Christian was the happiest of all human beings! Of Walcot, I could relate many very entertaining anecdotes: but non his locus. I shall only add, that exclusive of his early satirical pieces (which chiefly consist of personal attacks on the magistrates of Truro), I possess unpublished songs and odes and epistles of Walcot (some in his own hand-writing) sufficient for a little volume-certainly more poetry in quantity, than either Hammond's or Collins's. An Epistle from the unfortunate "Matilda to her brother, George III." bas some beautiful stanzas: and an Ode on Christmas day breathes a religious-a devotional spirit-oh! how unlike Peter Pindar's!""
We copy the following article from the Appendix, conceiving that the worthy Author must, however unintentionally, have been some way or other under a mistake. At any rate the respectable Publishers will have an opportunity of refuting what ap pears to be a reflection on them.
"The Deserted Village School. A Poem. Such is the title of a Poem, which, in 1812, I submitted in MS. to the perusal of Walter Scott: and my poetical friend highly approved, and put it into Ballantyne's hands, with directions to print and publish it.-This was accordingly done: and some copies found their way to London, and others into Cornwall. It happened, however, that two only
reached the Author, both of which are lost irrecoverably; nor does a trace of the MS. remain. Neither Ballantyne nor Longman (to whom the London copies were sent) think proper to inform me why they wish to consign to oblivion a poem which critics, perfectly unknown to its Author, consider as deserving a place
by the side of Shenstone's School-mistress.' In the British Critic occurs the following notice of this little essay; attended with specimens both of the poetry and the prose. The Deserted Village School; a Poem. 8vo. 2s. Longman and Co. 1813. The ingenious author of this well-written poem, in the style and stanza of Spencer, is of opinion that the ardour of the new systems of public education, as described by Dr. Bell and Mr. Lancaster, is carried to too great excess. He thinks that they cause eventually much injury by the desertion of what he calls the good old schools, viz. the reading and writing schools established in most parishes. He expresses his dissent, however, with much good humour'."
Mr. Polwhele adds in a note,
"Though "a trifle light as air," the poem rises daily in importance in the Author's mind, from the circumstance of his unsuccessful enquiries with a view to its recovery. He would readily give in exchange for a copy of it, a set of his Cornwall History in seven volumes quarto, or of his Devonshire History in three volumes folio."
118. Annual Report of the Royal Humane Society for the Recovery of Persons apparently Drowned or Dead. 8vo. pp. 125. Printed for the Society.
WHEN the commencement of the French Revolution (then pronounced a discovery, like that of the compass, indispensable for all future political mariners) was celebrated in this country, by a grand exhibition of Jacobinical fireworks, every body recollects the famous apostrophical climax (not Congreve) rocket, let off by Dr. Price, in propriá personá. After discharging various mirabilia, as it ascended, it at last exploded with the following most superb fireball, viz. that by means of this very valuable revolutionary discovery, the progress of science would probably be such, that the necessity of dying would ultimately be removed, and mankind exist upon this earth, like the heathen Gods, in immortal youth; a most consoling prospect for posterity! Now, though the said Revolution inverted the Doctor's position, by actually introducing a frequent
necessity of dying sooner than even our present imperfect nature quired; yet, in sober truth, the Humane Society has realized the Doctor's hypothesis, as far as it was ever founded upon reason, and that too, beyond sanguine expectation. We need only quote the following passage of the Report, p. 16.
"Of thirty-eight instances of attempted suicide, thirty-four have been restored. The addition of the successful cases of the present to those of past years, presents a total of four thousand eight hundred and eighty-nine persons saved and restored in the Metropolis and its neighbourhood, since the commencement of the Institution. And it is a fact important to be known, that the number of persons actually restored has borne, since its establishment, a continually increasing proportion to the number on whom its resuscitating processes have been tried. This pleasing circumstance connects in one harmonious result, the progress of science with that of philan thropy."
It does indeed! and, to limit the benefits of this Institution to its ostensible object would be to prevent the possibility of the most important discoveries. Conducted as it has hitherto been, comparatively upon a small scale, we think that its benefits might hereafter be found to extend to cases of acute disease, wounds, &c. where death is only apparent. No persons can deprecate cruelty in experiment more than ourselves; but, if a theatre for experiment formed part of the Institution, and the experiments were conducted in the ingenious manner of John Hunter, we prognosticate, from what we have already seen, that the accessions of knowledge would be so great, as to render the processes of the Society an indispensable part of Medical and Veterinary Instruction; and cause the apparatus to be part of the tradestock of every practitioner in the Empire. The present Report is strongly indicative of the reasonableness of our hope. In p. 20 we have the recovery of a person, after Hanging-another p. 26, of the successful application of Galvanism. In p. 55, we find the possibility of recovering persons apparently Frozen to death, after a lifeless state for several hours. In short, the Report abounds with most valuable information; part of which, alluding to the pernicious practice of drinking cold water when we are warm, we shall quote: