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Lord Palmerston to the Marquis of Normanby.
"Foreign Office, Dec. 27, 1847. "My Lord-A short time ago I had an interview with the Duke de Broglie, on the subject of the declaration made by the five powers in Paris on the 20th of November, 1815, by which they guaranteed the neutrality of Switzerland, as well as the integrity and the inviolability of its territories, within the limits which are assigned it by the treaty of Vienna and the treaty of Paris, of the same date as the declaration, acknowledging at the same time that it is the well-understood interest of the policy of the whole of Europe to maintain Switzerland independent of all foreign influence. As this declaration of November, 1815, is closely connected with questions which the powers that signed it may some day be called on to deal with, I deem it my duty to inform your excellency, and, through you, the French government, of the manner in which the government of her majesty views the engagements entered into by that declaration.
ration of independence by the free black colony of Liberia, and of a new constitution recently adopted, after the fashion of the United States. The national flag was elevated at Monrovia on the 24th of August last. The first president of the new republic is Mr. J. J. Roberts, late governor of the colony; Mr. Nathaniel Brander is vice-president, and Mr. Samuel Benedict, judge. The flag of the republic was saluted on the 18th of September by the United States brig Boxer; and the captain of the British sloop of war Favorite had agreed temporarily to recognize the flag of Liberia until the receipt of further instructions. The independence is a measure adopted with a view to give the colony a more imposing and convenient aspect in its relations with surrounding tribes.
PROFESSOR FINN MAGNUSEN, the Iceland philosopher, died at Copenhagen on Christmas eve. He was born at Skalholt, in 1783. In early life he studied and practised the law at Rejkjavik; but in 1812 he removed to Copenhagen, in order to devote himself to the study of northern literature and science. His profound learning and personal worth led, in 1815, to his obtaining the professorship of northern literature in the University of Copenhagen; in 1829 he was appointed keeper of the state archives; he was successively secretary, vice-president, and president of the Icelandic Literary Society, and vice-president of the Royal Society of Northern Antiquaries. Professor Magnusen's chief published works are The Theory of the Edda and its Origin; and Runamo og Runerne on the palæography of the north. As one of the editors of Sæmund's Edda, he compiled the mythological lexicon which forms the chief portion of the third volume.
"It appears to the government of her majesty, that it was the object of this declaration of November 20, 1815, and the arrangements relative to Switzerland of which it formed part, to maintain the peace of Europe, by rendering the state of Switzerland adapted to insure the preservation of that peace. With that view, it was decided that Switzerland, formed of a confederation of sovereign cantons, should be invested with the privilege of a perpetual neutrality, in such a manner that no other power might be tempted to seek to draw it to itself as an ally or auxiliary in time of war. With this same object in view, its territory was declared inviolable, in such a manner that no foreign troops could penetrate that territory or traverse it for the THE SURRENDER OF ABD-EL-KADER.-We take purpose of invading another country; and in order the following interesting narrative of the last hours that the confederation might never be carried away of Abd-el-Kader in Algeria from the "Moniteur by sentiments of partiality to depart from that strict Algériea" of Dec. 30:-"The emir appeared to neutrality which ought invariably to characterize its feel the last sentiment of expiring pride when he relations with other states, the five powers declared was received with a flourish of trumpets and milithat Switzerland ought to be independent of all ex-tary honors, on this ground of Sidi-Brahim, the thetraneous influences. "The government of her majesty deems it of theatre of one of his most glorious victories. He prehighest importance to the general interests of Eu- served, during the whole journey, that melancholy On his arrirope, as well as the honor of the five powers, that gravity which is said to be his wont. val at the French camp, with Gen. de Lamoriciére, those engagements should be strictly and literally Gen. Cavaignac, and Lieut. Col. de Beaufort, he observed; that so long as Switzerland abstains from all acts at variance with its character of neutrality his actions to his present fortunes, he humbly dewas presented to the Duke d'Aumale. Conforming the inviolability of its territories ought to be reposed his sandals upon the threshold, waited a sign spected; and, consequently, that no foreign troops of the prince previous to taking his seat, and after ought to penetrate those territories; that the liberty of Switzerland, and its independence of all foreign words, translated by the principal interpreter, M. an instant of silence pronounced the following influence, ought to be maintained; and, consequent-Rousseau: 'I should have wished to have done ly, that no foreign power ought to seek to exercise before what I have done this day; I have waited a dictatorial authority in matters relating to the for the hour marked by God. The general has "No doubt, if the Swiss were to assume an ag-fear to see it broken by the son of a great king, pledged me his word, which I rely upon. I do not gressive attitude with regard to their neighbors, the such as the king of the French. I ask his aman neutrality and inviolability guaranteed to Switzer- for my family and for myself.' His royal highland could not shield them from the responsibility of their aggressions. But at this moment the Swissness confirmed in a few words, at once simple and have not committed any such act of aggression. The concise, the promise of his lieutenant, and dismissed government of her majesty is therefore of opinion, for him within the precincts of the hospital of Nethe emir, who was conducted to the tents prepared that the guarantee contained in the declaration of the 20th of November, 1815, subsists in full force, and that it ought to be observed and respected by all the powers which took part in that convention. "I herewith transmit, for your convenience, a copy of the declaration of the said 20th of November, 1815."
internal affairs of the confederation.
LIBERIA." An Old Subscriber" has sent to the Morning Post an interesting account of the decla
ing of the 24th Dec. At the moment the Duke A last ceremony took place in the morn d'Aumale was returning from the review of the cavalry which had returned to the camp, the emir presented himself on horseback, surrounded by his principal officers, and alighting at some steps from the prince, said: "I offer you this horse, the last I have mounted on; it is a testimony of my gratitude: I hope it will bring you happiness.' 'I
accept it,' replied the prince, as a homage paid | had been filed, to show that the mother was living in to France, whose protection will cover you for the great poverty in an attic, and that the children were future, and as a sign of forgetfulness for the past.' allowed to run about the streets in dirt, ignorance, The emir then saluted his royal highness with and vice. Mr. Talbot had made several attempts dignity, and returned on foot into the precinct of to persuade the mother to allow the children to be the camp. Abd-el-Kader is a man of about fifty-placed at school, but she had uniformly refused her eight years of age. We have in vain sought in his consent, unless the money were paid to her and left features the high distinction and the penetrating ex- under control. On one occasion she had consented pression we have so frequently heard spoken of by to leave the children under the care of Mrs. Taylor, persons who had seen him in his power. His phys- the sister of Mr. Talbot, if Mrs. Taylor would give iognomy, however, is intelligent; his eyes, large her pledge that she would discharge towards them and black, have a look at once harsh and imperious. the duties of a mother, but on that being given she His complexion is yellow, his face thin; without refused her consent. Mr. Talbot was a gentleman being long, his beard is thick and ends in a point; of refined taste and manners, and incapable of any the ensemble of his face is austere; it recalls, ex- cruelty to the children, to whom, in fact, he was cept the expression of mildness, the traditional much attached. With a view to provide for the face of Christ; his voice is grave and sonorous. mother, he had purchased a shop in Bishopsgate His stature, below the middle size, appears robust, street; but the business had been ruined by her exand is well-proportioned. His costume is the most travagance and mismanagement; and in consesimple of those worn by the secondary chiefs of quence of her ungovernable temper Mr. Talbot had the province of Oran-a black bürnous over two been obliged to dissolve his connection with her. white ones; the boot of common yellow morocco. The affidavit of Miss Johnson showed that when He is distinguished by no sort of luxury, not even the children were placed under her care, in Novemby that of cleanliness. It seems to us that we have ber last, the health and morals of the children were met a hundred times, in the midst of the Arab in a most wretched state. He (the learned counsel) goums, similar features and the same physiog- admitted that the putative father of illegitimate chilnomy.' dren was not in the same position as the father of children born in wedlock. He could not claim the children as a matter of right; but he trusted, that as no fraud had been made use of to get the children, the court would refuse to interfere, and so Mr. M. Chambers, Q. C., contended that the quesallow the children to remain where they were. tion as to who was entitled the guardianship of the children would not be entertained in that court. But where the mother of illegitimate children was in quiet possession of them, and they were taken from her by force or stratagem, the court would dictate that course in a case like the present. Mr. order them to be restored to her. Humanity would Talbot, who passed under the name of Russell, was and it was by his fault that the mother was in the a lieutenant-colonel in the British Auxiliary Legion,
QUEEN'S BENCH, Jan. 11.-CUSTODY OF ILLEGITIMATE CHILDREN.-EX PARTE THWAITES.-In this case a writ of habeas corpus had issued by direction of Mr. Justice Wightman, at chambers, commanding a lady named Johnson, who carries on a boarding-school in Cambridge-terrace, to bring up the bodies of three children in her custody, for the purpose of their being delivered up to their mother, Merina Thwaites. The children were now brought into court by Miss Johnson, in obedience to the writ, and the return which was read stated that the children had been placed under Miss Johnson's care for their education, but that she was ready to obey the order of the court. Mr. Humfrey, Q. C., appeared in support of the return, and moved that the
children should be allowed to remain under the care of Miss Johnson. Some years since a Mr. George state of poverty which had been described. He Talbot had formed a connection with Merina (the learned counsel) admitted that Colonel Talbot Thwaites, the mother of the children, and had had endeavored, by fair means, to get the children lived with her for several years, during which away, and, having failed, he then had recourse to period the children were born; but that connection a stratagem. The children were got away under had recently been broken off, and the mother with pretence of taking them to the Polytechnic Instituher children had since been in a state of the great claimed them back as her right. The learned countion, and had never returned; and the mother now est distress and poverty. The children were found by the father to be in such a state of destitution and sel then cited several cases in support of the mothutter moral ignorance as to call for general sympa- and contended that the interests of the children er's right to the children under the circumstances, thy; and the sister of Mr. Talbot, a married lady,
would be better secured by restoring them to their mother. Lord Denman intimated the opinion of the court that the eldest child, who was above seven years of age, should be allowed to go to whom he pleased; but his lordship said the court would like to be informed whether Mrs. Taylor, the sister of Mr. Talbot, was now willing to undertake the care of the other children. The case would, therefore, stand over for a few days; in the mean time the children would remain with Miss Johnson.
having undertaken to bring them up, they were taken by the father and placed at school. The ages of the children were respectively three, five, and seven years, so that two out of three were in capable of exercising any discretion; but the eldest, a boy, who had just completed his seventh year, if left to his own choice, would, he (the learned counsel) believed, choose to remain with Miss Johnson. The mother of the children had stated, in her affidavit, that she had been compelled to leave Mr. Talbot in consequence of his brutal conduct in beat- INTERNATIONAL AMITY.-(Dec. 27th 1847.)ing her and the children, and that she had gone to Sir,-A residence of twenty years in the United live with her mother and three sisters, and was States has afforded me much leisure for observation, there confined with her fourth child, and that during perhaps under circumstances more than commonly her confinement the three children had been taken free from any bias of personal interest; and I trust to the Polytechnic Institution by a Mrs. Goodwin, to your candor to believe, that this long period of whom they had been several times been allowed to absence has not in the slightest degree weakened visit, but had not been brought back. The learned the zeal and warmth of my attachment to my native counsel read extracts from several affidavits which | England. It is the strength of this feeling that now
prompts me to appeal to you, and request the in- tled in this country. He received some instruction sertion of a few lines, which, should they appear in at a school near the place of his nativity, but his your influential pages, may tend to promote views father conceiving that his education could be more which, however weakly expressed, appear to me of advantageously conducted in Holland, a consideragreat importance. I rejoice to perceive the fast-ble portion of his boyhood was spent in that country. increasing unpopularity of the truly hateful war Before his departure for the continent, however, he with Mexico, and entertain a strong hope that con- showed signs of a very precocious intellect, for he gress will arrest its progress. But while I acknowl- began to write verses at the age of ten, and in his edge this war to be most unprincipled and unjustifi-sixteenth year addressed a poetical epistle to Dr. able, I cannot but lament the tenor of the observations Johnson. After passing some time at Amsterdam in many English newspapers, as to the mode in which it is carried on. The strong and irritating language to which I allude necessarily gives much offence in this country, especially to the best-inclined part of the community; for in truth people here are ignorant of the atrocities ascribed to the troops of the Union. The American journals abound with innumerable letters written from the seat of war, by men of all classes and parties, which are almost invariably silent as to these alleged flagrant acts; may we not therefore presume, that, if true, they would have been alluded to? There are not wanting multitudes of persons in this country who would gladly seize upon and exaggerate such details to the uttermost. But no; much as I deplore and condemn the war, I am compelled to admit that I never heard of a conquering army so clear of excess or barbarity as that of America in the present instance. And when we think of the base and despicable conduct of the Mexican people, and their cruelty to all who fall into their hands, I confess it appears to me, that in this respect the Americans deserve infinite credit for their forbearance in victory. I ardently wish this were better understood in England, and that, in general, a more gentle tone were substituted for certain harsh, malignant expressions, too much designed to create bitterness and exasperation. After all, among the wise and good—and many such are to be found in America-there is a sincere and earnest desire to be on terms of better feeling and more friendly intercourse with England. To invite and contri bute to this conciliatory spirit is my object in thus troubling you with these few plain observations from-AN ARDENT LOVER OF PEACE.
SAFETY COATS.-Messrs Earls and Co., of Enniskillen, have just completed a ball-proof coat, which has become an object of great curiosity. It is said to be quite impervious to the bullet of either pistol, gun, or even blunderbuss; and it can be worn with the greatest ease either on horseback, in a gig, or walking. An eye-witness states that he has seen pistol-balls fired at it, and they either glanced off or fell flattened to the ground.
MR. ISAAC DISRAELI.-The father of the hon. member for Buckinghamshire died on Wednesday at his country seat, Bradenham House, Bucks. He had attained the advanced age of eighty-two years, and a few weeks ago was in the full possession of his usual health, and in the complete enjoyment of his intellectual powers. The prevailing epidemic, however, suddenly assailing a constitution enfeebled by age, soon assumed an aggravated form, and at length this venerable gentleman sank under the attack. For the following abridged notice of his literary career we are indebted to the "Times :"He was born at Enfield in the month of May, 1776, and was the only child of Benjamin Disraeli, a Venetian merchant, who had been many years set
and Leyden, where he acquired a knowledge of several modern languages, and where he applied himself to classical studies with some attention, he proceeded to the French metropolis. This visit to Paris took place in 1786. On his return to England, after a course of continental travel, he published several poems. "The Defence of Poetry" appeared in 1791; but, after a few copies had been sold, he suppressed the whole edition, his motive for which was not very apparent, the literary merit of that production being beyond dispute. In his twentyfourth year he gave to the world a volume consisting of his common-place book, with critical remarks, under the title of "Curiosities of Literature." This single volume attracted attention in an age when men of genius abounded. Mr. Disraeli's passion for literary history displayed itself at a very early period of life, and in his latest years it never deserted him. We therefore have his "Quarrels of Authors," in three volumes, his "Calamities of Authors," in two volumes, and his "Illustrations of the Literary Character," in one volume. To the early numbers of the "Quarterly Review" Mr. Disraeli was a contributor. His review of "Spence's Anecdotes," in 1820, and a vindication both of the moral and poetical character of Pope, produced the famous Pope controversy, in which Mr. Bowles, Lord Byron, and others took part. In 1828 he commenced his work, which he gave to the world at intervals in the course of seven years, entitled the "Commentaries on the Life and Reign of Charles I." He was stricken with blindness in the year 1839, and, although he submitted to the operation of couching, he could obtain no relief from a calamity most grievous to an historical author. Nevertheless he soon took heart, and with
the aid of his daughter, whose services he has eloquently referred to in his preface, he gave the world some notices of the earlier period of our literary history, under the title of the " Amenities of Literto, and others which we have perhaps omitted to Besides the publications already referred notice, Mr. Disraeli was the author, in his youth, of several works of fiction, some of which, published anonymously, obtained considerable reputation. Among these the more remarkable was Mejnoun and Leila"-the earliest Oriental story in our literature which was composed with any reference to the propriety of costume. The author was in this production much assisted by Sir W. Ousely, who first drew his attention to the riches of Persian poetry. The Rabelaisian romance of " Flim Flams," and the novel of " Vaurien," have both, we believe with authority, been attributed to him. He died a widower, having lost his wife, to whom he had been united for more than forty years, in the spring of 1847. He has left one daughter and three sons, the eldest of whom is the member for Buckinghamshire.
1. The Friends of the African, 2. Memoir of Elizabeth Fry,
3. D'Aubigné's Germany, England, and Scotland, Spectator,
6. The Old Maid from Principle,
7. The Saint's Tragedy,
8. Life and Writings of John Sterling, 9. Slave Trade and the West Indies, 10. Wales-the British Boeotia,
11. FOREIGN MISCELLANY. Irish Denunciations; Scotch Iron; Espartero; Switzerland
PROSPECTUS. This work is conducted in the spirit of | Littell's Museum of Foreign Literature, (which was favorably received by the public for twenty years,) but as it is twice as large, and appears so often, we not only give spirit and freshness to it by many things which were excluded by a month's delay, but while thus extending our scope and gathering a greater and more attractive variety, are able so to increase the solid and substantial part of our literary, historical, and political harvest, as fully to satisfy the wants of the American reader.
The elaborate and stately Essays of the Edinburgh, Quarterly, and other Reviews; and Blackwood's noble criticisms on Poetry, his keen political Commentaries, highly wrought Tales, and vivid descriptions of rural and mountain Scenery; and the contributions to Literature, History, and Common Life, by the sagacious Spectator, the sparkling Examiner, the judicious Athenæum, the busy and industrious Literary Gazette, the sensible and comprehensive Britannia, the sober and respectable Christian Observer; these are intermixed with the Military and Naval reminiscences of the United Service, and with the best articles of the Dublin University, New Monthly, Fraser's, Tail's, Ainsworth's, Hood's, and Sporting Magazines, and of Chambers' admirable Journal. We do not consider it beneath our dignity to borrow wit and wisdom from Punch; and, when we think it good enough, make use of the thunder of The Times. We shall increase our variety by importations from the continent of Europe, and from the new growth of the British colonies.
The steamship has brought Europe, Asia, and Africa, into our neighborhood; and will greatly multiply our connections, as Merchants, Travellers, and Politicians, with all parts of the world; so that much more than ever it
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now becomes every intelligent American to be informed of the condition and changes of foreign countries. And this not only because of their nearer connection with ourselves, but because the nations seem to be hastening, through a rapid process of change, to some new state of things, which the merely political prophet cannot compute or foresee.
Geographical Discoveries, the progress of Colonization, (which is extending over the whole world,) and Voyages and Travels, will be favorite matter for our selections; and, in general, we shal systematically and very ully acquaint our readers with the great department of Foreign affairs, without entirely neglecting our own.
While we aspire to make the Living Age desirable to all who wish to keep themselves informed of the rapid progress of the movement-to Statesmen, Divines, Lawyers, and Physicians-to men of business and men of leisure-it is still a stronger object to make it attractive and useful to their Wives and Children. We believe that we can thus do some good in our day and generation; and hope to make the work indispensable in every well-informed family. We say indispensable, because in this day of cheap literature it is not possible to guard against the influx of what is bad in taste and vicious in morals, in any other way than by furnishing a sufficient supply of a healthy character. The mental and moral appetite must be gratified.
We hope that, by "winnowing the wheat from the chaff" by providing abundantly for the imagination, and by a large collection of Biography, Voyages and Travels, History, and more solid matter, we may produce a work which shall be popular, while at the same time it wil aspire to raise the standard of public taste.
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Monthly parts.-For such as prefer it in that form, the Living Age is put up in monthly parts, containing four or five weekly numbers. In this shape it shows to great advantage in comparison with other works, containing in Binding. We bind the work in a uniform, strong, and each part double the matter of any of the quarterlies. good style; and where customers bring their numbers in But we recommend the weekly numbers, as fresher and good order, can generally give them bound volumes in ex-fuller of life. Postage on the monthly parts is about 14 change without any delay. The price of the binding is cents. The volumes are published quarterly, each volume 50 cents a volume. As they are always bound to one containing as much matter as a quarterly review gives in pattern, there will be no difficulty in matching the future eighteen months. volumes.
WASHINGTON, 27 DEC., 1845.
Or all the Periodical Journals devoted to literature and science which abound in Europe and in this country, this has appeared to me to be the most useful. It contains indeed the exposition only of the current literature of the English language, but this by its immense extent and comprehension includes a portraiture of the human mind the utmost expansion of the present age. J. Q. ADAMS
LITTELL'S LIVING AGE.-No. 201.-18 MARCH, 1848.
TO THE PUBLIC.
points, we can examine the evidence and reasonings to very little purpose.
I. What was known before this discovery?
In the specification accompanying the first patent, sigued by both Dr. Jackson and Dr. Morton, is this passage-
It has been known that the vapors of some, if not all, of these chemical distillations, particularly those of sulphuric ether, when breathed or introduced into the lungs of an animal, have produced a peculiar effect upon its nervous system; one which has been supposed to be analogous to what is usu
THE subject of the ether discovery has now been before the public for more than a year; pamphlets have been published, and evidence in various shapes exhibited, by those who claim to be the discoverers; and it may now fairly be presumed that all the material evidence bearing upon the question has been produced. The trustees of the Massachusetts General Hospital, a board of twelve gentlemen of the highest consideration in the community, have made a thorough investigation of the question, through their committee, and published a unani-ally termed intoxication. It has never (to our mous report. This report has been unanimously knowledge) been known until our discovery, that accepted by the corporation. These gentlemen have had great advantages, independent of their personal characters and qualities, for conducting a thorough and impartial inquiry. They are on the spot where the discovery was made, have had personal interviews with the two claimants, (Drs. Jackson and Morton,) and with the most important witnesses. They are none of them physicians, or engaged in similar pursuits with either of the claimants; and whatever influences may attend previous scientific distinction and personal acquaintance, were against the claimant in whose favor they have given their decision.
One of the 'claimants, Dr. Jackson, has refused to submit his cause to any tribunal whatever; so that we can hardly hope that a decision will be obtained, carrying with it more weight than that
which we now have before us.
Under these circumstances, a number of persons, satisfied of Dr. Morton's right to the title of discoverer, and desirous of having all the material facts, arguments, and documents, collected and put into a single pamphlet, in an orderly manner, and under some degree of personal responsibility, have requested me to perform this duty. I undertake it as a professional service, and I desire to have it so understood by the public. I am responsible so far as this that I feel bound to thoroughness and accuracy, and to introduce no evidence that I do not believe to be worthy of credit.
RICHARD H. DANA, JR. 30 Court St., Feb. 22, 1848.
the inhalation of such vapors, (particularly those of sulphuric ether,) would produce insensibility to pain, or such a state of quiet of nervous action as to render a person or animal incapable to a great extent, if not entirely, of experiencing pain while under the action of the knife or other instrument of operation of a surgeon, calculated to produce pain. This is our discovery.
admit that it was known that the inhaling of ether In other words, both the contending parties vapors would produce "a peculiar effect," but deny that it was known that this "peculiar effect" amounted to that extraordinary degree of insensibility—that death of all sensibility-which the
experiments in Boston demonstrated.
Dr. J. C. Warren, in his work on Etherization, (Boston, 1848,) says, (p. 2,) “The general prop
erties of ether have been known for more than a century, and the effect of its inhalation, in producing exhilaration and insensibility, has been understood for many years, not only by the scienand in the shop of the apothecary, who have fretific, but by young men in colleges and schools, quently employed it for these purposes."
Dr. Beddoes, in his work on Factitious Airs, published at Bristol in 1795-6, gives several communications from Dr. Pearson, on the inhalation
Sir Humphrey Davy, who had experimented in this direction, says: "As nitrous oxide, in its extensive operation, appears capable of destroying physical pain, it may probably be used with advantage during surgical operations in which no great effusion of blood takes place."
Dr. C. T. Jackson, in the pamphlet published PREVIOUS KNOWLEDGE ON THIS SUBJECT-NATURE under his sanction by Dr. M. Gay, in 1847, says,
OF THE DISCOVERY.
that "he was early impressed with the remarks of Davy concerning the remedial agency of gaseous matters."
Dr. Jackson again, in the same pamphlet, p. 5, distinctly admits that "insensibility produced by ether," was known to physiologists, and says the question was, whether this insensibility was of such