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lables of music. He published Rudi-, 6, 1813, aged 31. He was honorably ments of music, 1783 ; Musical Primer buried at Halifax. His body and that of on a new plan, with the four characters, lieut. Ludlow were brought by capt. G. 1803 ; Musical magazine, 1804 ; Collec- Crowninshield at his own expense to lection of hymn tunes.
Salem, & then removed to N. Y. His wife LAWRENCE, James, a naval com- was the daughter of Mr. Montaudevert,a mander, was the son of James L., a law- merchant of N. York. She survived yer, and was born at Burlington, N. J. with two children. Oct. 1, 1781. He had early a predi- LAWSON, John, a traveller, was lection for a sea faring life, which his surveyor general of N. Carolina. While friends could not conquer. At the age exploring lands on the river Neus, accomof 16 he received a midshipman's war- panied by the baroni Graffenreid, the Indirant. In the war against Tripoli he ac- ans seized him and solemnly tried him companied Decatur as his first lieuten- for encroaching on their territory before ant in the hazardous exploit of destroy- a large council, and condenined and eseing the frigate Philadelphia. He remain-cuted him in the autumn of 1712. This ed several years in the Mediterranean was the commencement of an Indian war. and commanded successively the Vixen, The baron escaped by representing, that Wasp, Argus, and Hornet. While cruis- he was not of the English party, but king ing in the latter off Delaware, he fell in of the Palatines. He published a journal with the British brig, Peacock, and after of one thousand miles' travels amongst an action of 15 minutes captured it Feb. the Indians, with a description of North 24, 1813. On his return he was receiv. Carolina, 4to. London, 1700; the same, ed with'distinction. Being promoted to 1711 ; also the same at Hamburg, 1812; the rank of post captain, he was intrusted history of Carolina, 4to. London, 2nd with the command of the frigate Ches- edit. 1714; the same, 1718.- Holmes, apeak. While in Boston roads nearly 1. 507. ready for sea, the British frigate Shan- LAY, Benjamin, a benevolent quaker non, capt. Broke, appeared off the har- of great singularities, was a native of bor, and made signals expressive of a England and brought up to the sea. challenge. Although under many disad- About the year 1710 he settled in Barbavantages, with an undisciplined crew,&c., does. Bearing his open testimony in all yet capt. L. determined to accept the companies against the conduct of the owchallenge. He put to sea in the morn-ners of slaves, he became so obnoxious to ing of June 1; the Shannon bore away. the inhabitants, that he left the island in At 4 the Chesapeak hauled up and fired a disgust, and settled in Pennsylvania. gun; the Shannon then hove to. Soon He fixed his residence at Abington, ten after the action commenced, capt. L. was miles from Philadelphia. On his arrival wounded in the leg. Soon the anchor of he found many quakers, who kept slaves
. the Chesapeak caught in one of the Shan- He remonstrated against the practice with non's ports, in consequence of which her zeal both in public and private. To exguns could not be brought to bear upon press his indignation at the practice of the enemy. As capt. L. was carried be- slave keeping, he once carried a bladder low in consequence of a second and mor- filled with blood into a public meeting, tal wound from a bullet, which lodged in and in the presence of the whole congtehis intestines, he cried out, “ don't give gation thrust a sword into it, which he up the ship!” But after the action had had concealed under his coat, exclaiming, continued 11 minutes the enemy boarded “ thus shall God shed the blood of those and captured the Chesapeak. The loss persons, who enslave their fellow creaof killed and wounded was 146 ; that of tures.” Calling upon a friend in Philadelthe Shannon 86. Capt. L. lingered four phia, he was asked to sit down to breakdays in extreme pain and then died, June fast. He first inquireil, " dost thou keep slaves in thy house?” On being answer- cient to keep any person above want or ed in the affirmative, he said, “ then I will dependence in this country. He once atnot partake with thee of the fruits of thy tempted to imitate our Savior by fasting unrighteousness.” After an ineffectual 40 days; but he was obliged to desist attempt to convince a farmer and his wife from the attempt. His weaknesses and in Chester county of the iniquity of keep- eccentricities disappear before the splendor ing slaves, he seized their only child, a of his humanity and benevolence. His little girl of three years of age, under the bold, determined, and uniform reprehenpretence of carrying her away, and when sion of the practice of slavery, in defiance the cries of the child, and his singular of public opinion, does him the highest expedient alarmed them, he said, “ you honor. The turbulence and severity of see and feel now a little of the distress, his temper were necessary at the time in which you occasion by the inhuman which he lived ; and the work, which he practice of slave keeping." In 1737 he began, was completed by the meek and wrote a treatise, entitled, All slave keep- gentle Anthony Benezet.--Rush's essays, ers, that keep the innocent in bondage, 305-311 ; Mass, mag. iv. 28-30. apostates. It was printed by Dr. Frank- LEAKE, Walter, governor of Missislin, who told the author, when the manu- sippi, succeeded Geo. Poindexter in 1821 script was brought to him, that it was de- and was succeeded by David Holmes in ficient in arrangement. “It is no mat- 1825. He was a soldier of the revolution. ter,” said Mr. Lay, “print any part, thou He died at Mount Salus in Hinds counpleasest, first.” This worthy quaker died ty, Miss., Nov. 17, 1825. at his house in Abington in 1760, aged 79. LEAMING, Jeremiah, D. D., an episHe was temperate in his diet, living copal minister, was born in Middletown, chiefly upon vegetables, and his drink was Conn. in 1719, and was graduated at Yale pure water. When tea was introduced college in 1745. He preached in Newinto Pennsylvania, his wife brought port, R. Island, 8 years; at Norwalk, home a small quantity with a set of cups Connecticut, 21 years; and at Stratford and saucers.
In his zeal he seized them, 8 or 9 years. He died at New Haven in and carrying them back to the city, he Sept. 1804, aged 86.
In the episcopal scattered the tea from the balcony of the controversy, he wrote with great ability court house, in the presence of a multi- upon the subject. He published a detude of spectators, and broke to pieces fence of the episcopal government of the the instruments of luxury, delivering at church, containing remarks on some nothe same time a striking lecture upon the ted sermons on presbyterian ordination, folly of introducing a pernicious herb 1766 ; a second defence of the episcopal in the place of the wholesome diet government of the church in answer to of the country. He often visited Noah Welles, 1770; evidences of the schools, carrying a basket of reli- truth of Christianity, 1785; dissertations gious books with him, and distributing on various subjects, which may be well them as prizes among the scholars, impar- worth the attention of every Christian, ting also frequently some advice and in- 1789. struction, So much was he the enemy LEAR, Tobias, colonel, was consul of idleness, that when the inclemency of general at St. Domingo in 1802 ; he was the weather confined him to his house, or afterwards consul general at Tripoli, and his mind was wearied with reading, he in 1804 commissioner with Barron to neused to spend his time in spinning. All gotiate a peace, which he effected much his clothes were manufactured by himself. to the dissatisfaction of Gen. Eaton, then Though kind to the poor, he had no pity at the head of an army at Derne, agreeon common beggars, who, he said, if able ing to pay for 200 prisoners 60,000 dollars. to go abroad to beg, were able also to earn At the time of his death Mr. Lear was four pence a day, and this sum was suffi- ' accountant of the war department. He
died at Washington October 11, 1816. injustice towards the natives. He surpris
LECHFORD, Thomas, a lawyer ed his American friends, who had heard nofrom London, lived in Boston from 1638 thing of him for 8 years,by a visit in 1781. to 1640. Being dissatisfied with the His mother kept a boarding house at country, he returned to England. He Southold: he took lodgings with her, and published Plain dealing, or news from N. she did not recognise her son. Having England's present government, ecclesias- offered his services to several merchants tical and civil, compared &c. Lond. 1642. to conduct a trading voyage to the north
LEDYARD, John, a distinguished west coast, and meeting with no encourtraveller, was born in Groton, Conn. in agement, he again embarked for England 1751. His father died, while he was yet in 1782. He now resolved to traverse a child, and he was left under the care of the continent of America from the north a relative in Hartford. Here he enjoyed west coast, which Cook had partly erthe advantages of a grammar school. plored, to the eastern coast, with which After the death of his patron, when he he was already perfectly familiar. Diswas eighteen years of age, he was left to appointed in his intention of sailing on a follow his own inclinations. With a view voyage of commercial adventure to Nootto the study of divinity he now passed a ka sound, he crossed the British channel short time in Dartmouth college, where to Ostend with only ten guineas in his he had an opportunity of learning the purse; determined to travel over land 10 manners of the Indians, as there were Kamschatka, whence the passage is short several Indian pupils in the seminary. to the western coast of America. When His acquaintance with the savage charac- he came to the gulf of Bothnia, he attempter, gained in this place, was of no little ted to cross the ice, that he might reach advantage to him in the future periods of Kamschatka by the shortest way; but his life. His poverty obliging him to finding that the water was not frozen in withdraw from the college before he had the middle, he returned to Stockholm. completed his education, and not having He then travelled northward into the arca shilling in his pocket to defray the ex- tic circle, and passing round the head of pense of a journey to Hartford, he made the gulf, descended on its eastern side to him a canoe, fifty feet in length and three Petersburgh. There his extraordinary in breadth, and being generously supplied appearance attracted general notice. with some dried venison for his sea stores Without stockings or shoes, and too poor he embarked upon the Connecticut, and to provide himself with either, he was going down that river, which is in many invited to dine with the Portuguese amplaces rapid, and with which he was to- bassador, who supplied him with 20 tally unacquainted, he arrived safely at guineas on the credit of sir Joseph Banks. Hartford at the distance of 140 miles. Through his interest he also obtained He soon went to New York, and sailed permission to accompany a detachment of for London in 1771 as a common sailor. stores destined to Yakutz for the use When captain Cook sailed on his third of Mr. Billings, an Englishman, who was voyage of discovery, Ledyard, who felt intrusted with the schemes of northern an irresistible desire to explore those re- discovery, in which the empress was then gions of the globe, which were yet undis- engaged. From Yakutz, which is situacovered, or imperfectly known, accepted ted in Siberia, 6,000 miles east of Petersthe humble station of corporal of marines, burgh, he proceeded to Oczakow, or Ochrather than forego an opportunity so in- otsk, on the Kamschatkan sea ; but as the viting to his inquisitive and adventurous navigation was completely obstructed by spirit. He was a favorite of the illustri- the ice, he returned to Yakutz, intending ous navigator, and was one of the witnes- to wait for the conclusion of the winter. ses of his tragical end in 1778. He ascri- Here in consequence of some unaccountabed the fate of Cook to his rashness and ble suspicion he was seized in the name of the empress by two Russian soldiers, who that Africa might, if possible, he explorconveyed him, in the depth of the winter, ed. He said, he should think himself through the north of Tartary to the fron- singularly fortunate to be intrusted with tier of the Polish dominions; assuring the adventure. I asked him when he him at their departure, that, if he return- would set out? Tomorrow morning was ed to Russia, he should certainly be hang- his answer.” ed, but, if he chose to return to England, From such zeal, decision, and intrepidthey wished him a pleasant journey. ity. the society naturally formed the most Poor, forlorn, and friendless, covered sanguine expectations. He sailed from with rags, and exhausted by fatigue, dis- London June 30, 1788, and in 36 days ease, and misery, he proceeded to Kon-j arrived in the city of Alexandria ; and ingsberg, where the interest of sir Joseph having there assumed the dress of an EBanks enabled him to procure the sum of gyptian traveller proceeded to Cairo, five guineas, by means of which he arrived which he reached August 19th. He in England.
travelled with peculiar advantages. EnHe immediately waited on sir Joseph, dowed with an original and comprehenwho recommended him to an adventure sive genius, he beheld with interest, and as perilous as that,from which he had just described with energy the scenes and obreturned. He now was informed of the jects around him ; and by comparing views of the association, which had been them with what he had seen in other relately formed for promoting the discovery gions of the globe he was enabled to give of the interior parts of Africa, which his narrative all the varied effect of conwere then little known. Sparrman, Pat-trast and resemblance. His remarks on erson, and Vaillant had travelled into Lower Egypt, had that country been less Caffraria, and Nordon and Bruce had generally known, might have ranked enlarged the acquaintance of Europeans with the most valuable of geographical with Egypt, Nubia, and Abyssinia. In records. They greatly heightened the regard to other parts of this quarter of opinion, which his employers already enthe globe, its geography, excepting in tertained of his singular qualifications for relation to its coasts, was involved in the task, which he had undertaken.' Nor darkness. Ledyard engaged with en- was his residence at Cairo altogether usethusiasm in an enterprise, which he had less to the association. By visiting the already projected for himself; and, receiv- slave markets, and by conversing with ing from sir Joseph a letter of introduc- Jelabs, or travelling merchants of the tion to one of the members of the com- caravans, he obtained without any exmittee appointed to direct the business pense a better idea of the people of Afriand promote the object of the association, ca, of its trade, of its geography, and of he went to him without delay. The de- the most prudent manner of travelling, scription, which that gentleman has giv- than he could by any other means have en of his first interview, strongly marks acquired ; and the communications on the character of this hardy traveller. these subjects, which he transmitted to "Before I had learned,” says he, “ from England, interesting and instructive as the note the name and business of my they were, afforded the society the most visitor, I was struck with the manliness gratifying proofs of the ardent spirit of of his person, the breadth of his chest, inquiry, the unwearied attention, the the openness of his countenance, and the persevering research, and the laborious, inquietude of his eye. I spread the map indefatigable, anxious zeal, with which of Africa before him, and, tracing a live their author pursued the object of his from Cairo to Sennaar, and from thence mission. westward in the latitude and supposed He had announced to his employers, direction of the Niger, I told him that that he had received letters of earnest was the route, by which I was anxious, 'recommendation from the Aga ; that the
day of his departure was appointed; that general also more virtuous,and performing his next despatch would be dated from more good actions, than he. To a womSennaár; and the committee expected an, whether civilized or savage, I never with impatience the result of his jour- addressed myself in the language of deney. But that journey was never to cency and friendship, without receiving a be performed. The vexation, occa- decent and friendly answer. With man sioned by repeated delays in the de- it has often been otherwise. In wanderparture of the caravan, brought on a ing over the barren plains of inhospitable bilious complaint, which, being increased Denmark, through honest Sweden and at first by incautious treatment, baffled frozen Lapland, rude and churlish Finthe skill of the most approved physicians land, unprincipled Russia, and the wide of Cairo, and terminated his earthly exis- spread regions of the wandering Tartar; tence Jan. 17, 1789, aged 37.
if hungry, dry, cold, wet, or sick, the The society heard with deep concern women have ever been friendly to me, of the death of a man, whose high sense and uniformly so. And to add to this of honor, magnanimous contempt of dan- virtue, so worthy the appellation of beger, and earnest zeal for the extension of nevolence, their actions have been perknowledge had been so conspicuously dis- formed in so free and kind a manner, that, played in their service; whose ardor, if I was dry,I drank the sweetest draught, tempered by calm deliberation, whose and, if hungry, I ate the coarsest morsel daring spirit, seconded by the most pru- with a double relish. ” dent caution, and whose iinpatience of Besides his communication to the Africontrol, united with the power of sup- can association, he published an account · porting any fatigue, seemed to have of Cook’s voyage in 1781.
Several of qualified him above all other men for the his manuscripts were a few years ago in very arduous task of traversing the widest the hands of his brother, Dr. Isaac Ledand most dangerous part of the continent yard, health officer of the city of New of Africa. Despising the accidental dis- York. His life by J. Sparks was pubtinctions of society, he seemed to regard no lished in 1828. man as his superior; but his manners, LEDYARD, colonel, commanded in though unpolished, were not disagree- 1781 fort Griswold in Groton, Con., on able. His uncultivated genius was pe- the Thames, exactly opposite to New culiar and capacious. The hardships, to London, when, Sept. 7, he was attacked which he submitted in the prosecution by col. Eyre with a large force. With of his enterprises and in the indulgence 150 men he fought bravely; col. Eyre of his curiosity, are almost incredible. and maj. Montgomery being killed, the He was sometimes glad to receive food command of the British devolved on maj
. ás in charity to a madman, for that char- Broomfield. When the fort was carried acter he had assumed in order to by assault with the bayonet, Broomfield avoid a heavier calamity. His judgment inquired, who commanded. Ledyard of the female character is very honorable replied, “ I did command, sir; but you to the sex. “I have always remarked,” do now;" and presented to him his said he, “that women in all coun- sword. The ferocious officer instantly tries are civil and obliging, tender, run him through the body; and between and humane ; that they are ever in- 60 and 70 Americans were slaughtered, clined to be gay and cheerful, timor- after they had surrendered. The whole ous and modest; and they do not hesi- American loss was 73 killed ; about 30 tate, like men, to perform a generous wounded ; and about 40 taken prisoners. action. Not haughty, not arrogant, The British loss was 48 killed, 143 wounnot supercilious, they are full of ded. On the other side of the river Arnold courtesy, and fond of society; more burned New London. Col. Ledyard liable in general to err than man, but in was a brave, sensible, polished, noble