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Fig. 106. Isometrical View of a Churchyard adapted for an agricultural Parish.

(6) which ascend to the platform on which the church stands. The circum-
ferential walk (c) is 6 ft. wide, with a border for tombs and gravestones on
each side, 12 ft. wide. There is also an inner walk (d) of the same width,
between which and the platform on which the church stands there is another
12 ft. broad for tombs. "The space for graves without marks lies on each side
of the walk e, and is in 14 divisions, with room in each for 24 graves. Each
of these divisions is separated by a grass path 2 ft. wide. The two surround-
ing borders, intended for tombs, are planted with trees 20 ft. apart. At the
angles (ff), these trees are cedars of Lebanon ; at the main entrance (g g),
they are yew trees; and the remainder of the trees are different species of
thorns (Cratægus) (h), and evergreen cypresses (i), alternately except
opposite to the side entrances to the platform, and at the angles adjoining the
cedars, where there are yew trees marked k k k k. Whatever tree is in-
troduced on one side of the walk, the same sort is also planted on the other ;
for the sake of preserving uniformity in the perspective. The number of trees
wanted for this churchyard will be 8 cedars of Lebanon, 20 yews, 28 cy-
presses, and 32 plants of Cratæ'gus, The latter may be of the following 16
species or varieties : -
C. coccinea.

C. Arònia.
C. c. corallina,

C. Oxyacantha rosea.
C. punctàta.

C. 0. múltiplex (fòre pleno).
C. Crus-galli.

C. 0. melanocarpa.
C. C. salicifolia.

C. 0. præ'cox.
C. orientalis (odoratíssima). C. glandulòsa.
C. tanacetifolia.

C. heterophylla.
C. t. Celsiana.

C. flàva, Half the yews may be of the upright Irish variety; but the cypresses should be all of the common upright-growing kind. In many parts of England, and generally in Scotland, the climate is too severe for the cypress ; but in all such places the Irish yew, Irish juniper, Swedish juniper, weeping Nepal juniper (Juniperus recúrva), the upright-growing variety of the Oriental arbor vitæ, or the Pinus Cembra, may be substituted. The common holly is also not a bad substitute; and, if deciduous cypress-like trees were required, we know of none more suitable than the Quércus pedunculàta fastigiata and the Crata'gus Oxyacantha strícta.

The parties wishing to bury in the borders are not to be considered as obliged to erect tombs of any sort, or even to enclose the spot which they have purchased with an iron railing ; all that they will be held under obligation to do will be, to confine their operations within the limits of the parallelogram which they may purchase (and which may be either single, as shown in the plan at t, or double, as at u), and the four corners of which will be indicated by four stones let into the soil at the expense of the parish. The party purchasing the ground may erect any description of gravestone, tomb, statue, or monument, he chooses within it; or he may leave it in naked turf, which will be mown or clipped at the expense of the parish ; or he may plant it with shrubs and flowers, in which case he must keep it in repair himself. We have suggested the idea of not rendering it compulsory to erect tombs or iron railings, in order that we may not seem to exclude those who cannot afford the expense of such memorials, from purchasing a grave to hold in perpetuity. A poor man may be willing to afford the price of a grave, in order to preserve the remains of his family from being disturbed; though he might not be able to afford the farther expense of decorating it, by setting up a gravestone or erecting a tomb.

The Church shown in the figures is on what is supposed to be an improved design, suggested by an architect in the Architectural Magazine ; and it differs from the ordinary plan of churches in the manner of the entrances, and also in the general form being nearer that of a square than is usual. The author of this plan adopts it as a principle, “ that the point in the outer walls from which each pew, and each class of pews, can be gained by the shortest pos

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Fig. 107. Ground Plan of a Churchyard adapted for an agricultural Parish.

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sible distance, is the best situation for an entrance; and for the following reason : that a person entering a church after the congregation has partly assembled, or, as frequently happens, after service is commenced, may gain his sitting as soon as possible, and avoid at least one half the disturbance otherwise created, by having only half the length of an aisle to traverse." With respect to the general form, this architect considers “ that plan the best which concentrates the greatest number of benches or pews within a given distance of the preacher ; and hence he prefers a square to a parallelogram.” He adds : “ Never let the inner entrance door of a church open under a gallery, or the effect of the interior of the church will be irrecoverably lost. If you will have western entrances and western galleries, contrive to have porches or cloisters, so as to take you to the gallery front before you enter the body of the church.(Arch. Mag., iv. p. 568.) The ground plan in fig. 107. is made in accordance with these principles : ll are the entrance porches; mm, staircases, from which the body of the church is entered through lobbies

The inner lobbies are formed by two pairs of folding doors, with a space between, equal to the thickness of the walls of the towers which contain the stairs. The inner doors of the lobbies may be glazed with stained or painted glass. If the body of the church be fitted up with benches, the effect would harmonise better with this style of architecture ; and, in the opinion of several clergymen with whom we are acquainted, this arrangement would be more suitable to the spirit of Christianity, according to which all are equal in the sight of God. It is worthy of remark, that in the Russian churches there are no benches or seats of any kind whatever, and nothing to prevent the meanest slave from standing by the side of the highest noble, or even of the emperor himself. The portion of the sittings marked o o, to the right and left of the pulpit, our architect considers should be free. The communion table is to be placed at p, the pulpit at q, and the reading-desk at

“ The vestry and singers' seats (s) should be divided from the body of the church by a pierced screen, finished upon the same level with the gallery fronts; and above this screen should be a niche and canopy to the pulpit, de signed as much as possible to improve the sound.” (16., p. 571.) 'Whoever wishes to enter into farther detail on the subject of churches, and to see plans and elevations on a large scale of the one shown in fig. 106., may consult the Architectural Magazine, vol. ii. p. 393., vol. iv. p. 237. and p. 566., and vol. v. p. 223.

The Parsonage House and Grounds will, in general, be most conveniently situated adjoining the church and churchyard ; and the church will always form a most appropriate object in the principal view from the parsonage. The churchyard, also, may sometimes be seen as a part of the view; and at other times it may be so united with the grounds of the parsonage as almost to seem a continuation of them. In the greater number of situations, however, we believe the clergyman will prefer having his residence at a short distance from the churchyard; not only from the idea that there may be mephitic ex: halations from it (especially in churchyards where the graves are crowded pell-mell together, and opened without any regular system), but also because familiarity with the interments taking place in it may lessen the sentiment of solemnity excited by them in his children and domestics, and may obtrude that expression more powerfully than is desirable upon the minds of strangers who may be his guests. Another and a decisive reason why the church and churchyard should generally stand alone is, that the expression of solemnity is heightened by this circumstance. Solitariness is unquestionably a powerful ingredient in all feelings which are the opposite to those of gaiety; and, on this account, the church and churchyard should stand completely isolated, and, as we have said before, they should, if possible, be so elevated as to be seen from all the surrounding country. (See the subject of Parsonage Houses treated of in the Suburban Gardener, p. 607. to p.613.; in which the plan of Dunchurch Vicarage, laid out from our designs in 1837, is given as an example of the pleasure-grounds of a parsonage united with the scenery of an adjoining churchyard.)

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Art. V. Bicton Gardens, their Culture and Management, in a Series

of Letters to the Conductor. By James Barnes, Gardener to the Right Honourable Lady Rolle.

(Continued from p. 436.) LETTER XIX. Crane-necked Short-handled Hoes. I now give you an account of the different uses I make of my little crane-necked hoes. (fig. 108.)

Nos. i. and 2., in fig. 109., I use $ for cutting and thinning out all kinds of vegetable

Fig. 108. Crane-necked Iloes. crops to their final distance, such as carrots, early turnips, parsneps, onions, lettuce, &c.; and for stirring the surface amongst any growing crops, where there is not room for a larger hoe.

Nos. 3. and 4., in fig. 109., are for the same purpose,

the first time of thin

154 in ning; and for hoeing such crops as do not require to be made 80 thin, as well as among all kinds of plants that pricked out, such as celery, cauliflowers, broccoli, cabbage, &c.

Nos. 5. and 6., in fig. 110., I use for all

Fig. 109. Elevations of Crane-necked Hoes. kinds of seed beds; for radishes, carrots, &c., in frames and pits; for small seedlings just pricked out in frames, pits, under hand-glasses, or in hooped beds; amongst peas in rows, when they first come up; or any other small crop where there is not room for wider hoes, and the surface requires breaking. I make it a rule never to have any hand-weeding done, except in the gravel walks ; as I am weil convinced there is much mischief done by incautious and thoughtless people weeding amongst crops.

Nos. 7. and 8., in fig. 110., I use for stirring the surface of potted plants, seed-pans, &c. No. 8., with a sort of pointed

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