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The hour for Euclidizing was arrived, and anon the black parallelogram was intersected with numerous triangles of the Isosceles and Scalenie pattern ; but, notwithstanding this promising début, we did not make much quicker progress here than in the previous lesson. How should we, who had not only the diffi. culties inseparable from the subject to cope with, but a much more formidable difficulty-viz., the obstruction which we opposed to each other's advance, by the plan, so unwisely adopted, of making all the class do the same thing, that they might keep pace together. It is a polite piece of folly (nough for a whole party to be kept waiting dinner by a lounging guest, who chooses to ride in the park when he ought to be at his toilet; but we were the victims of a much greater absurdity, who lost what might have proved an hour of profitable work, out of tenderness to some incorrigibly idle or Baotian boy, who could not get over the Pons Asinorum, (cvery proposition was a pons 10 some asinus or other,) and so made those who were over stand still, or come back to help him across. Neither was this, though a very considerable draw back, cur only hindrance-the guides were not always safe. Sometimes he who acted in that capacity would shout “Eureka" too soon; and having undertaken to lead the van, lead it astray till just about, as he supposed, to come down upon the proof itself, and to come down with a Q. E. D. : the master would stop liim short, and bid him—as Coleridge told the ingenious author of Guesses at Trul "to guess again.” But suppose the "guess" fortunate, or that a boy had even succeeded, by his own industry or reflection, in mastering a proposition, did it follow that he would be a clear expositor of what he knew? It was far other. wise. Our young Archimedes-unacquainted with the terms of the science, and being also (as we have hinted) lamentably defective in his knowledge of the power of words-would mix up such a "farrago” of irrelevancies and rep. etitions with the proof, as, in fact, to render it to the majority no proof at all. Euclid should be taught in his own words,-just enough and none to spare: the employment of less must engender obscurity; and of more, a want of neat. ness and perspicacity. The best geometrician amongst us would have cut but a bad figure by the side of a lad of very average ability brought up to know Euclid by book.
Another twitch of the bell announced that the hour for playing at triangles had expired. In five minutes the slate was covered with bars of minims and crotchets, and the music lesson begun. This, in the general tone of its delivery, bore a striking resemblance to the geographical one of two hours before; the only difference being that “ut, re, me," had succeeded to names of certain cities, and “fa, so, la," to the number of their inhabitants. It would be as vain an attempt to describe all the noise we made as to show its rationale or motive. It was loud enough to have cowed a lion, stopped a donkey in midbray-to have excited the envy of the vocal Lablache, or to have sent any prima donna into hysterics. When this third hour had been, bellowed away, and the bell had rung unheard the advent of a fourth-presto in came Mons. D— , to relieve the meek man who had acted as coryphæus to the music class; and after a little tugging. had soon produced from his pocket that without which you never catch a Frenchman-a thème. The theme being announced, we proceeded (not quite tant bien que mal) to scribble it down at his dictation, and to amend its orthography afterwards from a corrected copy on the slate. Once more the indefatigable bell obtruded its tinkle, to proclaim that Herr Roth was coming with a Fable of Gellert, or a chapter from Vater Pestalozzi's serious
novel, Gumal und Lina, to read and expound, and catechise upon. This last lesson before dinner was always accompanied by frequent yawns and other unrepressed symptoms of fatigue; and at its conclusion we all rose with a shout and rushed into the corridors.
On resuming work in the afternoon, there was even less attention and method observed than before. The classes were then broken up, and private lessons were given in accomplishments, or in some of the useful arts. Drawing dogs and cows, with a master to look after the trees and the hedges; whistling and spitting through a flute; playing on the patience of a violin; turning at a lathe; or fencing with a powerful maître d'Armes ;—such were the general occupations. It was then, however, that we English withdrew to our Grèck and Latin; and, under a kind master, Dr. M-, acquired (with the exception of a love for natural history, and a very unambitious turn of mind) all that really could deserve the name of education.
We have now described the sedentary life at the chateau. In the next paper the reader shall be carried to the gymnasium; the drill-ground behind the lake; to our small menageries of kids, Guinea-pigs, and rabbits; be present at our ball and skating-bouts in winter, and at our bathings, fishings, frog-spearings, and rambles over the Jura in summer.
We regret not to have seen the second installment of this English boy's Reminiscences of Student Life at Yverdun. If written, it was not published in the magazine in which the first appeared. The student does not appear to have appreciated or have profited by Pestalozzi's original methods, which are herein so well set forth. He was not caught young enough and had become too hardened in the unyitalized and mere memory processes of the English public schools.
REMINISCENCES OF DR. MAYO. We find in the reminiscences and life of another English visitor, who became both student and assistant at Yverdun, a more hearty appreciation of the great educator's personal character, and the fruitful results of his sojourn in the old feudal castle and in the somewhat noisy family and not very wisely administered institution of Pestalozzi. We close this chapter with an extract from a pamphlet issued by Rev. Charles Mayo, LL.D., din 1826, giving the substance of several lectures delivered by him in the Royal Institution in Albemarle Street (founded by that great practical educator and countryman of ours, Count RumfordBenjamin Thompson, of Walpole, Mass.), on the principles of Pestalozzi's educational system. Dr. Mayo and his daughter introduced into England the Pestalozzi improved methods of infant and child instruction, which were pursued in the Model and Training Schools, of the Home and Colonial Society in London, and which Mr. Sheldon introduced a quarter of a century later into the Model and Training Institution of Oswego, N. Y.
Some years ago an Irish gentleman, traveling through Yverdun, in the Pays de Vaud, was prevailed on to spend a couple of hours in the Institution of Pestalozzi. The first class he inspected was carried on in a language not familiar to him, yet was he much struck with the intelligence and vivacity portrayed in the features of the pupils. But when, the following hour, he witnessed the
power of the method in its application to arithmetic, he discovered in the scholars a clear conception of number and its relations, a precision and rapidity in mental calculation, and an animation and interest in their employment, which convinced him that a secret had been discovered by Pestalozzi, and he was resolved, if possible, to penetrate it. The proposed visit of two hours termin. ated at the expiration of three prontlis ; nor was his admiration of the method confined to a bare speculative reception of the principles; he transplanted into his own country the practical truths he had learned in Switzerland, and though Providence has interrupted the course of his more extended labors, he still, in the bosom of his own family, applies the lessons of Pestalozzi, and teaches his children to revere his name. It was not a theoretical examination of the method that effected this conviction and animated to these exertions ; it was a personal view of the practical influence of the system, in scenes lit up by the genius and warmed with the benevolence of Pestalozzi himself. Could I transport you in thought to the scenes where Pestalozzi lived, and taught, and suffered with his scholars, the heart would feel even before the understanding discerned the beauty, the truth of his principles. A skeleton view of his system might lead you to a cold approbation of his views, but it must be the living, the breathing portraiture of the man that must awaken your love, and dispose you to imitate what you have learned to admire. I have seen him surrounded by his pupils, have marked the overflowings of his tenderness; I have read in a thousand traits of good-nature the confirmation of his history. I have witnessed the affecting simplicity, the abandon with which he speaks of all he has done and essayed to do for humanity. Could I convey to others the sentiments I feel for him, Pestalozzi would be loved and honored as he deserves. Three years of intimate comection with him, every day marked with some proof of his affection, may well have knit my heart to his; and among the most cherished recollections of the past is, that Pestalozzi honored me with his friendship, and thanked me for cheering his decline.
HENRY (LORD) BROUGHAM. Among the English visitors to Pestalozzi, whose testimony to the originality and value of his methods as well as to the disinterested character of the man, before the Education Committee of 1818, carried immense weight wherever the proceedings of the English parliament were known, was Henry Brougham. He commenced in 1816 that public agitation of the claims of the people to better schools which culminated in the legislation of 1870.
It was Pestalozzi and men of his type who inspired the Great Commoner of England, as Henry Brougham was called before a title had confounded him with a group of much inferior men, with his exalted estimate of the schoolmaster in his peaceful vocation.
“ His calling is high and holy; his fame is the property of nations; his renown will fill the earth in after ages in proportion as it sounds not far off in his own time. Each one of these great teachers of the world, possessing his soul in peace, performs his appointed course,-awaits in patience the fulfillment of the promises,-resting from his labors, bequeaths his memory to the generation whom his works have blessed, and sleeps under the humble but not inglorious epitaph, commemorating one in whom mankind lost a friend, and no man got rid of an enemy."
FRIEDERICH FRÖBEL UPON PESTALOZZI. LETTER TO THE PRINCESS-REGENT OF SCHWARZBURG-RUDOLSTADT,
April 27, 1809.
MAN AS THE SUBJECT OF EDUCATION. Pestalozzi's principles of education and instruction and his proceedings, growing out of them, and the means for their application are founded entirely upon the phenomena of his existence as a created being.
Man as be is represented to us is a union of three chief attributes ; body, soul, mind; to cultivate these harmoniously and as a whole is his object. Pestalozzi goes from this existence of man into the phenomena, that is, from that which he is by the sum of his powers and according to his destiny (its suitable culture). Hence he takes man into consideration according to this sum of his powers as a bodily, intellectual and emotional being, and works upon him in this sum of his powers and for their harmonious development and culture, from which first arises that whole which is called man.
Pestalozzi, therefore, works not merely upon the bodily powers and their development, not only upon the culture of the mind and its devel. opment, nor only upon the soul and its development (although he is accused of doing so), nor merely upon two of these at once, as body and mind, or body and soul, or soul and mind. No! Pestalozzi develops man, works upon man in the totality of his powers.
Man in his manifestations must run through three principal epochs, according to his powers ; that of the body, that of the soul, that of the mind; he runs through them not separated, or singly, so that he first runs through that of the body, then that of the soul, and at last that of the mind; no, these epochs are convertible in the man developed in perfectly undisturbed natural relations; their circular course returns ever again, and the more so the more perfect the man becomes-until the limits of his powers as well as of their development fall away and are removed, and the continuous whole-man-stands before us.
It would be highly unjust, therefore, to say of Pestalozzi that be de. veloped men, the powers of men, each power separately at three different epochs, first the body, then the soul, and then the mind, since he really takes them all into view at once in harmonious and brotherly union, and although he seems, perhaps, for the time to be treating merely the physical powers, he is observing and taking into consideration equally the influence of this treatment upon mind and soul.
He has man as a whole in his eye, as an unseparated and inseparable whole, and in all that he does and wishes to do for him and his cultivation, he does it for him as a whole. At no time does he act only for the development of one power, leaving the others without nourishment; for example, he never is acting for the mind alone and leaving unconsidered, unsatisfied and uncared for and in inaction the body and the soul; all the powers are cared for at all times.
But often one or other of the three great divisions of man's nature stands forth and apparently dominates the others.
Pestalozzi takes into view man according to and in his manifestation, according to the laws of nature and those which are grounded in the mind of man, when he works specially upon the predominant power; it is not done in an isolated and divided way, but in order to work through his treatment upon the other equal but slumbering and resting powers. So, for example, in one and the same epoch upon the senses, through these upon the body, and through these again upon the feelings, and so in a perpetual round.
Pestalozzi takes man according to his manifestation. But man does not manifest himself alone, for and through himself; he manifests himself under conditions determined by nature and by his mother, and both these united—that is, by love.
So the man becomes child, that is, the sum and substance of the love of the father and mother.
Pestalozzi then wishes to develop and cultivate the man in his mani. festation as child, through the conditions under which he appears, that is, the love of the father and mother. We think of the father and mother as united by love in order to exalt the child, i. e., the sum of their love, into an independent being by means of education.
Can there be a truer, more careful nurse and developer of this love made visible, this independent essence, this child, than the father and the mother, than the two united by mutual love, to which the child owes his existence-indeed, whose sum and substance the child is ?
Pestalozzi thus wishes only what nature and the being of man wishes; he wishes that man in his manifestation as child shall be de. veloped by his father and mother, and in their mutual love be cultivated throughout and educated according to his capacities as a corporeal, feeling and intellectual being.
MAN IN HIS MANIFESTATION AS A CHILD. The existence of mind and soul in the child is expressed merely by simple life.
Mind and soul appear limited by and in the mass, the body-for still all parts in the body are one; the mind and the senses by which the world without works through the body upon the mind and soul are not yet distinguishable.
The body of the child is still a mass; it appears so tender and frail, so much too material and awkward for the mind and the soul of the child, yet slumbering and weak, to work through it.
By degrees the senses, feeling, sight, etc., develop and separate.