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THE GENTLEMAN'S MAGAZINE,
For JUNE, 1820.
OF REGAL CROWNS.
THE approaching Royal Coronavery interesting which relates to it. The Crown itself affords a subject of no small entertainment, as will be found by the following notes: which for brevity are much restrained.
It is derived from the Latin Corona, and that from Cornu, a hornbecause the antient Crowns were pointed in the manner of horns, which both the Jewish and Pagan nations esteemed as symbols of power and dominion, and to these protection is frequently added in the Holy Scriptures. See particularly the Prophe
In Pagan Theology, Crowns were given only to the Gods, and on the authority of Pliny, we find that Bacchus was the first who was crowned: others have accorded this honour to Saturn; and Diodorus ascribed it to Jupiter after his victory over the Titans.
Most writers agree that it was rather a religious than a civil oruament, and granted to Kiugs because they were high priests also; but the case above-mentioned of Jupiter after his victory, was decidedly a part of his civil regalia.
We may look back with some admiration at the studied simplicity of the Crowns in antient times; when we find that a mere Bandelet encircling the head, and tied behind, and subsequently a wreath of Laurel, was deemed sufficient to adorn the greatest Victor; and to place him with the highest dignity before the loudest acclamations of his admiring followers! The Vine, the Bays, the Olive, the Oak, &c. afforded their willing branches to signalize the utmost bravery in the field, as well as the most splendid victory in the Olympic Games, and the imperishable honours
so universally celebrated in the Republic of Letters.
It may be readily supposed that the Victor's Crown in the day of battle was hastily snatched from the nearest wood, and placed upon his brow amid the shout of eulogy, which could not be restrained, or suspended for a more costly and deliberate ornament.
Chaplets were also adopted for every favourite, and also for every victim at the altar of propitiatory sacrifice.
The High Priest of the Jewish Dispensation wore a crown about his Mitre, or the lower part of his bonnet, tied behind his head. Crowns seems to have been very generally worn, Ezek. xxiv. 17. 23.-Deut. vi. 8.-Isa. Ixi. 10.-Cant. iii. 11. It was customary to wear crowns of flowers on festival and other joyful occasions.
The Crown, Mitre, and Diadem, Royal Fillet, and Tiara, are frequently confounded. David took the Crown from the God Moloch, or Melcom, which was of gold, and enriched it with jewels, and it was then placed on his own head, 1 Chron. xx. 2. and 2 Sam. xii. 30; or rather it was suspended over his head, for it weighed a talent; unless he took out the jewels for his own Crown.
The Amelekite, who valued himself on killing Saul, brought that Prince's Diadem, or Royal Fillet, to David, 2 Sam. i. 10. The Diadem was placed on the head of young King Josiah, when he was presented to the people, 2 Chron. xxiii. 11.— Crowns of pure gold seem to have been the highest dignity, Baruch. 6. Esth. ii. 17. Ezek. xvi. 12. 1 Mac.
Kings used several Diadems when they possessed several Kingdoms. Solomon having conquered Syria, made
his entry into Antioch, and put two Diadems of Egypt and of Asia on his head.
How highly a crown of gold was esteemed an emblem of the greatest dignity, may be seen by the only true and faithful ONE as having many, Rev. xix. 12.
Although it seems Crowns were very general, yet there was always a difference in form or matter between the Crowns of Kings and those of private persons. The Diadem of Kings was generally a white fillet, bound about their foreheads; the extremities being tied behind the head, fell down on the neck behind. Sometimes they were of gold tissue, adorned with jewels.
Crown, figuratively signifies honour, joy, reward. Except that of our blessed Redeemer, which was of of Thorns; but whether of White Thorn or Buckthorn, is not yet decided among Critics. Calmet. See the Coronation in Abyssinia, Bruce, ii. 278. and that of Israel, Ps. xxiv. much alike.
In after times Crowns were more generally granted by the voice of the people in acclamation; and then became of such inestimable value that they were regarded as the highest reward of merit; and as they excited a general emulation to deserve them, they were at length bestowed by the Romans with no small profusion, for military atchievements: here
find the oval crown of myrtle, which was granted to generals who had conquered slaves or enemies not worthy of Roman valour, and who were entitled to the honours of the lesser triumph called ovation.
The Naval or Rostral Crown was granted to the Captain who first grappled, or the Soldier who first jumped on board, an enemy's ship; and its ornaments were those of prows.
The Vallaris, or Castrensis, was a circle of gold raised with pikes or pallisades; given to him who first leaped into an enemy's camp, or forced the pallisades.
The fourth was a Mural Crown, made of gold, indented, given to the first who mounted the wall, and placed the Roman Standard there.
The fifth was a Civic Crown of green oak; to him who saved the life of a citizen in battle or assault:
Cicero in Catiline's Conspiracy, and afterwards Augustus Cæsar, wore this Crown.
The Triumphal Crown was like that of the antients of Laurel or Bay, which were in more polished times made of gold.
There were several others which seem to have originated at the moment of the act worthy of reward, but we do not find them enriched until the time of the Emperors, who had four Crowns, of laurel, of rays, of precious stones, and a cap or bonnet; the first of which was worn by Julius Cæsar, granted to him by the Senate, and continued to his successors; Justinian was the first who preferred that of the bonnet.
Hence they have been handed to the subsequent and present periods of the European Dominions. We do not find any Crowns among the African, or American, or Indian Chiefs.
In Europe the bonnet and the ornaments seem to be generally blended; the English Crown is adorned with four Crosses, in the manner of those of Malta; it is covered with four Diadems, which meet at a little globe supporting a cross: and the bonnet of rich crimson velvet stands within. The circuit band at the basis is adorned with many very precious stones, and that particularly in the front of the forehead, being a large ruby of great value, unpolished!
The Electoral Crown is a scarlet cap, turned up with ermine, and closed with a semicircle of gold, covered with pearls: rising to the sum mit, where there is a globe supporting
The Grand Turk bears over his arms a turband enriched with pearls and diamonds under two coronets, one of pyramidal points, and the uppermost is surrounded with erescents.
The Princes of the English Blood Royal, and the Nobility, are all honoured with coronets. That of the Prince of Wales, is of one arch, adorned with pearls, in the centre of which is a ball and cross, encircled with ermine: and in addition to this he wears a plume of three ostrich feathers, with the motto Ich dien, 1 serve — this device originated with Edward the Black Prince after the battle of Cressy, where having killed John King of Bohemia, he took such a plume
from his head, and placed it on his
The other Princes wear coronets, consisting of crosses and leaves, as Dukes.
A Duke's Coronet consists of gold, bordered with ermine, and enriched with pearls and stones, encircled with eight large leaves of parsley or strawberry.
A Marquis wears four strawberry leaves and four pearls on pyramidal points, of equal height.
An Earl has eight pyramidal points with a large pearl on each of them, placed alternately with as many strawberry leaves lower than the pearls.
The Viscount has only pearls without any limited number placed on the circle.
A Baron has only six pearls, set at equal distance on the golden border of ermine, not raised, which distinguishes him from the Earl, and are limited, to shew him to be inferior to the Viscount. The eldest sons of Peers above the degree of a Baron, use the Coronet of their father's second title; and none of the younger sons use any coronet. Rees's Cyclop. Some alterations having been made in the King's Crown, will render it not only more splendid, but suitable to his present title, omitting the fleurs de lvs. The benevolence of our Monarch is such, that he will not require on the morning of this celebrity any voice to remind him, as Philip of Macedon required-remember thou art A. H.
THE ANTIENT CROWN OF ENGLAND.
HE England had a Crown like that of other Nations, which at that time was only a plain fillet of gold, but King Egbert first fixed on the circle, or fillet, with points or rays resem bling the Crown worn by the Emperors of the East; and King Edward, surnamed Ironside, topped the points with pearl.
William the Conqueror is said to have had his circle flowery ; but Sandford says, the coronet had on the circle points and leaves, the points being much higher than the leaves, and each of them topped with a cross pattée, as appears on the seal of that Monarch.
The Crown worn by William Ru
fus was only enriched with points, pearled at their tops, and not accompanied with flowers.
The Crown of Henry I. was adorned with fleurs-de-lis only, a little raised, as is seen on his great seal and coin.
Maud, Queen of England, had her Crown enriched with leaves and points, the leaves and flowers being higher than the points; and their successors to King Edward III. had their Crowns variously enriched with points and fleurs-de-lis placed alternately, sometimes the one higher than the other.
King Edward III. enriched his Crown with fleur-de-lis and crosses pattée.
Edward IV. had a close or arched Crown, heightened with fleurs-de-lis and crosses patiée, and arched with
Edward V. and Richard III. bore the same as King Edward IV.
Henry VII. and VIII. had their Crowns composed of fleurs-de-lis and crosses pattée, with two arches, embellished with pearls, &c. and this form has been since continued.
The Crown of England, with which the Kings of England are crowned, is called, "St. Edward's Crown," made in imitation of the antient Crown said to be worn by that Monarch, kept in the Abbey Church of Westminster till the beginning of the Civil Wars in England, when, with the rest of the regalia, it was stolen and sold in 1642.
This very rich Imperial Crown of Gold was made against the Coronation of Charles 11. and is embellished
as diamonds, rubies, emeralds, and sapphires, and has a mound of gold on the top, enriched with a fillet of gold, embellished also with precious stones.
Upon the mound is a cross of gold, embellished with precious stones, and three very large oval pearls, one fixed on the top, and two others pendant at the ends of the cross. It is composed, as all the Imperial Crowns of England are, of four crosses pattée, and as many fleurs-de-lis of gold, placed on a rim or circlet of gold, all embellished with precious stones.
From these crosses arise our circular bars or arches, which meet at the top in form of a cross; having at their intersection a pedestal, on
which is fixed the mound, already mentioned.
The Cap within the Crown is of purple velvet, lined with white taffeta, and turned up with ermine. This continues invariably the same for the purpose of Coronation; but the jewels and precious stones are taken out of the Crown of State, fixed in collets, and pinned into this Crown; and when the Coronation is over, they are taken out, and in their room are substituted mock stones to represent the real ones.
The Crown of State, so called because it is worn by the King whenever he goes in State to the Parliament, was made instead of another, which was sold and destroyed in 1642, against the Coronation of King Charles II. and worn only by that King in his return from Westminster Abbey to Westminster Hall. Since that time there is a very rich Crown, embellished with diamonds, made for every succeeding King, or Sovereign Queen, to wear for that day only at the Coronation dinner in Westminster, Hall. This is very rich, being embellished with several large diamonds, and a great quantity of pearl; but it is most distinguished by a very large ruby, set in the middle of one of the four crosses, and estimated at the value of 10,000l. and also by the mound's being one entire stone of a sea-water green colour, known by the name of an agmarine." The Cap is of purple velvet, lined and turned up like the former.
The Queen Circlet of Gold, worn by her Majesty in proceeding to her Coronation, is richly adorned with large diamonds, with a string of pearl round its upper edge.
The Cap is purple velvet, lined with white taffeta, and turned up with ermine richly powdered.
The Queen's Crown, with which every Queen Consort is crowned, was made for Catharine, Queen of King Charles II. and originally called "St. Egitha's Crown," in commemoration of Egitha, Queen Consort of King Edward the Confessor. It is a rich imperial crown of gold, set with very valuable diamonds, intermixed with other precious stones and pearls. It is composed of crosses and fleurs-delis, with bars or arches, and a mound and cross on the top of the arches,
like the Crown of St. Edward, only smaller and lighter.
The Cap is of purple velvet, lined with rich white taffeta, and turned up with ermine or minever pure, richly powdered.
The Crown of St. Edward is solely appropriated to the Coronation of a Sovereign Queen; being never used for Crowning a Queen Consort. Yours, &c. W. R.
Mr. URBAN, M. Temple, June 19.
THE following Question from Abp. Secker to Dr. Ducarel, with the Doctor's Answer, may not be unacceptable at the present period. I transcribe them from the Third Volume of Mr. Nichols's "Illustrations of Literary History," p. 495.
"The Archbishop of Canterbury desires to know, what persons of the Royal Family, besides the King or Queen reigning, have been mentioned in the Book of Common Prayer, from the death of Henry VIII. to that of Queen Anne, so far as Dr. Ducarel can conveniently inform himself from the several Editions of it, between this and Sunday next. Possibly some papers relative to this matter may be found:
Common Prayer Book, 1549 and 1552, "Edward VI. — In the Litany of his no mention of any body but Edwarde the Sixte thy Servaunt, our King and Governour.' That it maie please thee to kepe Edward the Sixte thy Servaunt, our Kyng and Governor.'
"James I. 1613.. -'Queen Anne, Prince Henry, and all the King and Queen's royall progeny.'
"1613.- Queen Anne, Prince Charles, Fredericke the Prince Electour Palatine, and the Lady Elizabeth his wife.'
Queen Mary, Fredericke the Prince Elec"Charles I. 1627. Our gracious
tor Palatine, the Lady Elizabeth his wife,
with their Princely Issue.' 1637, Edin. burgh: - Our gracious Queen Mary, Prince Charles, and the rest of the Royall Issue.'
"Charles I. 1638.. • Our gracious Queen Mary, Prince Charles, and the rest of the Royal Progeny.'
"Charles II. Bill and Barker. Sans
date. Our gracious Queen Catherine, Mary the Queen Mother, James Duke of York, and all the Royal Family.'
"James II. 1687. Our gracious Queen Mary, Catherine the Queen Dowager, their Royal Highnesses Mary Princess of Orange, and the Princess Anne of Denmark, and all the Royal Family.'
"James II. 1687.-Catherine the
Queen Dowager, her Royal Highness the
"Queen Anne. 1706.- Catherine the Queen Dowager, the Princess Sophia, and all the Royal Family.'"
The subsequent variations may readily be traced by the curious. Yours, &c. CARADOC.
Mr. URBAN, Leamington, June 26.
THE AUTHOR OF THE ROYAL CORONATION
THE New Imperial Throne, in the of the most gorgeous and superb pieces of decoration perhaps ever seen in this country.
The canopy under which the actual Throne, or Chair of State, is to be placed, is of a design purely classical; a small dome or cupola, supported in front by two superb Corinthian pillars, fluted and wreathed, Corinthian pilastres; of these magand in the rear of these by two fluted nificent supporters, the whole exterior shafts, as well as capitals, are richly burnished gold. The rich carved wreathing of flowers and laurel leaves which encircle the columns are of the same brilliant material; surmounting these, a richly carved and decorated architrave, frieze, and cornice, add to the imposing splendour of the effect; and of these also ed gold. No mixture of colouring the whole exterior is highly burnishintervenes above the cornice; the top of the dome, of rich crimson velvet, shows itself, supporting on the highest point the Imperial Crown of the Realm, from the decorations of which the Gallic fleur-de-lis seem to be expunged. This supreme emblem of with the richest gilding. The back Royalty is in like manner covered of the richest dark crimson velvet; of the canopy is formed by a pannel United Kingdom are richly and apand on this the Regal Arms of the propriately emblazoned. The centre of the cornices of the entablature, above the Corinthian capitals which support the canopy, is a semicircular projection, and heightens the effect.
A new Throne and Chair of State have also been provided for the Prince's, or Robing Chamber, which immediately adjoins the House; these are on a smaller scale, and of a less brilliant decoration, than the grand Canopy.
The body of the House of Peers has received various ornamental decorations; the benches have received quilted backs of fine scarlet cloth, the whole edged with a neat beading of copper richly gilt, which last decoration is also received by the Bar which divides what is technically called the House from the space below. All the doors are newly ornamented with or-molu architraves, festooned,