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form, that the extent and variety of exercise which they are intended to give to the mind may be observed. The courses form two series of exercises, commenced in the infant-school, and completed in the juvenile-school.
First Series-To Exercise the Eye alone. Measuring relatively.--Let the children determine the relative length of lines drawn in the same direction on the slate, i. e., which is longest, which is shortest, &c. Whenever there is a difference of opinion, prove who is correct, by measuring.
Determine the relative length of lines drawn in different directions on the slate.
Determine the relative distances between dots made on the slate.
Determine the relative difference of the distances between different parallel lines.
Determine the relative size of angles.
Determine the relative degree of inclination of lines from the perpendicularfirst, by comparing them with a perpendicular line, drawn on another part of the slate and afterwards without this assistance.
The same exercise with horizontal lines.
Children called out to divide straight lines, drawn in different directions, into 2, 3, 4, &c., equal or given parts, the others to state their opinions as to the correctness with which the operation has been done.
The above exercise repeated with curved lines in different directions.
Note-Several of the above exercises may be applied to the lengths, &c, of the objects and pictures in the room.
Measuring by current Standards. The teacher to give the children the idea of an inch, nail, quarter of a yard, foot, ha!f a yard, and yard, which, at first, should be drawn in a conspicuous place, for the whole class to see.
To decide the length of lines. First practice the children upon the inch, then upon the nail, and so on up to the yard; continually referring to the standard
Note.—These exercises should be continued until the eye can decide with tolerable accuracy.
Determining the length of lines combined in various rectilinear geometrical figures.
Determining the circumference or girth of various objects.
Determining distances of greater extent, such as the floor and walls of the room, the play-ground, &c., &c.
Measuring by any given Standard.—Measuring sizes, heights, lengths, &c, by any given standard.
How often a given standard will occupy any given space, with respect to superficies.
Second Series—To Exercise both the Eyo and Hand. Before commencing these exercises, it would be advisable to give the children instruction (in a class around the large slate) with regard to the manner of holding the pencil, the position of the hand in drawing lines in various directions. This will be found to diminish the labor of attending to each individual separately. Instruction as to the position of the body may be left till the children are placed at the desks.
NOTE.—The standard measures, used previously, should be painted on the walls, or placed conspicuously before the class in some manner, both horizontally and perpendicularly, in order to accustom the children to them.
The children to practice drawing straight lines in different directions, gradually increasing them in length. First perpendicular, second horizontal, third right ob lique, fourth left oblique.
To draw lines of given lengths and directions.
To try what they can make of 2, 3, 4, &c., curved lines. Therr proceeding to opies; first copying those formed of straight lines, then those of curved lines.
To draw from copies.
Note.- In the course of forming figures out of straight and curved lines, the children should be taught to make the letters of the alphabet.
XII. GEOGRAPHY.-1st step.--The course consists of the following series of lessons: 1. The cardinal points. 2. The semi-cardinal points. 3. The necessity of having fixed points. 4. The relative position of objects. 5. The boundaries of the school-room. 6. The boundaries of the play-ground. 7. The relative distances of the parts and objects of the school-room. 8. The relative distances of the parts and furniture of the school-room marked on a map, drawn on the large slate or black board with chalk, before the children. 9. The scale of a map. 10. The relative positions and distances of different places on a map of the neighborhood 11. The imp of England. 12. The map of ihe Holy Land
SPECIMEN OF EXAMINATION PAPERS
SCHOOL MANAGEMENT AND THE ART OF TEACHING.
At the risk of repeating some of the leading principles set forth in the foregoing " Course of Instruction," we give below a Syllabus of Lessons on Education given in the same institution to students in training for teachers in the schools of the Home and Colonial Infant and Juvenile School Society. ExtraCTS FROM SYLLABUS OF LESSONS ON EDUCATION, GIVEN TO STUDENTS
IN TRAINING AT THE HOME AND COLONIAL School SOCIETY.
1.—The Principles of EDUCATION AS SET FORTH BY PESTALOZZI. 1. On the Aim proposed by Pestalozzi in Education. This the first point to be considered-Mistakes with respect 1o— The true aim of education as it respects knowledge -intellectual and moral character-Social relations-Moral and religious duties Principles on which based - The proper work of the Teacher reduced Results.
2. The Influence of a good Education. The little that has been done by education as nitherto pursued-Causes of this-Influence of a good education on thought, feeling, sentiment, opinion, &c.-Different senses in which the child may be said to be father of the man-Influence of education established from examples-Necessity of faith in this principle on the part of the Teacher-Incidental and systematic education, difference between—The Teacher to form a good intellectual and moral atmosphere round the child-Means of effecting this.
3. Education, Organic.-Organs and organized bodies considered to illustrate this, Difference between growth from within carried on by organic action or development, and increase from without effected by accretion-Application-Difference between ordinary elementary education and eleinentary education on the system of Pestalozzi ---Deductions as to liberty, activity, and power-The application, especially as to Liberty, in the school-room and play.ground.
4. On Education being an entire Work.-Pestalozzi's motto, “ Education has to work on the head, the hand, and the heart"-Dugald Stewart on the same point-Pestalozzi introduced the principle into popular education—The perfection to be aimed at in education, moral,- Mistakes that have been made as to Pestalozzi's practice-Pestalozzi's estimate of the relative importance of the different elements of a child's nature, and method of dealing with each.
5. Education should aim at the Gradual and Progressive Development of the Faculties.Examples of graduated and progressive instruction as-Proceeding from realities to signs, first natural, then artificial - From particular facts to general truths-From what is simple to what is complex-From the exercise of observation to the exercise of conception-From the conception of material things to abstract ideas, &c.—The first step -o find something analogous in the experience of the child to the subject presented, thus proceeding from the known to the unknown—The child to be firin on one step before proceeding to the next-The extent to which graduation should be carried-Ex. treines to be uvoided— The graduations not to be too minute to prevent healthy exercise.
6. Education should be Harmonious.—The cultivation of all the faculties, not singly and apart, but simultaneously.
7. The Character or Spirit of Education.—"Not to teach religion alone but all things religiously"-Illustration drawn from the circulation of the clood in the body-Ex. emplification of this spirit in the instruction, general management, and discipline of the school-Results to be expected.
8. Early Education chiefly by Intuition.—What is meant by intuition-Examples, Value of what is learned from experience - Early education to lead to and prepare the mind for books-When commenced with books the mind often loaded with words conveying no definite meaning to children-The powers of the mind in consequence often cramped-Intuitive teaching one of the leading features of Pestalozzi's system-Connection between intuitive and logical knowledge—The assistance the former gires to
the latter-Difference between the instruction of infants and juveniles, the one mainly intuitive, the other principally !ogical.
9. Difference between Educatron und Instruction. -An idea put forth strongly by Pesta. lozzi- Origin and application of the words—Points of difference-Instruction communicated (though the subject may be clearly explained) does not produce the saine good effect, as instruction employed as a means of mental discipline- The proper bearing of this distinction on the lessons of the Teacher.
10. Education of a Mixed Character. What this means-Principle on which based Examples-Education should be practical as well as preceptive-Illustrated by the Teacher as well as enforced upon the child-Applied individually as well as collectively-Direct instruction to be followed by study—Public education united with private and domestic-Children to be carried rapidly over some subjects to develop power and energy,-slowly over others to give habits of minute investigation-Subjects of instruction enumerated.
11. Systems of Education.- Application of the word system-Views generally taken oi systems of education-Characieristics of the chief popular systems, especially those of Stow and Pestalozzi-The one teaching chiefly through words “picturing out," as i! is called, the other by things and words in their appropriate place-The specious hoast of selecting what is good from every system- The motto, " That is the best system which brings the powers of the mind under the best discipline," a test- The system of Pestalozzi founded on principles and adapted to the human mind, conse. quently a philosophical system, might be called the natural system-Different value of principles and plans--Illustration of this shown in the different kinds of value apper. taining to wheat and bread-Advantage of principles in every thing-Many Teachers appreciate plans only-Principles the only irue and sale guide.
12. Summary of the leading Principles of Pestalozzı. 1. Education ought to be essentially religious and moral.
2. Education ought to be essentially organic and complete, and not mechanical, su. perficial, and partial, it should penetrate and regulate the entire being.
3. Education ought to be free and natural instead of being cramped, confined, sur. vile-The child should have sufficient liberty to manisest decidedly his individual character.
4. Education ought to be harmonious in all its parts—It should be so carried on that all the natural faculties, and all the acquired knowledge agree and harmonize.
5. Education should be based on intuition, on a clear and distinct perception of the subject to be learned.
6. Education should be gradual and progressive, united in all parts, like a chain, forming a continued series without gaps.
7. Education should be of a mixed character, uniting the private and the public; 10 should cultivate at the same time the social and domestic spirit.
8. Education should be synthetical-every thing taught should be first reduced into its elements by the Teacher.
9. Education should be practical, drawing its means of development from the actual circumstances of lise.
II.—THE ART OF TEACHING,
1.-INTRODUCTORY COURSE. 1. Instructions as to the Mode of giving Familiar or Conversational Lessons, and on the subjects chosen for such lessons in the Practicing Schools of the Institution.
2. The Examination and Analysis of Lessons selected from “ Model Lessons," a work publislied by the Society.
3. Drawing out Sketches of Lessons on various Subjects, taking those before analyzed as examples.
4. Different Methods of giving Lessons Compared, with a view to point out which are bad and which good, also ihe methods suitable to different subjects.
5. On the Ari of Questioning - The importance of understanding this art-One of the plans of teaching much used by Pestalozzi-Different objects in view in questioningQuestions which only exercise memory- Advantages of questioning-Rules to be ob served and mistakes avoided-Examples of different kinds of questions-Of a train of questions-Practice in the art of questioning.
2.-ON GALLERY INSTRUCTION. 1. Introduction. The nature and importance of gallery instruction-Children brougnt under the direct influence of the Teacher-Facility thus afforded for securing order, attention, progress, moral training- Value in economizing labor- The principle of success to be found in the power of the sympathy of numbers-Extent to which Teachers should avail themselves of this sympathy-lis abuses-Duties connected with gallery instruction.
2. Preparation of Lessons.-Directions for making a good sketch-Advantages of a
full sketch-Importance of determining beforehand the chief points of the lesson, and the method of working them out.
3. The Sulrject matter.-Importance of attention to quantity and quality-Rules by which to be guided, and the principles upon which based-Advantage of clear and natural arrangeinent-The ideas to be thoroughly worked into the minds of the childrensufficient but not too much new matter to be presented properly, it being almost “as important how children learn as what they learn."
4. The Sunmary.- Definition of a summary-The qualities of a good summary-Its uses--Various ways of making a sunimary-Advantage of its being well committed to memory or written out by the children.
5. Application of Moral and Religious Lessons.—The nature of this application explained - The importance of applying moral and religious instruction-of requiring the children to make the application themselves-What is meant by impression-Causes of failure in making religious instruction impressive.
6. Order, Interest, and Attention.--The importance of order--Causes of disorderVarious means of obtaining and regaining order-Difference between order and stiffness or restraint-Importance of exciting interest - Means of doing it-Difference be tween healthful activity of mind and excitement- Attention how to be obtained and kept up.
7. The Exercise to be given to the Minds of Children.-Importance of producing activity of the mind-Amount of mental exercise to be given-Means of giving it-Teachers tell too much-Ways of doing so, and causes.
8. The Manner of the Teacher.-Inportance of manner, especially with young children-Different kinds of manner-How each affects children-The power of a decided manner-Its abuse–The effects of the voice in exciting different feelings-Tones of voice suited to different subjects.
9. Attention to the whole Gallery.-Temptations to attend to a few children onlyEffects—Means of keeping up general attention-Difficulties where a gallery is unhappily composed of children of different degrees of attainment-How in part to be obviated.
10. The Use to be made of Incidental Circumstances, especially in Moral Training.Enumeration of those which most commonly occur in a gallery, and also in the playground—The influence that the notice of incidental circumstances has on the children, as weil in an intellectual as in a moral point of view-Cautions against the abuse of this practice.
11. On the Language given to Children.-Relation of language to ideas-Right time of supplying language-Necessity for clearness and simplicity-Fine words and technical terms to be avoided.
3.-ON CLASS INSTRUCTION. Use of class lessons-Mechanical arrangements-Apparatus-Amount of class instruction to be given-Subjects. 4.-ON THE SUBJECTS OF INSTRUCTION, ETC., PROPER FOR AN INFANT SCHOOL
1. On the Principles that should Regulate.—The choice of subjects should be suitable to the children's age-Elementary character of the subjects-Necessity of having a general design in each course of lessons, as well as a particular design in each lessonThe importance of the instruction being of a graduated character--Of its coipmencing
point-Subjects should be varied-The reason and principles upon which this is founded.
2. The subject stated.-Color-Object in view in lessons on color, and their suitableness to this object and to infant minds—The graduated course of these lessons, with reference to the work published by the Society, entitled, “ Graduated course of Instruction for Infant Schools and Nurseries"-Methods to be adopted in giving lessons-Principles to be deduced.
The other subjects treated in a similar manner-Form-Size-Weight-PlaceNumber— Physical actions and employments--Sounds, including practice in singing Common objects-Pictures of common objects-Drawing before children-Human body-Animals-Plantis-Language - Reading, Spelling, Writing-Pieces of poetryMoral instruction-Religious instruction.
5.-ON THE SUBJECTS OF INSTRUCTION, ETC., PROPER FOR A JUVENILE SCHOOL.
1. Points in which a Juvenile School differs from an Infant School - As to its organization-Division of time-Classification of children-Hoine-wor! Teachers--Subjects of instruction calling the reasoning powers more into exercise Method of giring such subjects a more continuous and systematic character--Mode of treating the children-Morally, throwing them more upon their own responsibiutyIntellectually, making them more independent of their teachers, and more accustomed to gain information and knowledge from books, teaching them early “to learn how to learn," i. e., to be self-educators.