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Library. What was novel and interesting accumulation of a city debt of more than a about it was the condition under which it billion dollars. was made. The donor withheld his name and The Board of Estimate, the body which address so that an acknowledgment could not controls the city's purse-strings, has contembe directly sent him. He requested that the plated this step for some time, but the diffiacknowledgment be made through the columns culty which the city has experienced in meetof The Outlook. This was done in the issue ing its maturing obligations abroad since the for the 11th of last July. The condition outbreak of the war has decided the memunder which the gift was made was that a bustbers of the Board, including the Mayor, to of Mayor Gaynor be placed in the library make a virtue of necessity and to put into building, and that an engrossed copy of cer- effect the plan for retrenchment at once. tain extracts from Mayor Gaynor's writings The "pay-as-you-go plan," as outlined for be framed and hung in the building opposite The Outlook by Mayor Mitchel, is, in his own the bust.

words, as follows: As we stated at the time, there was no “All public improvements that have already possibility of any decision on the part of the been authorized will be taken care of by the Board of Directors of the Library until this issue of a fifteen-year serial bond, which will month, because there would be no prior be retired by fifteen annual installments, carmeeting. In printing this acknowledgment ried into the city's tax budget. in accordance with the donor's request, The “ For all future public improvements, exOutlook pointed out the serious difficulties in cept those which produce revenue, we are the way of accepting such a gift. As we going in the first year of the new system to said at the time, the Public Library could not carry one-quarter of the expense in the tax very well be converted into a repository for budget and three-quarters through the issue statues to the memory of any citizen whom of fifteen-year bonds. any donor wished to honor, and it would “ The second year one-half the cost will be be very difficult for a library board to con- borne by the taxpayers, and one-half will be stitute itself an academy for the awarding of carried through by these bonds. memorial distinctions.

“ The third year the tax budget will take We have now received from the Trustees three-quarters of the burden, and bonds the of the New York Public Library, Astor, other quarter. From that time forth the Lenox, and Tilden Foundations, a certified whole cost of non-self-supporting public imcopy of a resolution adopted by that Board provements will be carried in the city budget at its meeting held on October 14. This and paid for year by year. After fifteen resolution is as follows :

years those serial bonds will be extinguished Resolved, That the anonymous gift of and we will gradually reduce the tremendous five one thousand dollar par value Common- debt that has been handed down to us largely wealth Edison Company bonds, made on the by those forebears who were so easy-going condition that a marble bust of the late Mayor that it was their custom to issue fifty-year Gaynor be placed in the library building, and bonds for work of a purely temporary nature. that an engrossed copy of certain extracts For instance, we now have a large debt for from Mayor Gaynor's speeches and writings paving which will not be paid in full till be framed and hung up opposite the bust, be long after the paving in question has worn not accepted, and that notice of this action out." be printed in The Outlook magazine in ac- It has been impossible yet to determine cordance with the donor's request."

by how much the burden on the taxpayers of New York will be increased during the

first years that the pay-as-you-go” policy FOR NEW YORK

is in effect, though there is no doubt that it Within four years New York City will be will be considerable. The Mayor and his on a cash basis. For the first time in its financial advisers, however, believe that in history, on or about January 1, 1918, the the long run this will be more than offset by metropolis will be on a really sound financial the reduction in the annual amount of the foundation. After that date New York will interest upon the city's bonded and floating adopt the “pay-as-you-go” policy instead of debt and the amortization charges through the “charge-it-and-pay-to-morrow" system which the long-term indebtedness is paid. that has been largely responsible for the Another advantage to accrue from this plan,




which Mayor Mitchel points out, is the en- DEATH OF THE ITALIAN largement of the city's borrowing margin FOREIGN MINISTER which will result from the reduction of the The Marquis Antonio di San Giuliano, the debt. This will make possible the devotion Italian Minister of Foreign Affairs, who reof larger sums of money than are cently died in Rome, was often called “Italy's available for great public improvements of Strong Man"-a condensed description of a a self-supporting nature, such as transpor- very forceful character. He was a Sicilian tation and terminal and harbor improve by birth and of an ancient family ; and somements.

thing of the stormy quality of the Sicilian New York's experiment will be watched nature was in him. His physical and intelwith interest by other American cities, and lectual vitality took him very early into public probably undertaken by many of them. The life. He was for many years a Senator, and general adoption of such a system of munici- at various times served the Government pal finance is a consummation devoutly to be in different positions. He filled the post of wished, for in the long run, with cities as Italian Ambassador in London and became with individuals, the “pay-as-you-go" policy Minister of Foreign Affairs in 1905. From is cheapest and safest.

the very beginning of his public career he

an aggressive advocate of Italian inTHE MEXICAN

terests both at home and abroad; and his SITUATION

appointment as Minister of Foreign Affairs Carranza's delegates to the peace confer- was not satisfactory either to Austria or to ence between the factions in Mexico at Germany. Both the Austrian and the GerAguas Calientes are apparently in hot water man Governments would have preferred a both in fact and in name. The report has more complaisant Minister. They disliked reached the United States that eighteen him as they disliked M. Delcassé in France, thousand soldiers under the control of Villa and for the same reasons. have marched close enough to the convention The Marquis knew the Balkan regions, city to dominate the situation. Whether the northern Africa, and Italia Irredenta, as the report of Villa's hostile activities are exagger- Italians call the Italian territory still in Ausated or not, the rumor concerning the move- trian hands—Trieste and Trentino. It is ment of his troops seems definite and sub- believed that he initiated, and he certainly stantial enough to make any hope of recon- carried on with great vigor, the campaign in ciliation or agreement between Carranza and Tripoli, and he watched affairs in the Balkans Villa scarcely more than the remotest of with the closest attention. He was a vigor possibilities.

ous advocate of the Triple Alliance, but of The Aguas Calientes conference, despite late years the diplomats at Berlin failed to the paper reforms advocated by both of the take account of changing public opinion in most important factions, gave, from the be- Italy, and were grossly lacking in tact in ginning, little promise of success. Now if dealing with Italian relations. The Italian Villa, after the manner of Cromwell, has Minister of Foreign Affairs was not taken decided to dissolve this


into the inner confidence of either country. parliament, even that very faint promise will He was perfectly aware of this, and was have vanished.

The bauble of authority also in possession of the diplomatic secrets which Villa has ordered taken away was not of both countries. This attitude praca very weighty affair at best. The inability tically released Italy from the obligations of Mexican leaders to develop a workable, under the Triple Alliance, and left the Prime to say nothing of an ideal, plan of national Minister free to study Italian interests. Less reform proves continuously discouraging. than two years ago he renewed the Alliance,

In the north of Mexico the rebellious fac- declaring at the same time that it had been a tions under General Hill and General May- guarantee of European peace, and that it torena are both disregarding orders from must remain the fundamental principle of the their supposed superiors at Aguas Calientes Italian foreign policy. Since that time, howto cease hostilities. Across the line from ever, the indifference of the other members Naco, Arizona, there have been constant dis- of the Alliance to Italian interests changed turbances. In the progress of the fighting his attitude. He was a man of great force several Americans have been wounded on the both with his pen and his voice, and was the Arizona side of the international boundary. author of a number of volumes of travel and

very short

articles on social and economic subjects. On his visit to this country, nine years ago, he showed himself a very keen and sympathetic observer.

The possible effect of the death of this able man on the foreign policy of Italy in the near future is purely a matter of speculation. That the country is alienated from Austria and Germany is quite evident; that it will cast in its fortunes with the Allies is as yet uncertain. The Berlin diplomatists have not treated the relations of Italy to the Triple Alliance with sufficient attention or intelligence. Several years ago France annexed Tunis, and seemed to stand in the way of Italian ambitions on the south shore of the Mediterranean. An alliance with Germany and Austria-Hungary, which had no ambitions in that section which conflicted with those of Italy, was naturally attractive to the Italians. Berlin paid little attention to Italian desires and to the more friendly relations with France which sprang up through their mutual interests in northern Africa—the French in Morocco and the Italians in Tripoli. When the latter seized Tripoli, Italy came into sharp conflict with Turkey, which Germany took under its wing a number of years ago, and it also awakened the fears of Austria that the conAlict with Turkey might end in Italian occupation of Albania.

The breach between Italy and her partners has been steadily widening, and the results of the Balkan War have practically divorced them. Although Italy may not be fully prepared, either financially or from a military point of view, to go to war, there seems to be no doubt about the strength of popular feeling in favor of the Allies. For the time being, however, Italy is likely to follow the policy of neutrality ; but circumstances may drive her into co-operation with the Allies.

by the attacking artillery, it was hardly likely that the armor could be destroyed, and that it was probable that the silenced guns could be, in many instances repaired or replaced by the time the range was shortened and the attacking force thereby placed at a considerable disadvantage.

The siege of Port Arthur in the RussoJapanese War is credited with having had considerable effect on the changing of German tactics. German regulations are now particular in stating that the chief object to be attained in a campaign is the destruction of the main body of the opposing army, and that every move must be made to further the possibilities of obtaining that result; that no fort or city must ever be attacked unless the capture or destruction of it may result in a step toward the defeat of the hostile force as a whole. The German attack has as a basis quickness of movement and aggressiveness. Hence the German army is abundantly equipped with draught animals, tractors, and auto trucks, which puts them in a position to reinforce quickly with field batteries any part of their line when more weight will be effective.

Of the 11.2 howitzer used at Liège and Namur little authentic knowledge has been available. The following information, although not actually authoritative in every point, is known to be partly true, and in every detail may probably be accepted as close to the facts :

The German 11.2 inch howitzer is ten caliber. That is, its length, or rather the distance the shell travels in the barrel after the firing of the gun, is 973 feet, or ten times the bore. One account is that, in order to facilitate transportation, the barrel is built in two sections; but Captain Kilbourne, of the United States Coast Artillery, as well as several naval officers, is quite positive that such cannot be the case, as the tremendous pressure, which probably reaches twenty thousand pounds to the square inch, would be more than the fastenings holding the two sections together could stand.


The attack and destruction of Liège and Namur and the effect produced on the forts at these places have naturally created interest in the new German guns. For some time after the Franco-Prussian War it was thought that artillery fire in itself was sufficient to reduce forts, and that infantry attacks would not be necessary.

The introduction of armored concrete forts changed the tactics which were thought for so long to be sufficiently effective. It was argued that, although the guns of forts might be silenced


As may be seen from the picture on another page, this German siege gun has as part of its equipment two tractors for transporting it with an advancing army. One of these pulls the gun itself, which weighs about twenty-five tons, and is mounted for move


ment on a special carriage. The other pulls appointing capture of Namur, from which the gun carriage, which weighs slightly less we expected to receive news as remarkable than the gun. The ammunition is carried as that which came from Liège. The reason separately, and, as each shell weighs in the for the fall of these two cities is directly to neighborhood of eight hundred pounds, it will be attributed to the deadly effect of this be seen that this creates a transportation German artillery, of which we have hitherto problem only less difficult of solution than known so little. that of the gun and carriage. The wheels of this outfit are of the pedrail type, which are remarkably effective on soft ground, and the whole is capable of surprising movement over In accordance with both the letter and the good roads.

spirit of the “convention relative to the Each battalion of what is known to the Ger- status of enemy merchant ships at the outmans as fortress artillery has also as a part break of hostilities” concluded at the second of its equipment 7.5 kilometres (4.7 miles) Peace Conference at The Hague in 1907, of narrow-gauge railway, which uses draught Japan has promulgated an Imperial ordinance animals for motive power.

Captain Kil worthy of attention by those who hailed her bourne, whom The Outlook has to thank for entrance into the European war as the graspecial information, suggests that this railway tuitous introduction of a “barbarous nation” is to assist the movement of the guns over into a white man's affair.' With the events particularly bad stretches and to facilitate on the Continent freshly in mind, Germany's their movement from one place to another cause for complaint against England on this when, for instance, a fort is being attacked score becomes of increasingly diminished imand the enemy shows signs of getting the portance. range of the attacking guns.

This Japanese ordinance declares that the A mortar of 11.2 inches bore uses a shell German vessels lying in the ports and roads weighing about eight hundred pounds. The steads of the Empire of Japan at the outrange of such a gun is thirty-three thousand break of hostilities shall be given two weeks feet. The bursting shell has a deadly effect, to discharge their cargoes and to take on due to flying fragments, over a radius of board cargoes other than contraband of war, about fifty feet, while the poisonous gases and that they shall then be permitted to take which are generated probably take effect for out clearance papers for designated and prea distance of thirty or forty feet more. The sumably neutral ports. Japan likewise has effect of one such shell, therefore, covers an permitted German vessels which have entered area of about eighteen thousand square feet. Japanese ports in ignorance of the existence These poisonous gases are not, of course, as of a state of war to depart unmolested. deadly in the open as in inclosed places, such German vessels met with by Japanese waras passages in forts.

‘ships upon the high seas which are in a like The use of such shells and such guns at state of ignorance have also been exempted Liège and Namur could have but one result. from capture. Japan naturally reserves the The forts at these places were armed with right to repeal this ordinance, in whole or in 6-inch and 9.7-inch guns, which were incapa- part, if Germany fails to mete out similar fair ble of the great range of the German guns. treatment to Japan's ships and commerce. It was only necessary, therefore, to batter An ordinance so in accord with modern the Belgian forts into shapeless masses with standards of conduct in warfare lends confithe huge attacking artillery, the fire of which dence to those who believe that Japan, after was ably directed by aeroplanes flying over the termination of hostilities, will faithfully the defenders' heads, and then by an over- carry out her promises in respect to the acwhelming infantry assault to capture the quisition of territory. tangled piles of masonry and steel.

The effect of these huge German mortars APPLES is more easily grasped when we stop to think “Current Affairs,” the organ of the Boston of the weary days of terrific fighting at Liège Chamber of Commerce, has a suggestion to before the arrival of these guns, during offer supplementing the “buy a bale of cotwhich time the attacking force made prac- ton” slogan of the South. It is, “ Buy a tically no headway, and then of the sudden- barrel of apples.” Apples are cheap this ness with which Liège fell and of the dis- year,” says “ Current Affairs.” “ The crop is one of the largest in the history of the THE AMERICAN BOARD iridustry, and the markets-on account of the OF FOREIGN MISSIONS European war's halt on export business- The one hundred and fifth annual meeting are more diminished than ever before. Under of the American Board, held at Detroit, Octothese circumstances of more apples and fewer ber 13–16, convened under both encourbuyers, the opportunity exists to buy apples aging and perplexing circumstances-encourat a price far below that asked in ordinary aging because of past prosperity, perplexing times. It is a double-action opportunity : because of the present world-wide war. the man who buys a barrel of apples now Despite adverse business conditions, the helps the farmer and helps himself. He Board's total receipts for the year, upwards gets his winter fruit at a low price, and the of a million dollars, have been the largest in farmer gets some real money for a valuable its history, especially large during July and product which otherwise would probably rot August last. New enlistments for the foron the ground. This is not a deed of charity; eign field have also been unusually .numernor is it an act of speculation ; the buyer can ous, twenty-three more than in 1913. Never make immediate use of his purchase.”

before has the Board been at work under so Why not, indeed? Cotton will keep, apples many national flags for the 75,000,000 will not-particularly in any household prop- people included in its various fields. New erly supplied with boys and girls. Let us eat calls to enter inviting work have come with them, then the apples, not the boys and embarrassing abundance, as in the offer of girls), and be merry, for to-morrow all that will the Chinese authorities to hand over to the remain of this year's best fruitage will be the Board the work of education in eight counties bloodless and indestructible regiments of Ben of the Fenchau district of Shansi Province. Davis newly exhumed from cold storage to Co-operation has become the rule of denomihaunt us with ghostly memories of Northern national missionary societies, and union is Spies long since passed into the region of advancing among the churches they have vain regret.

planted, out of which national evangelical Baldwin and Greening of winter delight, churches are beginning to arise. FurtherAstrachan of midsummer, Newtown Pippin more, these young churches have become and Russet, MacIntosh Red and Porter —how independent propagandists of Christianity in many trees of this last remain ?- each and Japan, in China, in India, and have begun every one as healthful a joy as the warm home missions among their countrymen. In earth from which they spring. Even the tart north China a great advance toward indewild apple, small and waxy white as it lies pendence has been made by putting the main under its covering of frosty leaves in late mission administration into Chinese hands, October, has a character and flavor not to be with missionaries as co-operators. The Presidespised of men. Did not Thoreau hail it dent of the Indian National Missionary Socias a treasure trove and an experience to be ety is a man of princely birth. The spirit of cherished for many days ?

Jesus is now modifying Hindu society and “Buy a barrel of apples." If you live thought. This in a country where during the where cellars are deep and wide and cool, as first twenty years of the Board's work the cellars were in the days of Huldy's apple number of missionaries who died was larger parin', you will have room enough and to than the number of converts made. During spare for such a well-bidden guest. If you the past year the churches in its various fields live where cellars are deep and wide, but have given for Christian work at the rate of inaccessible and filled with janitors and steam

about one thousand dollars per day for every heat, or apparatus alleged to produce the same, day of the year. there is still hope for you in the peck measure and the paper bag. If you are persistent and MISSIONS AND WAR faithful in your allegiance, housing commis- War has seriously affected missions. Their sions may yet demand not only that each stoppage in Mexico still had some compensadweller in Babylon shall have his due share of tions. Eleven denominations got together here water, sun, and air, but that to each shall be to plan for a more united work and one evangiven cool storage for at least one barrel of gelical Mexican church. The derangement apples. Nothing less will be accepted as a of work caused by the Balkan War seems fitting tribute to the rose's most delectable lessening, but in Turkey perilous conditions cousin.

must yet be overcome. If the recent abro

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