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"King Charles the Second made a most important addition, by the foundation of a Mathematical School for the instruction of forty boys in navigation, and endowed it for seven years with 10007. and an annuity of 3701. 10s. payable out
of the Exchequer for the special purpose of educating and placing out yearly ten boys in the sea-service.
"These are the boys who were annually presented by the President to the King upon New Year's Day, when that festival was observed at Court, and afterwards upon the Queen's birth-day; but the practice was entirely discontinued from the commencement of his late Majesty's last lamentable illness. They wear a badge upon the left shoulder, the figures upon which represent Arithmetic, with a scroll in one hand, and the other placed upon a boy's head; Geometry with a triangle in her hand; and Astronomy with a quadrant in one hand and a sphere in the other. Round the plate is inscribed, Auspicio Caroli Secundi Regis, 1673.' The dye is kept in the Tower.
"Five of these boys pass an examination before the Elder Brethren of the Trinity House every six months, previous to their entering their profession; and, in case King Charles's foundation should fail, Mr. Stone, a Governor, left a legacy for the maintenance of twelve boys, as a subordinate mathematical school, which, according to subsequent regulations, is made an introductory step to King
"These boys are distinguished from King Charles's by wearing the badge upon the right shoulder, instead of the left, as worn by the others.-This foundation is called the Twelves on account of its number.
"The establishment at Hertford, when full, contains upwards of 400, which, added to the establishment in London,
makes upwards of 1150, including 80 girls;
but there is no limitation as to the number, which varies according to the revenues of the Hospital."
In the Title-page is a pretty vignette, printed in six different colours, of a Blue Coat Boy habited in the proper costume of the School; and the work is also embellished with a neat Engraving, on wood, of the Grammar School,
“A handsome modern brick building,
for which the Hospital is greatly indebted to the late Mr. Alderman Gill, who was many years Treasurer, and the immediate predecessor of the gentleman who has now for the space of twenty-two years so honourably filled that situation."
For this accurate Drawing the Author is indebted to the pencil of Mr. Wells,
102. The History of the Crusades, for the Recovery and Possession of the Holy Land. By Charles Mills. 2 vols. 8vo. Longman and Co.
THE style of Gibbon, we think, upon analysis, to be turgid and pedantic. For instance, let us take the familiar process of shaving, and describe it in close imitation." The unseemly excrescence of a biduan beard required the amputatory aid of the Tonsor. Unshavedus (such was the Barbar-ian name) in the soiled garb of the traveller, entered the shop of the useful artisan. An antient chair, decorated beyond the concomitant furniture, with the clean and graceful covering of a Tartan check, accommodated with temporary rest the fidgety and impatient visitant. The professional loquacity of the operator was extinguished by the cold monosyllabic replies of a mind, principally ruminating upon the excessive charges of the last inn. The saponaceous froth was speedily extorted by a friction, which the chemical and ingenious compound was accustomed, from its desire of nuptial union with water, implicitly to obey. The snowy elevation of the summit of Caucasus soon cloathed the elevated chin. The animal stubble fell in ranks under the scythed hand of disciplined art, moving in graceful evolution; and the patriarchal manners of the East would have disdained the unmanly distinction of the refreshed European."
We speak thus in limine, because Mr. Mills has written this book in the stile of Gibbon, against which, that it may not become a precedent, we beg to enter our protest; and to slate at some length, what we conceive to be a suitable manner for Histories connected with the Middle Age. Froissart is, in our opinion,
the standard. We want to see the prevalent manner and character of the day; of course, every one of the dramatis personæ should be in the habits of the age, as to speaking and acting; and this keeping of the picture should be as tenaciously observed as it is in Fielding's novels. We conceive it to be a merit in Mr. Fosbrooke's Monachism and Pilgrimage, that it is almost entirely founded, as to reflection, upon contemporary ideas. Now an adoption of the manner of Gibbon in the His
tory of the Crusades, however faithful it may be as to facts, must inevitably misrepresent motives, by the incongruous mixture of philosophical babits and principles, which were then utterly unknown.
We, however, honestly confess, that we think Saint Palaye alone could have executed a History of the Crusades in the manner of Froissart. It requires an extensive track of reading. We have seen Romances, professedly referring to the Middle-Age, correct as to the modes of living, but as to sentiments and ideas quite modern. This is an absurdity similar to that which has been remarked *, as common among artists. They represent ancient heroes with the physiognomical character of their own nation. Thus, a Chinese statue of Alexander would exhibit the countenance of a Mandarin in a tea-warehouse. We form the same opinion of Histories of great events in the Middle-Ages, written in the modern philosophical form. We are further justified in so thinking, because in the age of the Crusades, mere Superstition was a road to honour and distinction, and a rigid Hermit had the influence of a Peer. Superstition neither regarded or knew those varieties of feeling and action which society, conducted under the influence of law and civilization, necessarily implies. In a barbarous state, force is a simple impulse, which may be useful when the social machine does not exceed the character of a plough, but violence is ruin to a clock, and, in such an advanced state of improvement in the engine, simple power merely forms the weight.
Thus far we have spoken not from disrespect to Mr. Mills, who is acute and able, and always a good, and often a very elegant narrator, but from regret, that by adoption of such an incongruous model as Gibbon, he has injured himself and his work, through divesting it of an infinite portion of pleasing matter, in order to philosophize upon self-evident conclusions. The narratory history of the Crusades is founded upon simple principles. Military habits are abhorrent of rest and inaction; and the custom of travelling was universal. The error of the Crusaders was, that
By Dr. Clarke, we believe. Rev.
they made war upon the Eastern nations without magazines or stores, under the presumption that they should find the same resources as in Europe; and thus, acting in defiance of common sense, the expeditions were to the Saracens only a temporary irruption of locusts, who were Soon swept away by a hurricane of famine. But this originated also in the charitable institutions and hospitable habits of the age. Even the poor set out for Jerusalem as they would now for York, with a bundle and a walking-stick, and succeeded in their object, because in manners and habits they assimilated orders of society who make long journies without expence, namely gipsies, if they were in companies, and beggars, if they were solitary; but the more general rule was to fasten themselves upon some rich pilgrim.
In the conduct of the Crusades, there are only two grand principles of action, superstition and war: and in the narrative, there is only a tiresome identity of incident; a string of Gazette battles, almanack reading, repetition of weather and eclipses, portraits of the same man in different attitudes. This Mr. Mills cannot help. He has given us (in our opinion injudiciously) a useful, compressed, and well-concatenated narrative of events which every body wished to know, and, when known, are not worth remembering.
The details of particular battles, such as those of Blenheim, Ramillies, and Waterloo; and in antient history of Leuctra and Cannæ, are, from the instructive lessons of the mancuvres, very interesting; but the combats of the Crusades are in the main, a mere tossing-up affair of heads or tails, kill or be killed; whence no other instruction is to be derived, than that of the old woman's caution to children," not to play with guns." We know that Mr. Mills's authorities, and they are proper for the subject (under his historical limitation) will not furnish episodes, like that of Nisus and Euryalus. They are, of course, dry monkish chroniclers; aud though we dislike the stile a la Gibbon, and should have preferred that fine examplar, applicable to history of every sort, the stile of Xenophon in his Anabasis, if the subject was confined to a narrative of events, yet
Mr. Mills, in his self-elected limitation, has high merit, in embodying a calendar, which he could not, under his plan diversify; and he most certainly, by an unintentional sacrifice, has filled up a chasm in our libraries; that of having the events of the Crusades well narrated to us in a short compass; and, it is our duty to acquit him of any blame, for he thinks, through the prepossession of incompetent authorities as to the effects of the Crusades, that they had no operation upon the civilization of Europe. (See c. viii.) On this subject, however, we are at issue with Mr. Mills; but want of room compels us to defer our observations till our next.
(To be continued.)
Sermons Doctrinal and Practical. By the Reverend T. F. Dibdin.
(Concluded from p. 50.)
WE now with pleasure resume our strictures upon this unostentatious, but animated volume of orthodox Discourses. Our previous remarks were confined to the Doctrinal part of these Sermons. We shall now notice the manner in which the Practical part is executed.
Among the most striking, and generally useful Discourses, is that entitled "The Good and True of Heart." Of a more chastised and sober tone of colouring-but not less applicable to good, sound practical results, is the Discourse entitled "The Love of many shall wax cold." But perhaps of a still more persuasive, and powerfully written character is the concluding portion of the Discourse of "The Truth shall make you free." We heartily wish our limits would have permitted us to insert extracts from each of these three excellent Sermons.
Perhaps the two Sermons-one upon YOUTH, and the other upon AGE-are the best, as counterparts, in the volume. In giving a specimen of the former, we feel persuaded that we do our duty both to the Author and to the Publick. The passage here subjoined is illustrative of that part of the sermon which guards the Preacher's flock against a premature introduction of youth into the world.
"To see a young person alive to a seuse of honour and of shame; guarded in his expressions, and still more so in his conduct; stung to the quick with vicious
and loathsome discourse; prompt to hear the wise; slow to form an opinion, and still slower to pass judgment; silent, diffident, and only roused into action at the provoking language of folly and of sinto see this-what is it, but to view one of the loveliest and most fascinating of all human pictures? What is it but to see a fellow-creature promising to be a glory to his Maker, and worthy of the DIVINE IMAGE in which he has been created!} My brethren, is such a sight common in the world? Or rather, is not the reverse of this picture a little more common? To see a young person flippant, passionate, and obstinate; quite inflated with vanity and pride; boasting merely of his parents' wealth and consequence, while he is doing all in his power to render both contemptible:-to see him eager to pursue what is dissipated, and vicious and extravagant-prompt to deliver his opinions unsolicited, and not always the most choice of language in the utterance of that opinion:-to see all this, is, I fear, also sufficiently common; but it is not thereby the more to be commended. If the depraved customs of society countenance and encourage this, sure I am that is not encouraged by much higher authorities by the language of Scripture
in the word of God, and of his Son Jesus Christ our Lord. From this sacred fountain-head, a purer, a wiser, and more awful doctrine is imparted: therein we are told to let our yea be yea, and our way, nay--and to keep ourselves unspotted from the world."
Our limits forbid a further extract; or we should gladly have inserted the character of Old Age, as illustrated in the example of BARZILLAI.
Thus have we paid our respects to Mr. Dibdin upon his first appearance in print, in the character of a Divine; and we hope that it will not be very long ere we shake hands with him upon his second appearance in the same character. Much cannot be gained by such publications-whether on the ground of fame or of profit but there is a consideration beyond either of these, which cannot fail to stimulate an honest and ardent mind in the prosecution of his labour. There is the approbation of conscience-in not having hid our light under a bushel; or in not having wrapt our talent within a napkin to lie rusty and corroded in unproductive supineness.
104. Patronage, a Poem: an Imitation of the Seventh Satire of Juvenal. Mandanis. 8vo. pp. 38. Souter.
IF this is not one of the best Imitations of Juvenal, it is certainly one of the boldest. Peers, not excepting the most elevated, are the objects of the Satire-the Lawyers are severely depicted-and the miserable fate of Schoolmasters and Tutors deplored.
One specimen, and that one of the least severity, and somewhat pleasant, is here given.
"Yet stay-perchance in adding page to page, [nage; You look tow'rds Holland house for patroThe Baron bears to metre much good will, But works at home-a little private still; To make he finds much cheaper than to buy [minstrelsy: Those household goods, bread, beer, and Hence, when you hope to poise his Lord[for verse." He smiles benign, and gives you-verse The Imitator seems to think it high treason in Parnassus when a Nobleman commences Poet:
"Few Patrons of the Muse the Peerage boasts,
But vaunts of versifying lords in hosts: There Thurlows, Hollands, Strangfords, Carlisles throng,
Bit by the dire tarantula of song,
No wonder Murray at thy volume sneers, And vows he only publishes for Peers."
The Satirist appears to have been unfortunate in his search after Patronage, having found only a single Nobleman to commend:
"Holroyd, for mind a gen'rous ardour shows, [woes. Partakes its pleasures, and removes its Happy the poet, whose successful lays, From Holroyd's bounty, gathers more than praise."
"Sheffield, self-pleased, on that Poet smiles, And every care and every fear exiles."
105. Memoires Secrets, ou Chronique de Paris Imprimée a Londres. Ouvrage periodique. Tome second, No. X. 8vo. 1817. Lyon, &c.
WE cannot enter minutely into this work, without making our Review the vehicle of political party, and that French, by which our Rea ders would not in our opinion be at all edified. We do not, however, deny the literary merit of this book: for instance, take the indispensable connexion between a representative government and the liberty of the press; because,
"The Representative Government is enlightened by public opinion, and is found. GENT. MAG. May, 1820.
107. The Troller's Guide; a new and complete practical Treatise on the Art of Trolling, or Fishing for Jack and Pike; illustrated with numerous Cuts of Hooks, Baits, Tackles, &c. To which is added, the best method of baiting and laying lines for large Eels. By T. F. Salter, Author of "The Angler's Guide." 12mo. pp. 107. Tegg.
AN appropriate companion to the former Work of Mr. Salter, reviewed in our vol. LXXXVII. p. 846; and there is no doubt, but that many who have had some practice in the Art of Trolling, may find in this work observations on the seasons and weather proper for Trolling; how to cast the baited hook in search, and divers other matters connected with, and relative to Jack and Pike fishing worthy their notice and attention.
This volume, like the former, is illustrated by a variety of neat engravings on wood.
108. Domestic Scenes at Woodlands. A Tale. By a Lady. 12mo. pp. 164.
tering the Horses," "Shepherd;" "Harvest Home," "Feeding Poultry" "Milking;" "Ploughing:" "Sheepshearing" "Making Butter;" "The Orchard;" Waggoner and Team" Feeding Pigs;" "Swarming the Bees;" "The Hay Field;" Farm Yard," "The Cottage Family going to Church;" "Going to Market."
110. The English Primer; or, Child's First Book; on a plan which cannot fail to delight Young Children, and faci
litate their Instruction in the first elements of Spelling and Reading. With nearly two hundred Wood Engravings. By the Rev. T. Clark, Author of the "National Reader," a Sequel to the "National Spelling Book," &c. &c. pp. 72. Souter.
THIS little Primer, at the moderate price of sixpence, appears to justify what is promised in the title-page; being, of its kind, the most complete which has of late come under our observation.
CAMBRIDOE, May 12.
A Syndicate, appointed to enquire into the expediency and best means of building and furnishing an Observatory at Cambridge, made a Report to the Senate, on the 24th of April 1820, in favour of such project; which was confirmed on Friday last, and graces passed granting 50007. and appointing a Syndicate; who, as soon as 5000%, more are collected, are to carry the same into effect. A considerable sum is already subscribed.
The subject of the Seatonian prize poem for the present year is—“The Omnipresence of the Supreme Being."
OXFORD, May 17.
This day the Prize Compositions were adjudged as follow:
CHANCELLOR'S PRIZES.-Latin Essay "Quænam fuerit Concilii Amphictyonici constitutio, et quam vim in tuendis Græciæ libertatibus, et in Populorum moribus formandis habuerit."-J. Shergold Boone, Student of Christ Church.
English Essay On the influence of the Drama." Alexander Macdonnell,
M. A. Student of Christ Church.
Latin Verse" Newtoni Systema."William Ralph Churton, some time of Lincoln College, and now of Queen's College, on Mr. Mitchell's foundation.
SIR ROGER NEWDIGATE'S PRIZZ-Eng. lish Verse-"The Temple of Diana at Ephesus."-William Ewart, Commoner of Christ Church.
planatory of words usually employed to
A Sermon on the Death of Rev. J. Si-
A Narrative of the Persecutions of the South of France during the years 1814 to 1816. By the Rev. MARK WILKS.
Views of the Remains of Antient Buildings in Rome and its vicinity. By M. DUBOURG.
virons, in the form of an Itinerary.
The Peerage Chart; being an Alphainto Sections, and so arranged as to exhibetical List of the House of Lords, divided bit at one view the particulars of each Peer.
An Itinerary of Denmark, Sweden, Norway, and Russia; being a complete Guide containing a minute description of the to Travellers, through those countries; roads, cities, towns, inus, coins, and modes of travelling. By M. REICHARD. Illustrated by an accurate map.
El Teatro Espanol; con Notas Criticas y Explanatorias.
Reply to the Notice of the New Greek
A Fragment of the History of John Bull, with the birth, parentage, education, and humours of Jack Radical, with incidental Remarks on antient and modern Radicalism.
The Retreats; or, Sketches from Nature. By the Author of "Affection's Gift."
An Historic Sketch of the causes, progress, extent, and mortality of the Contagious Fever, epidemic in Ireland during