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BUCKNER ABANDONS EAST TENNESSEE.
was mainly hoped to stifle the loy-
CAMPBELL NNESSEE |
The flight of the Rebel forces from all the points reached by our army in its advance was unexpected, and was misconstrued. So many passes, wherein a regiment and a battery might temporarily repel a corps, had been precipitately abandoned without a shot, as Kingston and Knoxville were, that it was fondly fancied that the Rebellion had collapsed—at least, in this quarter—that the recent and signal triumphs of the National arms at Gettysburg, Vicksburg, Port Iludson, &c., had taken the heart out of
CHÁTTANOOGA the remaining disunionists; that we had only thenceforth to advance and ,o bloodlessly reclaim all that had been ruthlessly torn away.
crans's orders from the outset, and all It was a great mistake. Buckner his movements should have been was simply withdrawing the Rebel subordinate to those of the Army of forces from East Tennessee to röen- the Cumberland. When the enemy force Bragg and enable him to over were found to be retreating southwhelm Rosecrans; and this facility ward, they should have been closely of recovery shoulıl hare aroused sus- pursued; but Burnside had no supicion, and incited the quickest pos- perior but IIalleck, who had no sible transfer of all but a brigade of conviction of Rosecrans's .peril till Burnside's army to Chattanooga. In it was too late to avert it. And fact, he should have been under Rose-Burnside himself had no idea of look
ing to Rosecrans's safety-in fact, , ously ordered.” The military readthis was not in the line of his pre-ing of the General-in-Chief having scribed duty—but proceeded prompt- been very extensive, he can probably ly and vigorously to complete the recite numerous instances wherein the covery of East Tennessee. To this leader of a small army has made end, he impelled " Gen. Shackleford haste to unite that army with a large directly on the rear of Cumberland one, which would necessarily absorb gap; on which Gen. De Courcy it
, without having been placed under simultaneously advanced from Lon- the orders of its commander; but, don on the north ; Burnside follow- in the recollection of this writer, such ing in person two days behind instances are rare.
At all events, Shackleford, who made a forced Burnside did not add another, but march of 60 miles in 52 hours, and continued to diffuse his command thus closed in Gen. Frazier, who throughout East Tennessee, until it with four regiments held the gap, had been beaten out very thin, and and had refused to quit it while he was thus exposed to be cut up in decould, supposing himself able to hold tail. Col. Foster, in the far east, it. But his men were in good part after one skirmish" near Bristol, was disaffected or discouraged, while the sharply assailed “o at Blue Springs by mill whereon he depended for flour Sam Jones, whom he defeated, after was burned" by two companies of two days' desultory fighting; taking Shackleford's men, who crept through 150 prisoners and disabling at least his lines and fired it unperceived. that number, with a loss to our side When Burnside arrived,* Frazier of barely 100. liad refused our summons; but he Shackleford now took post at found, soon afterward, good reason to Jonesboro', with a part of his comchange liis mind, and surrendered mand, under Wilcox, at Greenville, his 2,000 men and 14 guns. Our with two regiments and a battery, cavalry moved thence rapidly east- under Col. Israel Garrard, 7th Ohio ward; chasing off a small Rebel cavalry, at Rogersville, where they force under Sam Jones into Vir- were attacked" by 1,200 mounted ginia, destroying the principal rail- men under Brig.-Gen. W. E. Jones, road bridges, and completing the acting under the orders of Maj. Gen. recovery of East Tennessee, with the Sam Jones, who struck them at daydirect loss, in Burnside's command, light, surprising and easily routing of barely one man.
them with a loss of 4 guns, 36 wag. IIalleck says he now ordered ons, and 750 prisoners, and creating Burnside to concentrate liis arıny such a panic at Jonesborough and on the Tennessee river westward Greenville that Shackleford's men from Loudon, so as to connect with raced back to Bull's gap, 18 miles, Rosecrans, who had just reached while Jones and his party were makChattanooga, and that
“it was ing equally good time in the opposite hoped that there would be no further direction, fearing that Shackleford delay in effecting a junction between would be upon them in overwhelmthe two armies, as had been previ- ing force if they did not. This backOs Sept. 5. Sept. 7.
Sept. 9. "Sept. 21.
70 Oct. 10.
71 Nov. 6.
FIGHTS AT.PHILADELPHIA AND CAMPBELL'S STATION. 431
to-back race was one of the most of them; when our men in turn enludicrous incidents of the war, though countered a superior force, and were the laugh was rather the heartier on chased nearly to Loudon, losing the wrong side.
heavily. We took 111 prisoners this The Army of the Cumberland re- day, and lost 324, with 6 guns; the maining quiet at Chattanooga, Bragg killed and wounded on either side (or his superiors) conceived the idea being about 100. Our total loss in of improving his leisure by a move- prisoners to Longstreet south ward of ment on Burnside, which Longstreet Loudon is stated by IIalleck at 650. was assigned to lead. Burnside had The enemy advancing resolutely by this time spread his force very yet cautiously, our troops were withwidely, holding innumerable points drawn before them from Lenoir and and places south ward and eastward from Loudon, concentrating at Campof Knoxville by brigades and detach- bell's Station-Gen. Burnside, who ments; and Longstreet, advancing had hastened from Knoxville at the silently and rapidly, was enabled to tidings of danger, being personally strike " heavily at the little outpost in command. Having been joined of Philadelphia, held by Col. F. T. by his old (9th) corps, he was now Wolford, with the 1st, 11th, and 12th probably as strong as Longstreet; but Kentucky cavalry and 45th Ohio a large portion of his force was still mounted infantry-in all about 2,000 dispersed far to the eastward, and he
Wolford had dispatched the apprehended being flanked by an ad1st and 11th Kentucky to protect his vance from Kingston on his left. He trains moving on his right, which a found himself so closely pressed, lowRebel advance was reported as men- ever, that he must either fight or acing, when he found himself sud- sacrifice his trains; so he chose an denly assailed in front and on both advantageous position and suddenly . flanks by an overwhelming Rebel faced" the foe: his batteries being force, estimated at 7,000, whom he all at hand, while those of liis pursuwithstood several hours, hoping that ers were behind ; so that he had dethe sound of guns would bring him ; cidedly the advantage in the figliting assistance from Loudon in his rear; till late in the afternoon, when they but none arrived; and he was at brought up tlıree batteries and openlength obliged to cut his way out; ed, while their infantry were extendlosing his battery and 32 wagons, but ed on either hand, as if to outflank bringing off most of his command, i lim. IIe then fell back to the next with 51 prisoners. Major Deltosse, ridge, and again faced about ; holdiny leading the 12th Ky., was killed. his position firmly till after nightThe 1st and 11th Kentucky, under fall; when-his trains having incanMaj. Graham, having proceeded four time obtained a fair start-he remiles westward from Philadelphia, sumed his retreat, and continued it found their train already in the unmolested until safe within the hands of the enemy, and recaptured sheltering intrenchments of Knoxit; chasing its assailants for some dis- ville. Our loss in this affair was tance, and capturing quite a number about 300; that of the enemy was 19 Oct. 20.
probably greater. Though not a And now—Bragg having been de sanguinary nor decisive struggle, few feated by Grant before Chattanooga, occurred during the war that were and a relieving force under Sherman more creditable to the generalship or being close at hand-Longstreet nethe soldierly qualities of either army. cessarily abandoned the siege, and
Longstreet continued his pursuit, moved rapidly eastward unassailed and in due time beleaguered the to Russellville, Virginia : our entire city,” though he can hardly be said loss in the defense having been less to have invested it. That he intend- than 1,000; while his must have been ed, and expected, and tried, to carry twice or thrice that number. Sherit, is true; and there was very spirit- man's advance reached the city, and ed and pretty constant fighting Burnside officially announced the around it, mainly on its west side; raising of the siege, Dec. 5th. but the day of rushing naked infantry in masses on formidable earthworks Gen. Halleck had been thoroughly covering heavy batteries was nearly aroused to the peril of Rosecrans at over with either side. The defenses Chattanooga just too late to do any were engineered by Capt. Poe, and good. On his first advice that Longwere signally effective. Directly on street had been dispatched southgetting into position, a smart assault ward from Virginia—it was said, to was delivered on our right, held by Charleston—he had telegraphed " to the 112th Illinois, 45th Ohio, 3d Burnside at Knoxville, to Hurlbut at Michigan, and 12th Kentucky, and a Memphis, and to Grant at Vicksburg, hill carried; but it was not essential to move troops to the support of to the defenses. Our loss this day Rosecrans; and the orders to Burnside was about 100; among them was and IIurlbut were rëiterated next Gen. W. P. Sanders, of Kentucky, day. Schofield at St. Louis and Pope killed. Shelling and skirmishing in the north-west were likewise inbarely served to break the monotony structed respectively to forward to for ten weary days, when—having Tennessee every man they could been röenforced by Sam Jones, and spare. And it now occurred to Halone or two other small commands leck-or did the day after Chickafrom Virginia—Longstreet delivered mauga—that two independent coman assault,” by a picked storming mands on the Tennessee would not party of three brigades, on an un- be so likely to insure effective coopefinished but important work known ration as if one mind directed the as Fort Sanders, on our left, but was movements of both armies; so—Rosebloodily repelled by Gen. Ferrero, crans being made the necessary scapewho held it—the loss of the assailants goat of others' mistakes as well as being some 800, including Col. Mc- his own—Gen. Grant was selected Elroy, 13th Mississippi, and Col. for chief command ; Rosecrans being Thomas, 16th Georgia, killed; while relieved, and instructed to turn over on our side the entire loss that night his army to Gen. Thomas. But was about 100; only 15 of these in Grant was now sick in New Orleans, the fort.
out of reach by telegraph; and Sher
70 Sept. 13.
74 Nov. 17.
16 Nov. 28-9.