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rious luxuries, especially the consumption of wine. But, if the commerce of the country augments, the assessed and consumption taxes will increase also. If too corn be 338. per quarter at Hamburgh, as stated in this pamphlet, and we can buy the 33. by 20 or 25s. worth of wrought goods, leaving a profit of 8 per cent. upon the exportation, and another upon the corn here introduced; we see not why such traffick will not bear a moderate duty. For, though it may be highly impolitic to grow that at ten shillings cost, which may be bought at five; yet it is manifestly inequitable that the home corngrower, who raises his crop at a loss, should bear the great burden of rates and taxes, in addition to his disadvantage, while the corn importer pays nothing of the kind, and can yet obtain the same money in the market.

Before we finally close our remarks, we beg to observe, that as Church livings, where the tithes are taken in kind, produce a treble gross return in value to the receipt by composition; so the old landholder, by his rents in kind, was far richer than the modern; nor was he subject to like fluctuation in the value of money, or such heavy taxation. To relief the modern landholder is entitled, inasmuch as, by taking a money rent he has absolutely enfranchised, and enabled to grow rich, a large part of society, who must otherwise have been mere serfs. But whether robbing "Peter to pay Paul" is the right mode of relief is another question. It is plain too, by the necessity of legislative assistance, that he cannot levy his burden upon the consumer by augmenting at option the price of provisions. We think, theoretically, that his proper mode of relief is, as before said, the gradual abolition of poor-rates, and commutation of other burdens to the assessed taxes, &c. because, generally speaking, these best shew what persons can afford.

We dismiss the subject with observing, that we do not consider what we have said to be worth attention any further than hints, vice cotis, purposely thrown out, like sparks among combustibles, to produce explosions of ideas. We mean them only for theres of essays: but we do not think

that we are injuring the landholder by what we have said; for, to judge by the state of pauperism in Ireland, events will in a few years bring the question, not to Bullum versus Boatum, or Corn-bill versus Anti-Corn bill, but to Potatoes, versus Wheat: or is there a position better attest ed, in confutation of the absurd idea of making England an agricultural country, than that such countries are never, simply as such, rich or civi lized. There are no beggars in Wales; but there is little or no money; or taste for, or pleasure derived from, refinement, literature, or arts.


Reflections on the Nature and Tendency of the Present Spirit of the Times, in a Letter to the Freeholders of the County of Noriolk. By the Rev. George Burges, B. A. Vicar of Malvergate and of Moulton. 8vo. pp. 56. Baldwin, Cradock, and Joy.

THIS Book is a severe Philippick upon the politicks, &c. of Mr. Coke of Norfolk, and his adherents, writ ten in the manner of "Mr. Burke's Reflections," by a gentleman, evi. deutly of no contemptible talents, but who would fain persuade the world that there is no good man to be found, except among the friends of Ministers and of Orthodoxy. We solemniy believe that such persons form, generally speaking, the best and most respectable classes of so. ciety; but we are of opinion, that temper and rational discussion are the best methods of increasing their oumber. We recommend to Mr. Burges the perusal of Bishop Sherlock's Sermon on the text of " Let not then your good be evil spoken of."

Mr. B.'s writings, in the present form, irritate only; have merely the ephomeral existence of electioneering squibs; and, of course, render no lasting service to the cause: paly bringing down upon the author abuse and obloquy. We mean no disrespect to Mr. Burges. They are not the worst horses, that require a curb bridle.

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the present Management has exercised against the Author, preceded by a Statement of Facts. 8vo. pp. 207. Fearman. EVERY body has read the Paper in the Spectator, where a worthy well-meaning gentleman took it into his head to wear a turban, because more cleanly than a hat, and adopt many other deviations from the habits of society, which, though perfectly harmless, and often very ra tional, in the end enabled his next heirs to confine him under a commission of Lunacy. Writers of Satire might be classed under the same description of persons. Mankind neither does or can act upon simple principle of abstract reason, for so. ciety moves in a circle of artificial forms and customs. Particular trains of circumstances will, however, give rise (sometimes) to singular exhibitions of folly, such as was education in sitting under a tutor from St. Giles's, introduced by members of the Four-in-hand club. Things of this kind we are glad to see generally satirized; but general satire, to be interesting, should exhibit strong pictures of striking effect, like the Works of Hogarth.

The present book is interspersed with many nervous, many well-idea'd lines; and some very flat and prosaic. The author possesses powers and energy; but he adopts a bad plan for a Poet-dilutes, instead of distilling,

94. The Scrutineer, No. II. containing a Letter to the Chairman of the Public Meeting held at Sheffield, Oct. 25, 1819, on the subject of the Proceedings at Man chester, August 16; to which is added, a Postscript relative to the Sheffield Gene. ral Infirmary. By Samuel Roberts, Author of "The Blind Man and his Son," Sheffield. 8vo. pp. 28.

WE shall let Mr. Roberts display his excellent good sense and ingenuity in his own words.

Speaking of the Manchester affair, he says, p. 5, that it was not necessary, for the purposes of debate, to add to the twenty-thousand already at Manchester, or to learn military discipline, or to provide arms, or banners, with incendiary mottoes. It was therefore a meeting" intended to intimidate," if not to molest the peaceable inhabitants,” p. 6.

But they had proceeded (says the outery) to no open acts of violence.

Here Mr. Roberts makes a very ingenious comparison.

of other violence, when he was arrested Had Guy Faux proceeded to any act in his supposed intended attempt to blow up the assembled Parliament of the Kingdom? No, he had not. The Conspirators had hired a cellar under the Parlia ment-house-there was nothing criminal of combustible materials-nothing unin that; they had made it the repository of gunpowder-very well, they must put lawful there; they had introduced barrels them somewhere-and, what then? why Guy Faux was going in among them, with a dark lantern in his hand; and was it not prudent in him to do so, if he had occasion to go there? would you have had him take a lighted naked candle in his hand? he had not set fire to the powder, though the train was laid; surely then, he was prematurely taken into custody, and every one, who suffered for the supposed intended explosion, were riously have advised waiting till the exmurdered men! But, Sir, would you se plosion had actually taken place? Just

so wise would it have been for the Man

chester magistrates to have stood by neuter, watching such an immense multitude assembled by such men, by such means, and so organized and prepared for the most destructive measures." p. 6.

The fact is, that the mob was hastily dispersed, because one man had been killed by them; and others would have suffered in the same manner, who merely did their duty.

Mr. Roberts very properly ob


"To have the minds of the persons employed in a large manufactory, disturbed by notions of visionary means of bettering their condition, and to have both men, women, and apprentices tempted, in the middle of the day, to leave the service of their employers to listen to declamation calculated to render them dissatisfied, turbulent, and idle, to make and worse subjects, is no trifling injury." them worse servants, worse Christians, p. 15.

Mr. Roberts says (p. 20) that

"A large sum must have been raised by some means or other (it is said, sixnumbers of delegates travelling as they teen thousand pounds) to keep great do from place to place to organize armies, &c.

"It is confidently said, that Hunt had affair." a thousand pounds for the Manchester p. 33.

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gined, that the enlightened, the indepen-
dent, the respectable, and the religious

O Never let it be for a moment ima


part of the population of England (a part constituting almost the whole available strength of the State) can be either cajoled, led, or driven, into measures, subversive of every thing that is dear to them, as men, as Britons, and as Chris. tians. These are classes not to be aroused by trifles. The British lion is not easily provoked. The most insignificant and mischievous animals may, unmolested, play their fools' tricks around him; but if, presumptuously relying on his forbearance, they should proceed seriously to molest him, a growl or the lifting up of a paw would disperse them. p. 11.

Then follows a reprobation of the Whigs, and a compliment to the present Administration, which we know to be just, as founded upon the downfall of Buonaparte by their means; but it is also true, that the Whigs did not, as Mr. R. supposes, (p. 11) endeavour to conciliate the Radicals, by any dereliction of prin ciple. They neither accepted nor indorsed the bills of the Radicals; they only wanted as many as they could to move their political cash from the Bank of Messrs. Radical Reformer and Co." into their own-as they might otherwise have got fictitious


We cordially wish that the new Bills may put an end to all these scenes of mischief and folly.

95. The Enthusiasm of Methodists and Papists considered: By Bishop Lavington. With Notes, Introduction, and Appendix, by the Rev. R. Polwhele, Vicar of Manaccan and of St. Anthony. 8vo. pp. 493. and 312 of Introduction. Whittaker.

THE merits of the original Work, and of its learned and Right Reverend Author, have been too long established, to need our commendation; and on the talents or the industry of Mr. Polwhele it would be superfluous to enlarge. He has distinguished himself in various important branches of Literature. As a Topo grapher, he has daringly explored the mines of Antiquity, as the Historian of two Counties, Devonshire and Cornwall. As a Poet, he bas long and successfully courted the Muses. And in his own more legitimate profession, as a Divine, his publications have been particularly valuable.

Of the Volume now before us Mr. Polwhole thus speaks:

"It was about the time of a controversy with Dr. Hawker (which had its origin in some accidental remarks of the Antijacobin Reviewers) that I intended to republish Bishop Lavington's Enthusiasm of Methodism; and but for several circumstances not worth noticing here, I should have carried my design into execution; especially as I possessed a valuable memoir of Lavington, which had been communicated to me by the late Chancellor Nutcombe and Archdeacon Moore.-Not long since I was reminded of the project by some friends, who were of opinion, that the publication would * much serve the cause of the Church.'-The coincidence of Warburton's and Lavington's opinions on this subject, is very remarkable. What think you (says Warburton) of our new set of Fanatics, called the Methodists? I have seen Whitfield's Journal, and he appears to me to be as mad as ever George Fox the Quaker was. These are very fit Missionaries, you will say, to

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propagate the Christian Faith among In

fidels.-There is another of them, one Wesley, who came over from the same Mission. He told a friend of mine, that he had lived most deliciously the last summer in Georgia, sleeping under trees, and feeding on boiled maize sauced with the ashes of oak-leaves; that he will return thither, and then will cast off his English dress, and wear a dried skin like the savages, the better to ingratiate himself with them. It would be well for Vir. the and Religion, if this humour would lay hold generally of our overheated bigots, and send them to cool themselves in the Indian marshes. I fancy, that Venn and Webster would make a very entertaining as well as proper figure in a couple of bear-skins, and marching in this terror of equipage, like the Pagan priests of Hercules of old:

"Jamque Sacerdotes primusque Politius ibant,

Pellibus in morem cincti, flammasqué ferebant.'

See Nichols's Illustrations of Literary

History, vol. II. pp. 66, 65.

"I tell you what I think would be the best way of exposing these idle Fanaticsthe Printing passages out of George For's Journal, and Ignatius Loyola, and Whitfield's Journals in parallel columns. Their conformity in folly is amazing. One thing, was extremely singular in Loyola; he be came, from the most modest Fanatic that ever was, the most cold-headed knave, by lished. The same natural temperament, that time his society was thoroughly estabthat set his brains on a heat, worked off the ferment. The case was so uncommon, that his adversaries thought all his fana ticism pretended. But in this they were certainly mistaken. The surprising part


of all was, that his folly and knavery concurred so perfectly to promote his end. I think I have gone a good way towards explaining it in the latter end of the first volume of the Divine Legation. If I be not mistaken in Whitfield, he bids fair for acting the second part of Loyola, as he has done the first.'-Nichols's Illust. II. 109, 110.

"As an apology for the desultory style of the Introduction, and the great inequality of the Sections, (which is often not sufficiently justified by their subjects) I must further state that it consisted, as at first sketched out, of a series of Letters, in three parts;' that each Section was a letter, or the outline of a letter; and that to fill up every outline as I wished, would be to extend the Introduction to a length ill proportioned to the body of the work. R. P."

The Introduction which treats in a masterly manner on Sectarism; (the causes of its success, and the means of preventing its progress) embraces the following important topics:

"The Separation of the Dissenters from the Church of England; the Character of the Dissenters of former times; Puritanism during Cromwell's Usurpation; Chater of the first Methodists; Memoir of Bishop Lavington; the Methodists of the present day; Conversion; the New Birth; the Regenerate State not a State of Innocence; Revivalisin of the present day; Welsh Jumpers and Irish Shouters; the Cornish Trumpeter; the Blessed Effects of Methodism on Society; the Mischiefs of Sectarism; the Puritans; their successful hostilities against the Church Government; the first Methodists; their antipathy to the Church Government; Sectarists of the present day, their rancorous abuse of Bishops; Invectives against Pluralities; the Mendicant Friars; Pluralities continued; the Puritans; Puralities of the present day; Sectarists of early times, their intrusion on the Parochial Clergy; the first Methodists; their obtrusive character; Modern Methodists, their obtrusiveness: their promptness in attacking our discourses on public occasions; their general topic of abuse, that we do not preach the Gospel; Uuitarians and Quakers, their railing accusations; Sectarian insidiousness; affectation of a conciliating spirit; Triumph of the Oli verian Sectarists, Disappointment of the Innovators; Sectarists, &c. anticipating similar success at the present hour; No. velty of a Sect; Hypocrisy; Pretences to Inspiration; Miracles; Official importance; Singing, praying, exhorting, preach. ing, style and manner, and doctrine; the Methodist Preacher, his familiarity with his Bock; Dineraucy; Co-operation of

Churchmen with Sectarists; the Evange lical Clergy; Prophesyings, Prayer Meetings; Lectureships; the Extempore Preaching of the Evangelical Clergy; Spirit of Proselytism-the Jews and Missionary Societies; Visitations; Associa tions; Sunday Schools; Sunday Schools, instruments of disaffection; Mrs. H. More; the Blagdon Controversy; Mr. Wilberforce; Clergy and others giving way to the Methodists, who circumvent us by charitable institutions; the Unitarians, Lancaster; Lancaster, anecdote of De Luc; Unitarianism; Infidel Institutions, Schools of Deism; the Bible Society, its motley complexion; inward rancour, under the mask of benevolence; the undertaking disproportionate to its object; the Puritans attempting the Universities; the present

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Society; Female Agency; Churches; Committee Rooms; Sectarism slang; Sectarian ascendency; Sense of the sin of Schism done away; Exultation of the Faction; Any may give away, and all should read;' Danger of reading without a guide; Bible without Notes; Brown's Bible with Notes; success by means of the press; Libraries for the poor; indifference and false candour in Churchmen; Firmness and Spirit; the Toleration Act; Qualification of the Methodists; the clerical conduct, with respect to Dissenters in general; with respect to the Papists; Ridicule; Union in the common cause; Revenues of the Church of England; Tithes; Sale of Livings to be done away; Division of large Parishes, and building Churches; Dean Rurals; Vexatious Laws to be rescinded; Canons and Rubric, to be cleared from ambigu ities, and confirmed by a new statute; Revision of the Canons, with respect to Churchwardens; the Curate's Act; the Consolidation Act; the Education of the Clergy; the Universities; Universities, Seeds of Sectarism sown there; Examination for Holy Orders; Ecclesiastical Dignities; the Parochial Clergy, their respectability; Intercourse between the dignified and the parochial Clergy; Curates to bear the burden; Preferment of Curates; Easy circumstances of the Clergy; Families of the Clergy; Secular Concerns; County Meetings, Vestries; Tithes; Recreations; Religious Deportment; the Sabbath; Church Duties; Evening Lectures; Itinerants not admissible into our Pulpits; Church Catechism; Church Catechism; Mr. Southey; the Bell School; the Elizabethan School; Acquaintance with our flock; Conduct in our families; the Laity, their example; Sincerity of Religious Professions; Anecdotes of Whitaker, and Decease of the good Pastor." In the Appendix will be found: "J. Poetry.-Sir Aaron, or the Flights of Fanaticisms;

Fanaticism; the Deserted Village; the Belle School; and the Belles turned Biblemongers, or a New Plume for Vanity; a Satiric Sketch.

II. Correspondence; the Bible Society; the Lancasteriau School; the Catholick Question; the Merlin of the Catholicks; Methodism, its bright side; and Bishop Fell."

We shall take an early opportunity of laying before our Readers some interesting notices of Bp. Lavington, and other specimens of the work.

96. Observations on certain Ancient Pillars of Memorial, called Hoar-Stones; to which is added, a Conjecture on the Croyland Inscription. By William Hamper. 4to. pp. 27. Longman and Co.

FOR these "Observations," ou a curious subject, the Publick are indebted to an elegant and skilful Antiquary, who informs us that,

**In many parts of Great Britain are to be seen certain upright rude pillars, or massy blocks of stone, which in England are called Hoar-Stones, or by a name of nearly the same sound, with all the gradations of dialectical variety.-Their appellation in Scotland is the Hare-Stane; and amongst our Cambrian neighbours they are known as the Maen-gwyr, and Maen-hir, the first syllable signifying a stone, in the plural Meini-hirion *.

"So remote is their antiquity, that all tradition of the purpose for which they were set up has ceased, and their name has lost its distinctness; whilst the contrariety of opinion expressed by those writers who have noticed the subject, has raised an additional mist of obscurity around it."

Mr. Hamper divides his elucidation of the subject into three sections, the first of which contains the notices of different Authors, who have incidentally noticed Hoar-stones. These are, Dugdale, Dodsworth, Gough, Hutton, Nichols, an Anonymous Writer in 1666 (published by Hearne), Sir Walter Scott, and Rowlands.

The second section is "An Exposition of the name of Hoar-stones, whereby is shewn the intention of our Ancestors in erecting them."

The third is," A list of places, where they occur, or which have been named from them."

Mr. Hamper concludes with a very ingenious "Conjecture on the Croy

"Sir R. C. Hoare, in his Ancient History of North Wiltshire, p. 113, observes that they are also found in Ireland."

land Inscription," which, with an accurate fac-simile, we lay before our Readers.





"The diversity of opinion amongst Antiquaries relative to the first word on that inscribed Hoar Stone, called Saint Guthlac's Cross, near Croyland in Lincolnshire, is well known. It may be sufficient for the present purpose to refer to Mr. Gough's preface to the History of Croyland Abbey, printed as No. XI. of Bibliotheca Topographica Britannica; where, in addition to two very fanciful sketches, the form of the stone, with its broken top, and the arrangement of its letters, are accurately shewn from a drawing by Mr. Essex.

As far as Roman Capitals can express the Inscription, which is partly monogrammatic, it stands thus:





"Bearing in mind that this was 'recut, and the face of the stone smoothed,' about the middle of the last century, and that 'the top of the letters in AIO were cut

upon the fracture, and inclined to the centre of it, (Preface, pp. xv. xvi.) ;' I ventare to conjecture that what is called an I, between the A and the O, is the lower part of a Cross, whose head ranging above the neighbouring letters, would by the breaking of the stone be completely destroyed, whilst they were only partially mutilated.-One difficulty being removed, the Inscription becomes intelligible.



"This connected with the symbol of the Cross, and in allusion to Revelation i. 8, would convey a religious sentiment, something like the following:

Christ the beginning and the end we own; Though Guthlac here has plac'd his Boundary Stone."

97. Ormerod's

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