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apparently trivial matter as vulcanized rubber thread, one English firm turns out about 3,000 lbs. per day, and another single small article-namely, tobacco pouches—is made in another factory at the rate of 3,000 per diem.
Hard vulcanized rubber, termed vulcanite, and sometimes ebonite, is made into a great many small articles, such as combs, chains, bracelets, boxes, penholders, paperknives, knife-handles, buttons, etc., as a substitute for materials like horn, bone, ivory, and jet. As in the case of these substances, it is formed into various objects by molding, cutting, carving, polishing, and other processes. Vast numbers of these articles are now sold, but some time must yet elapse before the quality of this material is thoroughly tested. The black color of vulcanite ornaments has still a tendency to turn gray, but the brittleness which was a fault of combs made of it a few years ago, seems to be overcome. With respect to objects of considerable size, vulcanite has been made into furniture, ornamental tiles, and even rails for railroads. A kind of vulcanite is now very largely employed as an insulator in electric cables, experience having shown that there are certain objections to gutta-percha being used for this purpose.
There are some useful applications of india-rubber in the liquid or semi-liquid state, which it is worth while to note ; thus, when melted at 398° F., and mixed with half its weight of slaked lime, it forms a useful cement or lute, which can be easily loosened, but it will dry and harden if red lead is added. A very tenacious glue is formed by heating C., coal tar, and shell-lac together. It forms an ingredient in some special kinds of varnishes, and it also improves the lubricating qualities of mineral oils, when a small quantity is dissolved in them.
In Great Britain there are six or eight large india-rubber factories, each employing from 400 to 600 hands, besides a great number of smaller works. The manufacture of C. is also an extensive industry in the United States, and in some continental countries, especially France. According to an estimate made by M. Ballard in 1867, the annual French consumption of raw india-rubber was then 180,000 lbs., the value of which in a manufactured state was fully £3,000,000. This would indicate that the industry is more largely developed in France than in England. In most india-rubber factories & large number of the work-people are females ; and with respect to the operatives engaged in them generally, there is this peculiarity, that as no great skill is required on their part, employment in such works has proved quite a boon to many persons who have never learned a trade. See Supp., page 889.
CAP, in ship-building, is a strong, thick block of wood fixed near the top of each mast; it has a hole to receive the upper end of the lower mast, and another to receive the lower end of the topmast, with eyebolts to aid in hoisting the topmast. There is also a C. of smaller size at the point of junction between the topmast and the top-gallantmast. When made of iron, the C. is called a crance.
CAP. See PERCUSSION CAPS.
CAPACITY, LEGAL, is such a condition of individuals, in regard to their natural quali. ties and actual position under the constitution of the country, as fits them for the application of the laws civil and criminal. Generally speaking, all persons have this legal capacity excepting aliens, persons attainted, convicts, insane persons, and to some extent also infants, femmes coverts or married women, and persons under duress, see these heads. See also CONVEYANCE, CONTRACT, PLAINTIFF, PURSUER, DEFENDANT, SUIT.
CAPANNORI, a city of Italy, 5 m. e. of Lucca; situated in a fertile plain, on the railroad from Pisa to Florence; pop. '81, 43,673.
CAP-Á-PIE' (Fr. head to foot), in the military language of the middle ages, was applied to a knight or soldier armed at all points, or from head to foot, with armor for defense and weapons for attack.
CAPAR'ISONED, in heraldry. A war-horse completely furnished for the field is said to be caparisoned.
CAPE, in geography, the extremity of a portion of land projecting into the sea beyond the general line of the shore. On a low sandy coast, a C. generally forms an obtuse angle, being merely a change in the trending of the land. On rocky shores, capes usually form acute angles, and are here sometimes called points or promontories.
CAPE AGULHAS. See AGULHAS.
CAPE ANN, in n. e. Massachusetts, 31 m. from Boston; 42° 38' n., 70° 35' w.; has two fixed lights 90 feet above tide, and about half a mile apart. There are two other lights on Thatcher's island, about a mile off shore. There are valuable stone-quarries at the cape. The whole rocky peninsula generally included under this name, projects about 20 m. into the Atlantic ocean. The s. and e, shores have many attractive summer resorts
CAPE BAB-EL-MANDEB. See BAB-EL-MANDEB.
CAPE BIANCO, the most northerly point of Africa, on the Mediterranean; 37° 20' n., 9° 48' east.
CAPE BLANCO, or ORFORD, in 8.w. Oregon, 42° 45' n., 125° 45' W.; 25 m. from the mouth of the Rogue river. A little s. of the cape is Port Orford; on the cape is a light 125 ft. above tide.
CAPE BLANCO, on the w, coast of Africa. See BLANCO. CAPE BOE'O, the w. point of Sicily, a mile from Marsala; 37° 28' n., 12° 25' east. Off this cape, in 241 B.C., the Romans gained a naval victory over the Carthaginians, closing the first Punic war.
CAPE BOJADOR'. See BOJADOR.
CAPE BON, or Ras AD CR, in inis, Africa, 37° 6' n., 11° 3' e., at the entrance of the gulf of Tupis.
CAPE BRETON, a rocky island of irregular form in British North America, stretching in n. lat. between 45o and 47°, and in w. long. between 60° and 61° 30'. It is separated from the peninsula of Nova Scotia by Chebucto or Chedabucio bay and the gut of Canso, contains 3,120 sq.m., with a pop. (1881) of 31,258. Its principal exports are pine, oak, birch, maple, fish, and coal. Though the island produces maize and other grains, yet it depends for its breadstuffs chiefly on the United States. C. B., originally a French possession, was taken by the English in 1745; but being subsequently restored to France, it was again captured in 1758, and ceded in 1763. After having been for a time a distinct colony, it now forms part of the province of Nova Scotia. The towns are Sydney, Ari. chat, and Port Hood, the once famous Louisbourg, stripped of its fortifications, having become merely a village.
CAPE BRET'ON, a co. in e. Nova Scotia, a part of the island of the same name, nearly surrounded by the ocean; pop. '81, 31,258. Coul is the chief productiou. Chief town, Sydney.
CAPE CANAV'ERAL, about the middle of the Atlantic coast of Florida, 28° 27' n., 80° 33' west. It has a revolving light 139 ft. above the water. There are dangerous shoals around the cape.
CAPE CHARLES, at the n.e. entrance of Chesapeake bay, Virginia. On Smith's island there is a revolving light 37° 3' n., 76° 2' west.' This cape is the extreme s. projection of the “eastern shore” of Maryland.
CAPE CLEAR, a high promontory on the s. side of Clear island, co. Cork, Ireland, usually the first land seen when steamers are approaching England from America. There are two lights, one in 51° 26' 1., 9° 29' w.; and one on Fastnett rock, 31 m. n.w. by s. from the cape, 148 ft. above high water.
CAPE COAST CASTLE, the chief settlement of Great Britain in north or upper Guinea, lat. 5° 5' n., and long. 1° 13' west. The place, as its name implies, is defended by a fort, or rather by three forts. It has a pop. of 10 000. Durivg 1871, the external trade of the entire gold coast, C. C. C. then being the capital, was as follows: imports, £364,672; exports, £327,012. Under the latter head, the principal articles were palm-oil, gold-dust, tortoise shell, and maize.
CAPE COD, properly a narrow peninsula of Massachusetts, which, with a length of 65 m., forms the s.e. boundary of the great bay of that state. The northern extremity, marked by a revolving light 155 ft. high above the level of the sea, is in lat. 42° 4' n., and long. 70° 15' west.
CAPE COD (ante), the n.w. point of the long sandy strip running around Cape Cod bay and forming Barnstable co., Mass., inclosing Provincetown and Cape Cod harbors. The name is applied also to the whole strip of land. On Race point, at the n. extremity, there is a revolving light 155 ft. above tide, in 42° 4' n., 70° 15' west. There are also several other lights. The cape was discovered by Gosnold 18 years before the arrival of the pilgrims.
CAPE COLONY. See CAPE OF GOOD HOPE.
CAPE DIAMOND, the high rock at the junction of the St. Lawrence and the St. Charles on which stands the citadel of Quebec.
CAPE DISAPPOINTMENT, or CAPE HANCOCK, the s. w. point of Washington terri. tory, at the entrance of Columbia river; 46° 16' n., 124° 2' w.; has a white light 232 ft. above the water.
CAPE DUCA'TO. See DUCATO.
CAPE ELIZABETH, in the town of that name in Cumberland co., Me., 6 m. s.e. of Portland, 43° 33' n., 70° 11' w. There are two lights, one fixed and one floating. The town is a suburb of Portland, and a popular summer resort; pop. '80, 5,302.
CAPE FAREWELL, the s. point of Greenland, a precipitous headland on an island; 59° 49' n., 43° 54' w. The currents, the ice, and the winds combine to make this probably the most boisterous point on the globe.
CAPE FEAR, the s. point of Smith's island at the mouth of Cape Fear river in North Carolina; 33° 48' n., 77° 57' w. There is a light about a mile from the shore.
CAPE FEAR RIVER, in North Carolina, formed by the Haw and Deep rivers, and affording navigation from the ocean to Wilmington, and further for steamboats. It enters the Atlantic n. of Smelt island.
CAPEFIGUE, BAPTISTE HONORÉ RAYMOND, a French publicist and historian, was b., 1801, at Marseilles. He studied law at Aix, and in 1821 proceeded to Paris, for the purpose of completing his juridical course, but soon betook himself to journalism and author. ship. He held a post in the foreign office until 1848. This, however, did not interfere with his amazing activity. Besides contributing extensively to many of the Parisian journals, C. also "manufactureil" not less than a hundred volumes of history-noi, indeed, intrinsically valuable, but indicating wonderful facility in the use of the pen. The best is the Histoire de la Restauration (3d edit., 1842). C. also published of late years many interesting biographical works. He d. 1882.
CAPE FINISTERRE. See FINISTERRE.
CAPE FLATTERY, the extreme w. point of the United States (except Alaska), in Washington territory, s. of the strait of Juan de Fuca. On an island half a mile from the cape is a light, 48° 20' n., 124° 43' 48" west.
CAPE FLORIDA, the s. extremity of Key Biscayne in Dade co., Fla., e. of the Everglades. There is a fixed white light.
CAPE GATA, or CAPE DE GATTE, a promontory of Spain in the province of Granada extending into the Mediterranean; å mass of rock about 24 m. in circumference. The most notable of the pile is the ancient Promitorium Charidemi, the Moorish Kheyran, and is formed chiefly of agates, spars, and crystals. The cape was once a resort of Moorish pirates.
CAPE GIRARDEAU, a co. in s.e. Missouri, on the Mississippi and the St. Louis and Iron Mountain railroads. It is level, fertile, and well cultivated; producing wheat, corn, oats, potatoes, tobacco, etc.; 875 sq.m.; pop. '80, 20,998—1994 colored. Co. seat, Jackson.
CAPE GIRARDEAU, a city in the co. of the same name in Missouri on the Mississippi river, 100 m. below St. Louis; pop. '80, 3,889. It is in a rich and well cultivated section. St. Vincent's college, Roman Catholic, is the principal public institution.
CAPE GUARDAFUI'. See GUARDAFUI.
CAPE HATTERAS, a dangerously low point of North Carolina, U. S., in lat. 35° 14' n., and long. 75° 30' w. It forms the eastern extremity of the insular banks of the same name, projecting virtually into the Florida stream, and marking the spot where the coast-line abruptly turns from the direction of n.e. to that of due north.
CAPE HATTERAS (ante), the point of the coast of North Carolina stretching furthest into the Atlantic, and by far the most dangerous part of the American coast for navigators, on account of shoals and frequent gales and storms. Coasting vessels are apt to be crowded up towards this cape by the gulf stream, which is only about 20 m. east. There is a light near the cape 192 ft. above the sea. Cape Hatteras is off about the middle of Pamlico sound, and is one of the most desolate and barren regions on the U. S. coast.
CAPE HAYTIËN (formerly called Cape Français and Cape Henri), a seaport t. of the island of Hayti, on its n. coast, in lat. 19° 40' n., long. 72° 54' west. It is pleasantly situ. ated on a small bay, partly encircled by hills, has wide and well-paved streets, and some handsome squares. A great portion of it, however, is in ruins, the effects of the revo. lutionary wars at the end of last century. Safe anchorage is found within the harbor, which, however, is rather difficult of access. C. H. carries on a considerable trade with the United States. Pop. stated at from 12,000 to 16,000.
CAPE HENLOʻPEN, on the e. coast of Delaware, at the s. entrance of the Delaware bay, 13 m. s.s.w. of cape May, which is in New Jersey, on the other side of the entrance. Cape Henlopen is in 38° 47' n., 75° 5' w., and has a fixed light 182 ft. above the sea
CAPE HENRY, on the coast of Virginia, at the s. entrance to Chesapeake bay, opposite to cape Charles in Maryland; 36° 56' n., 76° 4' w.; has a fixed light 120 ft. above the sea.
CAPE HORN, or Hoorn, the most southerly point of America, terminating an island of its own name, in the archipelago of Terra del Fuego. It is in lat. 55° 58' 40" S., and long. 67° 16' w., having a perennially antarctic climate, and being in itself merely a detached link, bare and rugged, of the chain of the Andes. It was discovered by Schouten, a native of Hoorn in Holland, about 90 years later than the strait of Magellan, and since then the course of navigation of sailing vessels has been round the cape instead of through the strait.
CAP'EL, ARTHUR, Lord, 1600-49; representative of Hertford, in the Long parliament of 1640. He was a royalist officer, acting with lord Colchester and Edward Hyde as a general, and was in the actions of Bristol, Exeter, and Taunton. At Colchester,
he was compelled by famine to surrender to Fairfax. He was tried for treason and executed Mar. 9, 1649. He was the author of Daily Observations or Meditations.
*CAP'EL, Thomas John, b. 1835; an English Roman Catholic priest. When but 17 years old, he, with others, founded a normal training college for the education of schoolteachers, of which, in 1856, he was made vice-principal. Being compelled to seek southern Europe on account of ill health, he founded at Pau a mission for English-speaking Roman Catholics, in consequence of which the pope advanced him to “monsignore," a position equivalent to that of bishop. Returning to England, in 1873 he established the Roman Catholic public-school at Kensington, and devoted much of his time to preaching. In 1874, he published a Reply to Gladstone's Political Ex postulation. See Supp., page 889.
CAPE LA HAGUE, a promontory of France, forming the n.w. extremity of the peninsula of Cotentin, in the department of Manche. It juts out into the English channel, opposite the island of Alderney, and about 16'm. n.n.w. of Cherbourg, and 50 m. s. of St. Alban's Head, in Dorsetshire.
CAPE LA HOGUE, often confounded with cape la Hague, is situated on the e. side of the same peninsula. Here the united English and Dutch fleets defeated the French in 1692.
CA PELIN, Mallotus Grænlandicus, a small fish of the family of salmonidæ, extremely abundant on the coasts of Newfoundland, and much used as bait in the cod-fishery. It is also, in a dry state, an article of commerce, and is imported, although not very largely, into Britain, where it sometimes appears on the breakfast or supper table. Its favor, which is very agreeable, suggests to most persons the idea of its belonging to the herring rather than the salmon family. It is nearly allied to the smelt, but the teeth are smaller and more numerous. It is the only known species of its genus. --Shoals of capelins arrive periodically on the coast of Newfoundland, the vast numbers changing the very color of the sea.
CAPELL, EDWARD, 1713-81; b. in Suffolk, England; a Shakespearean annotator and critic. As deputy-inspector of plays, he became so much disturbed by the inaccuracies in the current edition of Shakespeare, that he projected an entirely new print, carefully compared with the original as far as possible. Ihis was published at the expense of the London book-sellers. He continued his Shakespearean researches during his life, and shed much light on the great author's works. He also published a volume of ancient poems under the title of Prolusions.
CAPELLA, a bright star of the first magnitude, on the left shoulder of Auriga. C. is also called Capra or the She-goat, a name also sometimes given to Capricorn.— The poets fable C. to be Amalthea's goat, which suckled Jupiter in his infancy.
CAPELLA. See A CAPELLA.
CAPELLA, MARTIANUS MINEUS FELIX, a learned author belonging to the second half of the 5th c., was born in Africa, but where is not definitely ascertained. Of his life nothing whatever is known. The work which has preserved his name to posterity is the Satiricon, a kind of encyclopædia, highly esteemed during the middle ages as a work of reference. It is written in a medley of prose and verse, and is full of curious learning, but possesses no literary value; the style has all the bombastic pomp of the African school of later Latinists. It consists of nine books. The first two consist of an allegory,
The Nuptials of Philology and Mercury, while the remaining seven are devoted to the "liberal arts, grammar, dialectics, rhetoric, geometry, arithmetic, astronomy, and music. The first edition of the Satiricon appeared in 1499, under the care of Franciscus Bodianus; the best in 1836, under the care of U. F. Kopp.
The book on astronomy is remarkable as containing a hint of the true theory of the solar system. Mercury and Venus are there declared to move round the sun, and not round the earth; and their relation to these bodies is properly explained. Now as Coper. nicus knew C., and quotes from him, it is not unlikely that he derived the first idea of his doctrine from this writer.
CAPE LOOKOUT, on the e. coast of North Carolina, 85 m. 8.w. of cape Hatteras; 34° 7' n., 76° 33' w., having a fixed white light 100 ft. above tide.
CAPE MATAPAN', the s. extremity of the continent of Europe, in Greece, between the gulf of Laconia and Kalamatia, 36° 23' n., 22° 29' east. The ancient Greeks called it Tænarium, and made it sacred to Neptune, whose temple stood near the cape, the remains of which are yet to be seen.
CAPE MAY, the s. point of New Jersey, at the n.e. entrance to Delaware bay. There is a revolving light 152 ft. above tide; 38° 56' n., 74° 57' west.
CAPE MAY, a co. in s. New Jersey, on the ocean and Delaware bay, intersected by the Cape May and Millville railroad; 250 sq.m.; pop. '80, 9765. The surface is level, and somewhat swampy, with alluvial soil, producing grain, hay, and fruit. In one of the swamps is a deposit of cedar trees, the timber of which is still good, though must have been under-ground more than 2000 years. Co. seat, Cape May Court-house.
CAPE MAY, or CAPE ISLAND, a t., village, and celebrated watering place, in Cape May co., N. J.; connected with Philadelphia by railroad; sometimes called Cape city or Cape Island city. There is a fine beach several miles long, and the bathing facilities are of the first order. The hotels are numerous, and of modern construction, and in summer the place is the favorite resort of Philadelphians as well as of people from cities more remote. The climate is usually equable and pleasant.
CAPE MENDOCI'NO, in Humboldt co., Cal., the extreme w. point of the state; 40° 26' 24" n., 124° 23' 27" west. There is a flashing light 428 ft. above the water.
CAPE NORTH. See MAGEROE.
CAPE ORTEGAL', the n. extremity of Spain, projecting into the bay of Biscay in the province of Corunna; 43° 47' n., 7° 56' w.; on a rugged and barren coast.
CAPE OF GOOD HOPE, popularly regarded as the most southerly promontory of Africa, though it is half a degree to the n. of cape Agulhas. The latter is merely a projection on a coast-line, which diverges inconsiderably from a parallel; but the former is really the turning-point from s. to e. on the voyage from Europe to India. This celebrated promontory is in lat. 34° 22' s., and long. 18° 29' e., being the termination of Table mountain, which, as it recedes towards the bay of its own name, rises from the height of 1000 ft. above the sea to that of 3,582. The cape (for so it is called by way of eminence) was discovered and doubled by Diaz, a Portuguese navigator, as early as 1486—six years before Columbus, in aiming at the game goal by a different route, led the way to America. But it was only in 1497 that Vasco da Gama realized the value of Diaz's discovery, by rounding it on his adventurous voyage from Lisbon to Calicut. The result was not merely to open a new channel for the traffic of the east, but it was also to transfer trad. ing superiority from the republics of Italy to the states of Western Europe.
CAPE OF GOOD HOPE, a British colony, was so called from the cape on its s.w. extremity. It was established by the Dutch in 1652, some attempts at a settlement hav. ing been
previously made by the Portuguese. The former only intended it at first as an intermediate station between Holland and their East Indian possessions; and at first occupied only a small tract of ground on the slopes of Table mountain, with some portion of the adjoining flats; but they had in their neighborhood scattered tribes of improvident natives, singularly feeble of purpose, and incapable of organization on a large scale. The tide of immigration set in from Holland, and when the country was finally taken possession of by the British in 1806 (there having been a brief occupation of it from 1796 till 1803), the Dutch had extended their dominion as far to the e. as the mouth of the Great Fish river, and from that point in a waving line across the country to the W., a little s. of Orange river.
In entering upon the government of this large territory, the British found themselves face to face with a race of a totally different sort from that of the purposeless Hottentot
-a people styled Kaffirs, mainly of Arab descent, consisting of tall, athletic, finely formed men, of warlike dispositions, with an incurable propensity to steal from any one, provided he was not of their own tribe, and particularly so if he was a foreigner. The inevitable result was a succession of wars—those, namely, of 1812, 1819, 1828, 1835–36, 1846–47, 1851-52.
Cape Colony proper is bounded on the n. by the Orange river and the Kei. But of late the area of this British possession has been greatly extended by the annexation of districts lying to the northward. Of these successive annexations the most important are that of British Kaffraria (see KAFFRARIA) in 1866; of Basuto-land, lying in the upper basin of the Orange river, in 1868; of two vast districts across the Kei called Fingo-land and Noman's-land, now called Griqua-land East (q.v.), in 1875; of Griqua-land West, in 1876; and of the Transvaal (q.v.) in 1877. The area of cape Colony proper is 181,592 sq.m., and its pop. in 1875, 496,381. The area of the whole colony, with the new districts (the Transvaal excluded), is estimated at 233,495 sq.m ; pop. at 1,120,162.
The highest range of mountains within the colony is 9,000 ft. above the sea. The mountains keep at a distance from the coast-line of from 30 to about 100 m., and receive different names on their course, such as the Stormberg, Sneeuwberg, Nieuwveld, Rog. geveld, and Kamiesberg. Between this principal range and the sea on the e., there are two other ranges less continuous and regular, the intermediate one generally more distant from the first than they are from each other.
South Africa being not far from the region of the trades, s.e. winds prevail, especially in the summer time; the only other wind that may be said to blow is that from the n.w., which prevails during the colder months. But whichever of these two winds predominates—the one bearing a supply of rain from the Indian ocean, the other, if less frequent, more richly laden from a part of the Atlantic nearer the line than the country which it fertilizes—it fails to deposit its stores on the opposite side of the principal water-shed which crosses its path. Hence the curious fact of the transposition of seasons in the same latitude. As the harvest in such latitudes depends more on the sup. ply of rain than anything else, people are reaping on the one side of the country whilst they are sowing and planting on the other. Certain parts of the country are liable to long continued droughts, because while very heavy rain-falls take place, the rain is confined to a particular part of the year. The country, however, is admirably adapted