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61 and out of the Gap; during which, Gen. Buford, with his cavalry diLee moved rapidly southward, pass- vision, pushed ** across the river, at ing around our right flank and ap- Rappahannock Station, and crowded pearing in our front when our army back, first a brigade, then a division, again looked across the Rappahan- of Stuart's cavalry nearly to Culpepnock.
per Court House, when their infantry
compelled him to retreat, fighting, till So soon as it was known that Lee he was supported by the 1st corps; had started for the North with all when the foe in turn desisted. Our the force that he could muster, Gen. loss this day was 140, including 16 Dix, commanding at Fortress Mon- killed. roe, was directed to make a demon Gen. Kilpatrick next crossed at stration on Richmond. Gen. Keyes Port Conway below Fredericksburg, was appointed to lead it. Starting driving before him a Rebel force stafrom White IIouse, about 5,000 men tioned on this side, and burning two of all arms, under the more immedi- gunboats recently captured by the ate command of Gen. Getty, with at Rebels on the Potomac, and run into least as many more behind at call, the Rappahannock for future use. Keyes moved up to Baltimore Cross Gen. Pleasanton next crossed the roads, whence some 1,500 cavalry Rappahannock at Kelly's and other were sent forward to burn the Central fords with most of our cavalry, in Railroad bridge over the South Anna, three divisions, under Buford, Kilwhich they effected. There was some patrick, and Gregg, pressing back skirinishing at various points, with Stuart's cavalry to Brandy Station the advantage oftener on the side of and Culpepper Court House, and the enemy; the upshot of all being thence across the Rapidan, capturing that Keyes retreated without a seri- two guns and quite a body of prisonous fight, and without having accom- ers. Otherwise, the losses on either plished any thing worth the cost of side were light. Gen. Warren; with the movement. As Richmond was the 2d corps, supported our cavalry, defended by a single brigade under but was at no time engaged. Wise, with such help as might be This reconnoissance having proved hastily summoned from points farther that Lee had depleted his army to south or obtained from her office- röenforce Bragg in Tennessee, Gen. holders and other exempts organized Meade crossed" the Rappahannock as militia, it seems obvious that a in force, posting himself at Culpepmore determined leader, who would per Court House, throwing forward not have fallen back without know- two corps to the Rapidan; which he ing why, was badly needed. A spir- | was preparing to cross when he was ited, resolute dash might have given ordered from Washington to detach" us Richmond on the same day that the 11th and 12th corps, under HookGrant took possession of surrendered er, to the aid of our army at ChattaVicksburg and Lee recoiled from nooga. Being rëenforced soon afterMeade's unshaken front at Gettys- ward, he sento Gen. Buford, with his burg.
cavalry division, across the Rapidan 07 July 1. 68 Aug. 1,
03 Oct. 10.
LEE CHASES MEADE UP TO CENTERVILLE.
to uncover the upper fords, prepara- , and was hemmed in where his whole tory to an advance of the 1st and 6th command must have been destroyed corps; but Lee at the same time cross or captured had he not succeeded in ing Robertson's river and advancing hiding it in a thicket of old-field in force from Madison Court House on pines, close by the road whereon our our right, Meade fell back“ across the men marched by: the rear of the corps Rappahannock; our cavalry, under encamping close beside the enemy, Pleasanton, covering the retreat, and utterly unsuspicious of their neighbeing engaged from Culpepper Court borhood, though every word uttered House to Brandy Station, where Bu- in our lines as they passed was disford rejoined him, and the enemy were tinctly heard by the lurking foe. Stuheld in check till evening, when Pleas- art at first resolved to abandon his anton withdrew across the river. guns and attempt to escape with
Meade now, presuming the enemy moderate loss, but finally picked in force at Culpepper Court House, three of his men, gave them muskets, pushed over the 6th, 5th, and 2d made them up so as to look as much corps to Brandy Station, while Bu- as possible like our soldiers, and thus ford's cavalry moved in the van to drop silently into our ranks as they Culpepper Court House; when, on passed, march a while, then slip out hearing from Gen. Gregg, command on the other side of the column, and ing the cavalry division on our right, inake all haste to Gen. Lee at Warthat the enemy had driven him back renton, in quest of help. During the from Hazel run across the Rappa- night, two of our officers, who stepped hannock, and were crossing at Sul- into the thicket, were quietly captured. phur Springs and Waterloo in heavy At daylight, the crack of skirmishforce, Meade hastily drew back his ers' muskets in the distance gave toarmy across the river and retreated ken that Lee had received and reto Catlett's Station and thence to sponded to the prayer for help; when Centerville; Gregg, with the 4th and Stuart promptly opened with grape 13th Pa. and 1st N. Y. cavalry and and canister on the rear of our as10th N. Y. infantry, being surround- tounded column, which had bivoued and attacked" near Jefferson, and acked just in his front, throwing it routed, with a loss of 500, mainly into such confusion that he easily prisoners.
dashed by and rejoined his chief; Our army was sharply and impu- having inflicted some loss and sufdently pursued, especially by Stuart's fered little or none. cavalry, who gathered up quite a But such ventures can not always number of prisoners, mainly strag- prove lucky. That same day," A. glers, of little value unless to ex- P. Hill's corps, which had left Warchange. Stuart, with 2,000 of his renton at 5 A. M., moving up the cavalry, pressed our rear so eagerly Alexandria turnpike to Broad Run that, when near Catlett's Station," church, thence obliquing by Greenhe had inadvertently got ahead, by a wich to strike our rear at Bristow flank movement, of our 2d corps, Station, had obeyed the order, and Gen. Warren, acting as rear-guard; fallen in just behind our 3d corps, 04 Oct. 11. 65 Oct. 12. 86 Oct. 13. 07 Oct. 14.
es Oct. 12, " Night of Oct. 13–14.70 Oct. 14.
and was eagerly following it, picking continued up to Fairfax Court House up stragglers, and preparing to charge, -and would have attempted to rewhen, about noon, our 2d corps, Gen. trace his steps directly; but a heavy Warren, which was still behind, ap- rain" had rendered Bull Run unpeared on the scene, and considera- fordable, and obliged him to send for bly deranged Hill's (or Lee’s) calcu- pontoons; meantime, the enemy, aflations. Hill turned, of course, to ter skirmishing along his front and fight the advancing rather than the making feints of attack, retreated as retreating foe, having his batteries rapidly as they had advanced, comready for action; while Warren, who pletely destroying the Orange and was for the moment surprised at find- Alexandria Railroad from Bristow to ing an enemy in his front rather than the Rappahannock-Stuart, aided by his rear, required ten minutes to pre- a flank attack from Fitz Hugh Lee, pare for a suitable reply. Soon, how- worsting Kilpatrick, by force of numever, Brown's and Arnold's batteries bers, in a not very sanguinary encounopened on our.side, with such effect, ter" near Buckland's Mills, whence aided by the fire of Webb’s and our cavalry fell back nimbly to Hays's divisions of infantry, that the Gainesville. In this affair, Custer's enemy fell back, abandoning six guns, brigade did most of the fighting on whereof five-all that were servicea- our side; but the enemy was so vastly ble-were at once seized and put to the stronger, backed by infantry, that our side.
An attempt to Kilpatrick did well to escape with charge our right flank by Petti- little loss. Stuart claims to have grew's old brigade, now Heth's, was taken 200 prisoners. signally repulsed, with a loss of 450 Lee rëcrossed the Rappahannock prisoners. After this, the fighting next day; leaving Meade, by reason was more cautious and desultory; of his ruined railroad, unable, if willthe enemy recoiling to the woods, ing, to follow him farther for some and thence keeping up a long-range time. cannonade, which amounted to noth During these operations, General ing. Our loss in killed and wounded J. D. Imboden, who, with a Rebel was about 200, including Col. James cavalry division, had been guarding E. Mallon, 420 N.Y., killed, and Gen. the gaps of the Blue Ridge, swooped Tile, of Pa., wounded; that of the down" upon Charlestown, near Harenemy was probably 400, including per's Ferry, which he took; capturing Gens. Posey (mortally), Kirkland, and 424 men, with a large amount of Cooke," wounded, and Cols. Ruffin, stores. Two hours afterward, a su1st N. C., and Thompson, 5th N. C. perior Union force appeared from cavalry, killed. Our soldiers held the Ilarper's Ferry, before which Imbofield till dark, then followed the rest den deliberately fell back, fighting, of our army, whose retreat they had to Berryville, saving nearly all his so effectually covered.
spoils; thence making good his esMeade, on reflection, was evidently cape by a night-march. ashamed--as well he might be of Besides Imboden's, Lee claims to this flight-which, the Rebels assert, have taken 2,000 prisoners during " Son of Gen. Philip St. George Cooke, Union army.
74 Oct. 18.
79 Oct. 16.
73 Oct. 19.
RUSSELL'S ASSAULT AT RAPPA HANNOCK STATION. 397
his dash across the Rappahannock; both above and below the enemy's while our captures were hardly half works; then our lines were quietly so many. In killed and wounded, advanced over rugged ground till the losses were nearly equal—not far within half a mile of the works; from 500 on either side. But the whence a flat, open vale, traversed prestige of skill and daring, of au- by a wide ditch, with high, steep dacity and success, inured entirely banks and three feet of mud and to the Rebel commander, who, with water in its bed, then by a moat 12 an inferior force, had chased our feet wide by 5 deep, now dry ; bearmy almost up to Washington, yond which, rose a hill or ridge, utterly destroyed its main artery of directly on the river's bank, on which supply, captured the larger number were the enemy's works. Gen. of prisoners, destroyed or caused us | Wright had command of the 6th to destroy valuable stores, and then corps; while Brig.-Gen. David A. returned to his own side of the Rap- Russell *' commanded the 1st divispahannock essentially unharmed ;, ion, whereof the 3d brigade, comhaving decidedly the advantage in prising the 5th Wisconsin, 6th Maine, the only collision which marked his 49th and 119th Pa., now commanded retreat.
by Col. P. C. Ellmaker, of the latter, Nettled by the trick which had was his own, and had been carefully been played upon him, Meade now drilled by him into the highest effisought permission to make an at- ciency. This brigade was advanced tempt, by a rapid movement to the directly opposite the enemy's works; left, to seize the heights of Freder- and Russell, after a careful observaicksburg; but IIalleck negatived the tion, reported to Wright, just before project ; so Sedgwick, with the 6th sunset, that those works could be and 5th corps, was sent forward at carried by storm, and was authorized daybreak” from Warrenton to Rap-, to try it. pahannock Station, where the Rebels The next moment, his brigade had strongly fortified the north bank moved forward in two lines : five of the river, covering a pontoon companies of the 6th Maine deploybridge. The works on this side were ing as skirmishers, while the 5th Wisheld by Hayes's Louisiana brigade; consin, dashing in solid column on while Iloke's brigade, composed of the largest and strongest redoubt, folthe 6th, 54th, and 57th N. C., was lowed close behind them; the 20th sent over to support it by Lee, who, Maine, of another brigade, closing with Early's division, was just across on their left, and advancing in line the river. Our approach was of with the 6th; Russell himself' at the course well known, and Iloke pushed front, and giving the order to over on purpose to make all secure. "charge;' whereupon, with fixed bay
Arriving at noon opposite the Sta- onets and without firing a shot, the tion, our troops were halted behind a line swept forward through a deluge hill a good mile away, rested and of case-shot and Minié bullets. carefully formed, and our skirmish Ten minutes later, the rest of the lines gradually advanced to the river brigade came up at double-quick to
** Of Salem, N. Y.-son of the late Hon. David Russell.
76 Nov. 7.
their aid; but, during those ten min-. Berdan's sharp-shooters in front, and utes, the 6th Maine had lost 16 out charged into the enemy's rifle-pits, of 23 officers, and 123 out of 350 en- capturing Col. Gleason, 12th Virlisted men; three of their veteran ginia, and over 400 men, with a loss captains lying dead, with Lt.-Col. of some 40. Our command of the Ilarris, of this regiment, and Maj. ford was complete; and Lee, thor- ! Wheeler, of the 5th Wisc., severely oughly worsted, fell back to Culpepwounded. Adj. Clark, of the former, per that night, and across the Rapiand Lt. Russell, a relative and aid of dan the next. Our railroad was then the General, were likewise wounded. rebuilt down to and across the RapBut now the Pennsylvania regiments pahannock, and rëopened" to Branrushed in at their highest speed, and dy Station; which thus became our the struggle at this point was over; dépôt of supplies. while the 121st New York and 5th Maine, of the 20 brigade, firing but
a prevalent conviction a single volley, swept, just at dusk, among its more energetic and enterthrough the Rebel rifle-pits on Rus- prising officers that our army might sell's right, and down to the pon- have advanced directly on the heel toons in the Rebel rear, cutting off of its brilliant success at Rappahanthe retreat of the routed garrison, nock Station and its seizure of the and compelling 1,600 of them to sur- fords, and caught that of the enemy render. Four guns, 7 flags, 2,000 dispersed in Winter cantonments or small arms, and the pontoon bridge, compelled it to fight at disadvantage were among the captures; Gen. before it could be concentrated and Ilayes surrendered, but afterward intrenched in a strong position. escaped. Two of his Colonels swam Meade, however, with his habitual the river. Several who attempted to caution, waited till the bridge at do so were drowned.
The whole Rappahannock Station was rebuilt, was the work of two brigades, num- and every thing provided for moving bering less than 3,000 men; and safely; when, finding that he was most of it of Russell's, barely 1,519 not assailed nor likely to be, he strong. And, while no praise is too again gave” the order to advance. high for his men, it is not too much A storm forth with burst, which dicto say that the credit of this rarely tated a delay of three days; after paralleled exploit is mainly due to which, the start was actually made : David A. Russell--as capable, mod- Gen. French, with the 3d corps, folest, and brave a soldier as the army lowed by Sedgwick, with the 6th, of the Potomac ever knew.
(rossing the Rapidan at Jacob's mill; Simultancously with this move- Gen. Warren, with the 2d, at Germent, the 20 and 3d corps, Gen. mania ford—both moving on RobFrench, advanced to Kelly's ford; ertson's tavern; while Sykes, with where pontoons were quickly laid, the 5th, followed by Newton, with under the fire of their guns, and the two divisions of the 1st, crossed at 3) brigade of Ward's division, Gen. Culpepper ford, and Gregg, with a De Trobriand, at once dashed across, division of cavalry, crossed at Ely's
17 Nov. 19.
78 Nov. 23.