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[The Church of St. Gudule.] BRUSSELS, or Bruxelles, the capital of the new king- | to the Ruppel, a branch of the Schelde, by means of dom of Belgium, and alternately with the Hague the which this city has now had the advantage of water seat of the late government of the United Netherlands, communication with Antwerp and the German Ocean stands on the Senne, a small branch of the Schelde, for more than two centuries and a half. Another canal, in north latitude 50° 51'. Its central position, joined running south from Brussels, connects it with Char to the facilities which it possesses for communicating leroi on the Sambre; while a branch, that strikes off with all parts of the kingdom, renders it a convenient to the west before the canal reaches Charleroi, leads situation for the residence of the government. As to the stone-quarries of Fontaine l'Evêque and the coal early as the year 1561, a canal was made from Brussels | districts of Mons VOL. L.
The city of Brussels is partly situated on a small emi- | about three feet long, and about a foot round. The nence, and partly on a lower level, some of the streets scattered huts of the woodmen, sometimes with mud being very steep. The ramparts, which once surrounded walls, are seen here and there. it, are now levelled and changed into promenades like the Brussels has long been a considerable manufacturing boulevards of Paris, Brussels is six or seven miles in town, and is particularly noted for its lace; but, before circumference, has eight principal entrances, as many the late revolution, the cotton-spinning, calico printing, squares or public places, and, before the late revolution, and the manufacture of cotton cloth, employed many had about 100,000 inhabitants. The lower town, which thousand people,-in 1815 as many as 12,000. Woollen is irregularly built, and contains a number of houses in cloth, hats, glass, gold and silver articles, are also among the Gothic style, is chiefly peopled by Flemings who speak the products of its manufacturing industry. The booktheir own language. A colony of Walloons is found in manufactory itself, including type-founding, printing, and the south-east corner of the city ; while some Spanish the sale of books, employs a great number of people. refugees, Jews, French, and English residents add to the This city, with the territory around it, and indeed the motley population of the place. The quarter of the park whole country of the Netherlands, has been subject to is that which is occupied by the people of rank and pro- great political changes, to which, from its position with perty, and by the English. The park contains a great respect to the west of Europe, it seems particularly excentral area, intersected by broad gravel walks, which posed. Under the Dukes of Brabant, the Princes of the are lined with elm, lime, and walnut trees, altogether house of Burgundy, and the Spanish and Austrian forming a delightful promenade, and an agreeable shade Governors, Brussels grew into a city of importance for in the hot days of summer. The principal square in its wealth and manufacturing industry; but like many Brussels is the Place Royale, which, among other edi- of the towns of the Low Countries it has occasionally fices, contains the Ilôtel de Ville, or town-house, a Gothic witnessed scenes of horror, such as, for humanity's sake, building, with a tower or steeple, above 360 feet high, we hope will not be soon repeated. The ferocious Duke crowned by a gilded copper statue of the Archangel of Alva resided here during the latter days of Spanish Michael. In this building, in the year 1555, Charles V. tyranny, and shed wore blood during his short adminisabdicated the sovereignty of this portion of his exten- tration than probably any European tyrant on record. sive dominions in favour of his bigoted and cruel son The Counts of Egmont and Horn were executed in the Philip II. Brussels contains many handsome churches, great square of Brussels before the eyes of this sanand some of great antiquity. The old church of Ste. guinary governor. Gudule, near the great Sablon-square, is approached by In speaking of the literary and scientific institutions a magnificent flight of steps, and attracts the attention of Brussels, we should not omit to mention the geograof travellers by the curious carvings of the pulpit, which phical establishment of a private individual, M. Van der is made of oak, and represents, in bas-relief, the banish- Maelen. The following particulars are derived from ment of Adam and Eve from the garden of Eden. M. Balbi's new geographical work, which contains the
As a seat of science and literature Brussels holds only account that we have by us at present:- M. Van a high rank, and contains the usual appendages of der Maelen's establishment contains numerous worklibraries, academies, a botanic garden, &c., which are shops for artists, a garden for naturalizing plants, a found in most large continental cities. It has lately museum of natural history, and a good library. The been proposed to establish one university in Brussels for library contains an immense collection of voyages, pethe whole kingdom, in place of those already existing in riodical works, memoirs of academies, and a very large Louvaine, Ghent, and Liege. The gallery of paint-collection of maps. This institution has already pubings is an extensive and fine collection, adorned with lished an Atlas in four hundred sheets, which, if properly the works of the best Flemish painters, and affording placed, would form a globe about twenty-four feet in an excellent school for young artists. Painting, indeed, diameter
. This spirited individual has also published a few years back, received much encouragement at an Atlas of Europe in one hundred and sixty-five Brussels, to which the general demand in Belgium sheets, a map of Belgium in forty-two, of Holland in for fine altar-pieces must materially contribute. The twenty-four, and special geographical dictionaries of botanic garden of Brussels is neither large nor re- all the Belgic provinces, on a plan entirely new, conmarkable for its collection of plants; but it has a noble taining all the geographical and statistical information repository for orange-trees, about 140 feet long and 50 that can be required. wide. Some tourists say that, in 1817, there were about one hundred and seventy of these beautiful trees
PROVERBS. of various sizes, some as high as 18 feet including the tub in which they stand, and with stems measuring as "A Man of fashion,” says Lord Chesterfield, “ much as two feet in circumference. The orange-trees has recourse to proverbs and vulgar aphorisms.” And have survived the numerous political changes which this yet many greater men than Lord Chesterfield have not city has undergone. Some of them, being at least two been ashamed of employing the pithy maxims that were hundred years old, have belonged to the various Arch- husbanded in the memories of the people before they had dukes and Archduchesses of Austria, who have held their books for their guides. Those of our forefathers who court at Brussels ; they have outlived the dominion of could read had proverbs stamped on the blades of their the French, the dynasty of William of Orange, the first knives, and the borders of their pewter plates; and, and last king of the Entire Netherlands, and, if they still according to an old dramatist, they "conned them out of exist, as we suppose they do, they are now flourishing goldsmith's rings.” A member of the House of Comunder a new system of government.
mons, in the time of Elizabeth, made a speech in favour Among the pleasant walks of Brussels, one of the of a proposed law for limiting credit, in the following most delightful is a long avenue planted chiefly with words :-" I think this law is a good law. Even reckonlimes and elms, which leads from the north part of the ing makes long friends. As far goes the penny as the city towards the palace of Lacken, formerly the summer penny's master. Laws are for the good of the wakeful residence of the late King of the Netherlands. To the and not the sleeping. Pay the reckoning over night, south of the city lies the forest of Soignies, through and you shall not be troubled in the morning. If ready which the road passes for the greatest part of the way to money be the public measure, let every one cut his coat Waterloo, which is about 10 miles south of Brussels
. according to his cloth. When his old suit is in the wane, The common beech is the most prevalent tree in the let him stay till that his money bring a new suit in the forest ; but elm, oak, and ash, also grow here. This forest increase.” 'Proverbs present a curious history of the supplies Brussels with fire-wood, which is cut in logs I popular mind; and in many lessons of individual pru
dence they are safe guides. But there are some maxims, animals, who seemed sensible of their hard fate; some especially on subjects connected with the general interests few were killed, others wounded, but the greater part, of the community, which show how little our ancestors which had received no hurt, were left there to starve. understood of these leading principles of public economy From this square, the way led to my friend's lodgings, upon which nations must now found their prosperity through a long, steep and narrow street: the new scenes Some of these ancient saws are still in the mouths of of horror I met with here exceed all description; nothing many who have not yet learnt to think without prejudice; could be heard but sighs and groans. I did not meet and we may render an acceptable service if we occa- with a soul in the passage who was not bewailing the sionally endeavour to show the fallacy of such proverbs death of his nearest relations and dearest friends, or the as the following, which at present occur to us :
loss of all his substance; I could hardly take a single “ The strength of work is the decay of trade." step, without treading on the dead, or the dying: in "The pride of the rich makes the labours of the poor.” some places lay coaches, with their masters, horses, and “ Store's no sore."
riders, almost crushed in pieces; here, mothers with “One man's gain is another man's loss.”
infants in their arms; there, ladies richly dressed, priests, friars, gentlemen, mechanics, either in the same condition,
or just expiring ; some had their backs or thighs broken, THE GREAT EARTHQUAKE AT LISBON IN others yast stones on their breasts ; some lay almost buried 1755.
in the rubbish, and, crying out in vain to the passengers [Concluded from No. 46.]
for succour, were left to perish with the rest. Sooden
At length I arrived at the spot opposite to the house As I thought it would be the height of rashness to where my friend, for whom I was so anxious, resided; and venture back through the same narrow street I had so finding this as well as the contiguous buildings thrown providentially escaped from, I judged it safest to return down (which made me give him over for lost) I now over the ruins of St. Paul's to the river side, as the water thought of nothing else but saving my own life in the now seemed little agitated. From hence I proceeded, best manner I could, and in less than an hour got to a with some hazard, to the large space before the Irish public-house, kept by one Morley, near the English convent of Corpo Santo, which had been thrown down, burying-ground, about half a mile from the city, where and buried a great number of people who were hearing I still remain, with a great number of my countrymen, mass, besides some of the friars; the rest of the commu- as well as Portuguese, in the same wretched circumnity were standing in the area, looking, with dejected stances, having almost ever since lain on the ground, and countenances, towards the ruins : from this place I took never once within doors, with scarcely any covering to my way to the back street leading to the Palace, having defend me from the inclemency of the night air, which, the ship yard on one side, but found the further passage, at this time, is exceeding sharp and piercing. opening into the principal street, stopped up, by the ruins Perhaps you may think the present doleful subject of the Opera-house, one of the solidest and most mag- here concluded; but, alas ! the horrors of the 1st of nificent buildings of the kind in Europe, and just finished November are sufficient to fill a volume. As soon as at a prodigious expense; a vast heap of stones, each of it grew dark, another scene presented itself little less several tons weight, had entirely blocked up the front of shocking than those already described—the whole city Mr. Bristow's house, which was opposite to it, and Mr. appeared in a blaze, which was so bright that I could Ward, his partner, told me the next day, that he was just easily see to read by it. It may be said without exthat instant going out at the door, and had actually set aggeration, it was on fire at least in a hundred different one foot over the threshold, when the west end of the places at once, and thus continued burning for six days Opera-house fell down, and had he not in a moment together, without intermission, or the least attempt being started back, he should have been crushed into a thou- made to stop its progress.
It went on consuming every thing the earthquake had From hence I turned back, and attempted getting by spared, and the people were so dejected and terrified, that the other way into the great Square of the Palace, twice as few or none had courage enough to venture down to save large as Lincoln’s-Inn-Fields, one side of which had any part of their substance; every one had his eyes turned been taken up by the noble quay I spoke of, now no towards the flames, and stood looking on with silent grief, more; but this passage was likewise obstructed by the which was only interrupted by the cries and shrieks of stones fallen from the great arched gateway: I could not women and children calling on the saints and angels for help taking particular notice, that all the apartments succour, whenever the earth began to tremble, which was wherein the royal family used to reside, were thrown so often this night, and indeed I may say ever since, that down, and themselves, without some extraordinary miracle, the tremours, more or less, did not cease for a quarter of must unavoidably have perished, had they been there at an hour together. I could never learn that this terrible the time of the shock. Finding this passage impracticable, fire was owing to any subterraneous eruption, as some I turned to the other arched-way which led to the new reported, but to three causes, which all concurring at the Square of the Palace, not the eighth part so spacious as same time, will naturally account for the prodigious the other, one side of which was taken up by the Patri- havock it made. The 1st of November being All Saints archal Church, which also served for the Chapel Royal, Day, a high festival among the Portuguese, every altar and the other by a most magnificent building of modern in every church and chapel (some of which have more architecture, probably indeed by far the most so, not yet than twenty) was illuminated with a number of wax completely finished ; as to the former, the roof and part tapers and lamps, as customary; these setting fire to of the front walls were thrown down, and the latter, the curtains and timber-work that fell with the shock, notwithstanding their solidity, had been so shaken, the conflagration soon spread to the neighbouring houses, that several large stones tell from the top, and every and being there joined with the fires in the kitchen part seemed disjointed. The square was full of coaches, chimneys, increased to such a degree, that it might easily chariots, chaises, horses, and mules, deserted by their have destroyed the whole city, though no other cause drivers and attendants, as well as their owners.
had concurred, especially as it met with no interruption. The nobility, gentry, and clergy, who were assisting at But what would appear incredible to you, were the divine service when the earthquake began, fled away fact less public and notorious, is, that a gang of hardened with the utmost precipitation, every one where his fears villains, who had been confined, and got out of prison carried him, leaving the splendid apparatus of the nu- when the wall fell, at the first shock, were busily emmerous altars, to the mercy of the first comer: but this ployed in setting fire to those buildings, which stoo! did not so much affect me, as the distress of the poor some chance of escaping the general destruction.
čannot conceive what could have induced them to this to have destroyed the whole city, at least every thing that hellish work, except to add to the horror and confusion, was grand or valuable in it. that they might, by this means, have the better oppor- With regard to the buildings it was observed that the tunity of plundering with security. But there was no solidest in general fell the first. Every parish church, connecessity for taking this trouble, as they might certainly vent, nunnery, palace, and public edifice, with an infinite have done their business without it, since the whole city number of private houses, were either thrown down or was so deserted before night, that I believe not a soul so miserably shattered, that it was rendered dangerous remained in it, except those execrable villains, and others to pass by them. of the same stamp: It is possible some among them The whole number of persons that perished, including might have had other motives besides robbing, as one those who were burnt, or afterwards crushed to death in particular being apprehended (they say he was a whilst digging in the ruins, is supposed, on the lowest Moor, condemned to the galleys) confessed at the gal- I calculation, to amount to more than sixty thousand ; and lows, that he had set fire to the King's Palace, with his , thougn the damage in other respects cannot be comown hand; at the same time glorying in the action, and puted, yet you may form some idea of it, when I assure declaring with his last breath, that he hoped to have you that this extensive and opulent city is now nothing burnt all the royal family. It is likewise generally be- but a vast heap of ruins ; that the rich and poor are at lieved that Mr. Bristow's house, which was an exceeding present upon a level; some thousands of families which strong edifice, built on vast stone arches, and had stood but the day before had been easy in their circumstances, the shocks without any great damage, further than what being now scattered about in the fields, wanting every I have mentioned, was consumed in the same manner. conveniency of life, and finding none able to relieve The fire in short, by some means or other, may be said them.
[Interior of the Opera House : from a print by Le Bas, published in 1757, after a drawing made on the spot.) A few days after the first consternation was over, I those things I set the greatest value on, must have been ventured down into the city by the safest ways I could irrecoverably lost in the fire. pick out, to see if there was a possibility of getting any On both the times when I attempted to make this thing out of my lodgings, but the ruins were now so fruitless search, especially the first, there came such an augmented by the late fire, that I was so far from being intolerable stench from the dead bodies, that I was able to distinguish the individual spot where the house ready to faint away, and though it did not seem so great stood, that I could not even distinguish the street amidst this last time, yet it had like to have been more fatal to such mountains of stones and rubbish which rose on me, as I contracted a fever by it, but of which, God be every side. Some days after I ventured down again with praised, I soon got the better. However, this made several porters, who, having long plied in these parts of me so cautious for the future, that I avoided passing the town, were well acquainted with the situation of near certain places, where the stench was so excessive particular houses; by their assistance I at last discovered that people began to dread an infection. A gentleman the spot; but was soon convinced to dig for any thing told me, that going into the town a few days after the here, besides the danger of such an attempt, would never earthquake, he saw several bodies lying in the streets, answer the expense, and what further induced me to lay some horribly mangled, as he supposed, by the dogs; aside all thoughts of the matter, was the sight of the others half burnt; some quite roasted ; and that in cerruins still smoking, from whence I knew for certain that I tain places, particularly near the doors of churches, they lay in vast heaps, piled one upon another. You may Thus, my dear friend, have I giver you a genuine, guess at the prodigious havock which must have been though imperfect account, of this terrible judgment, made, by the single instance I am going to mention : which has left so deep an impression on my mind, that There was a high arched passage, like one of our old I shall never wear it off: I have lost all the money I had city gates, fronting the west door of the ancient cathe- by me, and have saved no other clothes than what I dral; on the left hand was the famous church of St. An- have on my back; but what I regret most is the tonio, and on the right some private houses, several stories irreparable loss of my books and papers. To add to high. The whole area surrounded by all these buildings my present distress, those friends w whom I could have did not much exceed one of our small courts in London. applied on any other occasion, are now in the same At the first shock, numbers of people who were then wretched circumstances with myself. However, notwithpassing under the arch, fled into the middle of this area standing all that I have suffered, I do not think I have for shelter; those in the two churches, as many as could reason to despair, but rather to return my gratefulest possibly get out, did the same : at this instant the arched acknowledgments to the Almighty, who hath so visibly gate-way, with the fronts of the two churches and con- preserved my life amidst such dangers, where so many tiguous buildings, all inclining one towards another with thousands perished; and the same good Providence, Í the sudden violence of the shock, fell down and buried trust, will still continue to protect me, and point out every soul as they were standing here crowded together. some means to extricate myself out of these difficulties.
[Ruins of Roslin Castle ; from an original drawing.) The above engraving represents the present appearance water's edge, while masses of the richest foliage cover in of this picturesque ruin, to the name of which at least almost every direction the brows and summits of the surthe beautiful song, beginning
rounding heights. The castle itself is now a mere ruin, " From Roslin Castle's echoing walls
consisting of little more than a few fragments of masonry, Resound my shepherd's ardent calls,"
which project their grey and ragged tops from the midst has given so much celebrity. Roslin Castle is in the of the trees, the time-shattered work of man making a parish of Lasswade, a few miles south from Edinburgh; fine though melancholy contrast with the fresh and everand it stands on the north bank of the river called the springing green of nature. There wave the old, but yet North Esk, on a rock which overhangs the stream, and strong and leafy boughs ; beside them runs the river at a point where it makes a sharp turn and pursues its along its rocky bed ;course for a moment with something of the dash and
“ Twill murmur on a thousand years, hurry of a cataract. Hence, according to one etymology,
And flow as now it fows :" the name Roslyn, from the Gaelic Ross, a promontory but the home of ancient state is stripped bare of all that or jutting rock, and Lyn, a waterfall, the Rock of the once adorned it, nor roof nor floor remains of the spacious Wa.erfall.
Others, however, derive it from another halls and gilded chambers that were wont to lodge their compound Roskelyn, signifying the Rock in the Glen; troops of retainers and guests, and to ring with their fesand this is also strikingly descriptive of the position of tive revelry. And they who tenanted them are still more the castle, which stands in the hollow of a valley, and utterly passed away; man's works are perishable, but he is surrounded on all sides by hills. The situation is in himself is of still briefer date. The old Lords of Roslin the highest degree romantic and beautiful, the wood in are supposed to have had a baronial residence on this the bosom of which the castle stands extending to the spot from the eleventh century, when they first came into