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weeks, more or less, is of no importance." *
Some further operations in the South and West, at this time, we may here, for convenience sake, put on record in closing the present chapter. Gen. Banks, as we have stated on a previous page (p. 318), was reinforced by Gen. Grant, after the capture of Vicksburg and the fall of Port Hudson, and an expedition was fitted out, early in September, under Gen. Franklin, to occupy Sabine City, at the mouth of the Sabine River, on the dividing line between Louisiana and Texas. The defences at Sabine Pass consisted, as nearly as could be ascertained, of two 32-pounders, placed en barbette, a battery of field pieces, and two boats used on the bay, converted into rams. Franklin's force, consisting of 4,000 men, left New Orleans in transports, September 4th, accompanied by a squadron of four gun boats, the Clifton, Sachem, Arizona and Granite City. The plan was for the attack to be made by the gun boats, each one having about forty-five sharpshooters on board; then, so soon as the rebels should be driven from their defences and the rams destroyed, the transports were to advance and land the troops. The expedition reached the entrance to the harbor, September 7th, and a reconnaissance having been made the next morning, an immediate
* For the rebel view of the position of affairs in respect to Charleston, tho reader can refer to Pollard. He ridicules tho statements concerning Fort Sumter and the progress of our naval force, and asserts that whilo "a large besieging force was in sight of the spires of Charleston, yet the city was safe, and proclaimed to the Confederacy new lessons of brilliant courage and hope."—" Third Year of the War," pp. 85-98.
attack was determined upon. "At six, A.m.," writes one of the officers, "the Clifton stood in the bay, and opened fire on the fort, to which no reply was made. At nine, A.m., the Sachem, Arizona and Granite City, followed by the transports, stood over the bar, and with much difficulty, owing to the shallowness of the water, reached anchorage, two miles from the fort, at eleven, A.M., the gun boats covering the transports. At half-past three, P.m., the Sachem, followed by the Arizona, ad- lggg> vanced up the eastern channel to draw the fire of the forts, while the Clifton advanced up the western channel, followed by the Granite City, to cover the landing of a division of troops under Gen. Weitzel . No reply to the fire of the gun boats was made until we were abreast of the forts, when they opened with eight guns, three of which were rifled, almost at the same moment ■ , The Clifton and Sachem were struck in their boilers, enveloping the vessels in steam. There not being room to pass the Sachem, the Arizona was backed down the chaunel, and a boat was sent to the Sachem." The officers and crews of the Clifton and Sachem, and about ninety sharpshooters, who were on board, were captured. The Union loss, in killed and wounded, was about thirty. The whole expedition now re-' turned to Brashear City, whence, after considerable delay, the army moved forward by Franklin and Vermillionville and occupied Opelousas.*
* Pollard rather boasts of this "bril liant victory won by the littlo Confederate garrison of Sabine Pas« against the fleet of the enemy;" and says, "the result of this gallant achievement was the capture of two fine gun boats, fifteen heavy guns, over 300 prisenen Ce. IV.]
On the 27th of October, an expedition under Gen. Banks sailed from New Orleans. It consisted of about twenty vessels, accompanied by three gun boats, and was destined to the mouth of the Rio Grande, which is the boundary line between Texas and Mexico. During the first three days out the weather was fine, but the next day a storm arose, and one light draft steamer and two schooners were lost, but no lives. The expedition anchored off the mouth of the river, October 31st, and on the next day a force was landed on Brazos Island. By the 4th of November, the troops were all landed, and the day following Banks entered Brownsville, on the Rio Grande, which place had become an important depot of rebel trade in connection with Matamoras.
After the surrender of Vicksburg (p. 318), Gen. Steele was sent to Helena, Arkansas, and was ordered to form A junction with Gen. Davidson and drive the rebels south of the Arkansas River. On the 1st of August, Steele advanced against the rebel force, who fell back toward Little Rock. Having reached the Arkansas, he pressed actively forward, threw a part of his troops across the river, drove the rebels in disorder before him, and entered Little Rock on the 10th of September. His entire loss did not exceed 100; while he was successful in capturing 1,000 prisoners and much public property. Our cavalry continued to press the rebels in a southerly direction; a portion of these, however, deflecting to the eastward, at
and over fifty of the enemy killed and wounded, while not a man was lost on our side, or a gun injured."— "Third Year of the War," p. 165.
tempted, October 28th, to capture the garrison at Pine Bluff, on the Arkansas; in this they failed entirely, being repulsed with great loss, and glad to escape toward the Red River. Arkansas was thus virtually relieved of the rebel usurpation, except that here and there the guerrillas pursued their mfamous trade in plunder and bloodshed.*
In connection with these outgrowths of lawlessness and ruffianism, we may make mention of Quantrell and his doings on a certain occasion. Ascer taining that the city of Lawrence, Kan sas, was undefended, this noted ma rauder, with a force of about 800 men, crossed the Missouri below Leaven worth, and by a rapid march entered the city on the night of the 20th of August. The unarmed citizens were shot down in cold blood; the stores, dwellings, hotels, and churches were set on fire and nearly all burned to the ground; and the property stolen and destroyed was estimated at more than $2,000,000. Two hundred and five men were killed and a large number wounded in this infamous onslaught. Senator Lane (Gen. J. H. Lane) was in Lawrence at the time, and escaping the massacre, hastily gathered a small mounted force and started in pursuit of Quantrell and his men. Some forty
* Early in November, a meeting was held at Little Rock, to consult with reference to an entire restoration of the state to its position in the Union. At this and other meetings much enthusiasm was displayed, and various steps were taken in favor of the right and true cause ; so that, in January, 1864, the president issued his proclamation to enable the people to re-organize the state government by the election of a governor, etc.— See Appleton's "Annual Cyclopadia" for 1863, pp 14-16.
QUANTRELL'S RAID INTO LAWRENCE.
or more of the guerrillas were caught and killed ; but the remainder got away safely with their plunder. The commander of the department of Missouri, Gen. Schofield, was freely denounced by the people of Kansas, as wanting in efficiency, zeal, etc., and an effort was made to have him removed. Vengeance was denounced upon the whole border region occupied by the guerrillas. In a speech at Leavenworth, on the 27th of August, Gen. Lane declared that the first tier of counties in Western Missouri ought to be exterminated, and if that were not sufficient, the second and third must be served in like manner, so as to interpose an effectual barrier against such murderous incursions in the future. An assembly of armed loyal men was proposed, with the evident intention of carrying the suggestion into effect.
In the latter part of September, the rebel Gen. Cabell, gathering together guerrillas, Indians, and some of the routed troops driven from Little Rock, started with a force of from 5,000 to 8,000 men from the Choctaw settlement of the Indian Territory, and crossed the Arkansas, east of Fort Smith, which had been occupied by Gen. Blunt, on 1st of September. A detachment of Cabell's troops, under Shelby, joined Coffey, on the 1st of October, at Crooked Prairie, Missouri, for the purpose of making a raid into the south-western portion of the state. This collection, numbering about 2,500 men, penetrated as far as the Missouri River at Booneville; but having been
pursued by the Missouri militia, they were brought to a stand a few miles \, from Arrow Rock, on the 12th of Oc-! tober. Gen. E. B. Brown attacked i the rebels the same evening, and the I next morning routed them completely. About this same date, Quantrell and his men made an effort to capture and murder Gen. Blunt who, with his staff,! was at the time marching toward Fort | Scott, Kansas. Blunt, on this occasion, j, was in advance of his wagons, with his | escort of about 100 men, when the rebels, in disguise of Union troops, 300 in number, drew near, as if to give Blunt | a reception. Directly after, throwing off all pretence, they dashed furiously upon Blunt's escort, and speedily slaughtered nearly the entire number, i Quantrell and his band were quite ex- i ultant, supposing that Blunt was among the slain; but he was fortunate enough to escape and rejoin the rest of his command. On the 20th of October, Gen. McNeil was appointed Blunt's successor in command of the Army of the Frontier.
Further movements in the resrion west
of the Mississippi were comparatively ot little interest or importance. The final result of the war was in no wise dependent on what here took place. The operations in the department under Gen. Grant's control, as well as in that in which the Army of the Potomac was specially concerned, were, it began to be well understood, those which would be decisive of the contest, and by which the rebellion would be ultimatelv crushed
out of existence.
Ch. V.] SECRETARY SEWARD'S CIRCULAR. 375
ENROLLMENT AND DRAFTING: RIOTS: MR. LINCOLN'S COURSE AND POLICY:
Secretary Seward's diplomatic circular — Its statements, etc. — National enrollment—Preparations for the draft—Unpopular measure— Riotous demonstrations — City of New York — The disgraceful riot there, in July, 1863 — Details of the lawless proceedings, cruelty and outrage of the mob and their leaders—Loss of life, property, etc. — Reaction — Riots in other places, Boston, Portsmouth, etc. — The measures and-policy of the administration generally approved — Result of the autumn elections — Mr. Lincoln's proclamation respecting the habeas corpw suspension — The president's letter to Mr. Drake in regard to Missouri and border state affairs — Proclamation calling out 300,000 volunteers — Army of the Potomac — Its position in the autumn of 1863 — Gen. Meade's purpose — Lee's offensive movements — Meade retires rapidly to Centreville — Rebels repulsed at Bristoe Station — Lee retreats to the line of the Rapidan — Meade plans the Mine Run move — Causes of its failure — Occasional encounters with the rebels — Gen. Averill's famous raid on Longstreet's communications — Rebel plot on the Canada frontier — Came to nothing—Daring act of piracy — The steamer Chesapeake seized by pirates off Cape Cod — Recaptured by United States gun boat, Ella and Annie, near Halifax—Restored by the colonial court to her owners.
The important victories of July, 1863, at Vicksburg, Port Hudson, and Gettysburg, not only afforded to the country at large encouraging hope of the rebel military organization being speedily broken down, but also gave the secretary of state an opportunity of furnishing the principal foreign governments with some useful information in regard to the progress of the national arms. Under date of August 12th, Mr. Seward issued a diplomatic circular, addressed to the consuls of the United States abroad, for the purpose of convincing "those who seek a renewal of commercial prosperity through the restoration of peace in America, that the quickest and shortest way to gain that desirable end is to withdraw support and favor from the insurgents, and to leave the adjustment of our domestic controversies exclusive
ly with the people of the United States." It was frankly admitted that no great progress had been made by our arms in Virginia; and the reason given for it was, that "the opposing forces there have been too equally matched to allow great advantages to accrue to either party, while the necessity of covering the national capital in all contingencies has constantly restrained our generals, and forbidden such bold and dangerous movements as usually conduct to brilliant military success." Looking with far more satisfaction to the great West, Mr. Seward declared that, in the recent campaign, 50,000 square miles had been reclaimed from the insurgents; and he further called attention to the fact that, "since the breaking out of the insurrection, the government had extended its former sway over and through a region of 200,000 square miles, an area as large
as Austria or France, or the peniusula of Spain and Portugal." * The rebels, in his judgment, had lost in the operation of July, fully one-third of their entire forces, and at best, by the rigid enforcement of their conscription act, they could only gather anew a force varying in number from 70,000 to 100,000 men. On the other hand, not only were our armies already superior in numbers and ability, but the increase from the draft of 300,000, ordered by the president, would be more than sufficient to replace those whose terms of service had expired, and to fill up the ranks of the veteran regiments. Affirming positively that the people were ready and willing to sustain the government in its efforts to put down the rebellion, at any cost, he stated, as one evidence, that the national six per cent, loan was purchased at par by our own citizens at the average rate of $1,200,000 a day. Gold was selling in our market at 123 to 128, while in the rebel districts it commanded 1,200 per cent, premium.f Urging, with much skill, considerations of this kind, Mr. Seward was content to leave his statement of facts to make its due impression upon all those concerned in the issue now approaching its final settlement.
In accordance with the act of Con
* The rebels, according to Pollard's way of representing matters, grew cheerful and quite hopeful under this state of things. "While Mr. Seward," he says, "was making to Europe material calculations of Yankee success in the square miles of military occupation, and in the comparative arithmetic of the military power of the belligerents, the Confederacy had merely postponed its prospect of a victorious peace, and was even more seriously confident of the ultimate issue than when it first declared its independence."—" Third Tear of the War," p. 82.
f A Richmond paper, in October, mad the follow
gress, passed at the close of its session, in March, 1863, the national enrollment, preparatory to the draft, was made generally throughout the loyal states. Col. J. B. Fry was appointed by the president provost-marshal general, with his office at Washington, and provostmarshals were appointed for the various districts into which the country was divided. The enrolling officers were directed to enrol all able-bodied persona between the ages of eighteen and fortyfive, the object being to ascertain, as far as possible, how many men liable to military duty there were, on the 1st of July, in the United States, and also to arrange, in regard to military service, how much had already been rendered, and how much was still due in the several districts. Opposition, to some extent, was made to the action of the officers, but in general it was readily and promptly repressed. The result of the enrollment, which was not completed in all the states, showed that there were considerably more that 3,000,000 men liable to military duty. For making the draft, one-fifth the number of men enrolled in the first class (i. e. between the ages of twenty and thirty-five), was adopted as the quota of a district; and the boards in charge of this matter apportioned this quota among the towns and wards forming sub-districts, so as in
ing doleful statement: "The condition of the currency has become so alarming that its importance has risen even above the excitement of military movements. From every quarter of the Confederacy essays, schemes, expedients and remedies are daily scattered broadcast over the country, and suggestions of every character and description are urged. One thing is certain and indisputable, that the present financial management is an utter and absolute failure, rendered so not by Mr. Memminger, but by the people themselves."